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THE 

NEW JERSEY MEDICAL REPORTER. 



THE 



NEW JERSEY 



MEDICAL REPORTEB, 



AND 



TRANSACTIONS 



OF THE 



NEW JEESEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 



EDITED BY JOSEPH PARRISH, M. D. 




BURLINGTON: 

PUBLISHED BY S. W. BUTLER, M. D. 
1852, 




\,NW.iHi»/V 



JOHN RODGERS, PRINTER, 

BURLINGTON, N. J. 



*, 



■ THE 

HEW JERSEY MEDICAL REPORTER. 

VOL. VI. TENTH MONTH (OCTOBER), 1852. No. 1. 

Mints on Physical Education. By James H. Stuart, M. D. 

No. 2. 

Physical Education should commence in the prudent conduct of 
the pregnant female. It were an easy matter, if not strictly honest, to 
paraphrase Dewees or Condie on this subject, and then enter into a 
lengthy dissertation on the Philosophy of Life, etc., but, as women 
rarely consult physicians for prophylactics against any evil, but content 
themselves with enquiring for a remedy when mischief is done, such 
philosophy would be more "ornamental than useful," and foreign to 
our object. 

Suffice it to say, it is a duty which every mother owes to the State 
and herself, to have a fine, healthy boy or girl. To do this, she should 
be healthy herself, have a healthy husband, and then conduct herself 
with great care till her accouchment. For upon this, simple as it may 
seem, the whole future of her progeny often depends, and she may 
render its entire life a blessing or a curse, according to her own actions. 

We are well aware that every mother has the " best, and sweetest, 
and prettiest baby that ever was born," but that is not precisely what 
is meant by a "healthy child." Still the great majority of children are, 
to all appearance, healthy and well-formed at birth, and could doubtless 
be caused to remain so. Yet it is but a minority who do actually grow 
up hearty men and women. The remainder soon become feeble and 
puny, and either die in early infancy, or gradually drop off one by one 
at different rounds of the ladder of life before they have attained their 
prime. Now what causes this difference? Undoubtedly, we suppose 
that in by far the greater number of instances it is attributable to 
different physical training. True, some few children could never have 
been made healthy by any course of training ; but, in discussing general 
principles we always take for the rule that which regulates most cases. 



< 



8 Stuart on Physical Education. [Oct. 

When a child is brought into the world, great are the rejoicings; long 
and earnestly does the mother gaze upon her babe ; pride agitates her 
bosom, and almost the first impulse that moves her, if strong enough to 
notice anything, is to see her infant fed. When, perhaps, this feeling 
has reached its greatest intensity, the baby, who has probably been 
lying for some time calmly asleep, begins to cry, as babies often do, 

mayhap "for want of thought/' like 's "whistling." At once the 

the mother's sympathies are aroused ; the little dear must certainly be 
hungry ; — and it is accordingly at once freely fed with some villainous 
"gruel" or "pap." Baby eats long and eagerly, until its stomach is 
completely distended, and feeling uncomfortable from the novel sensa- 
tion, turns away and whines; again is the spoon presented, but, sated to 
repletion, it again turns away in strong disgust. The breast is presented, 
— a feeble effort and it ceases to draw. At this crisis, Nurse comes to 
the rescue, looks mildly on, and sapiently observes that the child must 
"be sick, because it refuses the breast; which logical reasoning is highly 
approved by all the listeners, and Nurse at once acquires the character 
of a feminine iEsculapius. The child re-commences crying, and to quiet 
it, the usual nursery plan is resorted to, and it is violently jolted up and 
down to some horribly monotonous nursery tune, until at last, — actually 
sick, from the churning — or the music, baby indignantly disgorges part of 
the "gruel." This is enough. Out comes the ever ready bottle of "Daley's 
Carminative," or somebody's " Anodyne," and a dose is inflicted ; when, 
— perhaps fairly wearied out, the poor child falls asleep, — amid warm 
eulogies on " the sweet, soothing draught," — or becomes so ill that the 
physician must be sent for. Tho Doctor may have moral courage to 
face the nurse, explain the error, — and perhaps be dismissed for his 
pains as a "cruel, unfeeling man, who don't care for the sufferings of 
the little dear;" — but more probably contents himself with ministering 
to present necessities, confident of having a good patient in that child so 
long as the "Carminative," "Anodyne," and other contents of the large 
medicine chest of " Family Remedies' ' last. 

This kind of treatment repeated for a few months, soon manifests 
its effects very visibly, and the mother wonders "why her child is so 
delicate when she did her very best to take every sickness at the start 
and provide for it." 

See now the conduct of one of the very few prudent and sensible 
mothers. She feeds her child only when nature demands it. If it cries, 
she examines to find some real cause of irritation, which, if not discernible, 
she allows baby to bellow as much as it pleases, and admires the tone 



1852.] Stuart on Physical Education. 9 

and compass of his voice while he does so. Consequently, baby soon 
gets tired of crying, and ceases peaceably enough. No medicine chest, 
large enough to fit out a country doctor for a year's practice, ornaments 
her closet. If the child must be dosed, it is by the order and under the 
direction of the family Physician. Quacks and nurses reign not in her 
dwelling. She is not eternally reading " Somebody on Children,' ' and 
discovering a new complaint every day and hour to be treated according 
to the rules therein laid down. She does not call the attention of every 
stranger to the delicate appearance of her darling, and demand his 
sympathy for it. 

Now, after the lapse of a few years, mark the effects of these two very 
different systems of education. The first mother has succeeded com- 
pletely in her praiseworthy efforts, and her son is now a pale, delicate, 
interesting boy, with a large head and small body. He is precocious 
withal; can reason, rhyme, spell and read; can act and declaim, bow 
and — take medicine. His education has not been neglected. Oh, no ! 
Soon as he could walk was he sent to school, where, perched on a bench 
much too high for him, with his feet dangling six inches from the 
floor, he leaned over his irksome task early and late, till the naturally 
round chest of childhood flattened, and his shoulders curved ; while his 
mind expanded with a force that threatened to demolish the poor remains 
of his corporeal frame. This he is at five years of age. The other boy is 
not yet at school, but frolicking about, free and unconstrained, in the 
wild exhuberance of childish glee. So ignorant is he that the alphabet 
is yet unknown to him ; but n'importe, he is a stout, healthy lad with 
a vigorous mind and fair prospect, from his frame and constitution, of 
living long enough to cultivate it well. 

The parallel might be carried out much further, but it is unnecessary. 
All have seen and recognized, at School and College, the types of these 
different kinds of training. 

Of course it would be very ridiculous to assert that careful and well 
directed training will, in every instance, entirely overcome the influence 
of a congenitally or hereditarily bad constitution ; or that a bad educa- 
tion will always completely ruin a good one. Yet they will certainly go 
very far towards accomplishing these respective ends. 

Would city parents but condescend to notice the ruddy, fresh, hearty 
looks of children bred and born in the country ; and see them luxuriating 
in a puddle, or taking a shower-bath in the rain, fearless of coughs and 
colds, we feel convinced that but few would forego the advantages of a 
country physical education. How gladdening is it to a benevolent heart 



10 Stuart on Physical Education. [Oct. 

to see the delighted young hopefuls gaily careering about over the fresh, 
new mown meadow ; now throwing themselves down in a paroxysm of 
pleasure, — and now snuff wildly the pure and invigorating atmosphere, 
— and reflect what powerful men and healthy women they bid fair to 
become ! Away with your tainted city gales ! Give them the free air 
of Heaven to distend their lungs ! Give them trees to climb, horses to 
ride, boats to row, lines to fish with, and guns to shoot ! Make men of 
them, — strong, vigorous men, fitted to enter upon the arena of life and 
battle their way stoutly ; — fitted to be " heroes in the strife." 

The influence of habit is incalculable. We see many children 
habituated to going thickly clad, and having their stockings changed the 
moment they get wet; and these children are universally subject to 
catarrh; the slightest exposure, even to a "soft and gentle breeze" 
affects them at once. 

Others again, used to exposure and taking care of themselves, scarce 
ever " catch cold," though long exposed to pelting rains and icy winds. 
The hardy duck shooter, the healthy sportsman, and the iron sided 
hunter of the West become so by habit. Why not then habituate 
children to some degree of exposure from early life. They must 
unavoidably sometime meet with hardships, and it may then prove fatal 
to have encouraged a habit of "caudling" in early youth. I have seen 
hard struggles made in manhood to throw off the yoke of effeminacy, 
but rarely with effect. The parents in a great measure " make the man." 
Reason on the subject. Is it not comfortable, if nothing more, to 
one who has accidentally received a ducking, to feel the proud 
consciousness that it will not hurt him ? See two individuals upset in a 
boat — one shakes himself, and marches about unconcerned till his 
clothes dry upon him. The other must take " something warm," must 
immediately change his clothes, and even then is by no means certain of 
escape from an attack of sickness, a course of medicine, and a long 
Doctor's bill. And this difference is the result of training. See two 
sportsmen out together. One trudges through mud and water sturdily, 
and bags all the Snipe, Woodcock, and Rail. The other sneaks along 
the verge of the swamp and pops at Robins, Larks, " et id genus omne." 
What glorious lives the rollicking Bison Hunters of the West lead. — 
And why? Because they are blessed with health and know how to 
preserve it, ( To be Continued) 



1852.] Hunton on Premature Delivery. 11 

Cases of Premature Delivery. By Ariel Hunton, M. D. 

Every medical fact that can be adduced to ameliorate suffering 
humanity, should he noted, recorded, and given to the public. I shall, 
in this paper, relate some of my experience in producing premature labor. 
The origin of the practice, according to Denman, was commenced in 
London, 1750, and is now, throughout the civilized world, thought to be 
judicious, humane, and proper. The first case I will relate, occurred the 
4th September, 1837. Mrs. M., of Eden Vt., had completed the 
eighth month of gestation ; for two weeks previous to my seeing her the 
stomach had rejected all ingesta, even drinks of every kind; I tried 
various methods to relieve the emesis, but all failed. There being much 
anxiety and alarm felt in the case, I consulted with two of my medical 
friends, and after considering well, the dangers, and prospects, involved 
in the operation of premature delivery, we unanimously resolved to 
attempt it. 

I then requested Dr. D. to inform the lady of all the evil consequences 
that might attend the experiment, and leave it to her choice ; her 
response was u relieve me if you can." I then performed an operation, , 
that should produce labour in from 12 to 24 hours. The next morning 
I called on my patient, and found she had been delivered of a pair of 
female children, weighing, to the best of my recollection, about twenty 
pounds ; no untoward symptoms being apparent, mother and children did 
well, and are all living at this time. 

Case Second. — June 14th, 1839. Mrs. T. had passed the eighth 
month of gestation, with her sixth child, her lower limbs were anasarcous 
and enormously swollen to her body ; she could not stand, and had no 
use of them, and her stomach was so irritable, it rejected all ingesta, was 
much distressed, and ordinary means did not afford relief; the lady and her 
husband importuned me to produce premature labour, which I con- 
sented to do. About 7 o' clock, A. M., I directed the husband to collect 
his help, commenced operations, and at eleven o'clock, she had a son, 
now living, the mother having a safe and speedy recovery. 

Case Third — August 6th, 1844. Mrs. S., daughter of the above 
Mrs. T. was passed the eighth month of gestation with her first child, 
and an invalid from her infancy, a cadaverous visage that would, (in 
the opinion of competent judges) preclude the possibility of obeying the 
command, "be fruitful" &c, but the occurrence happened. At this 
stage of the case, she was much diseased, compelled to be in an erect 
posture, laborious breathing, lower limbs much swollen, and painful, the 



12 Hunton on Premature Delivery. [Oct. 

labia pudendi, were as large as those of any domestic animal; had been 
scarified several times, which gave temporary relief. The parents being 
anxious about the situation of their daughter, wished me to relieve her, 
as I had the mother All concerned, being importunate to have the 
operation performed, I gratified them. The woman had apparently an 
easy labour, and a safe and speedy recovery ; the child lived to the age of 
eight years, and appeared healthy. 

Case Fourth — March, 1841. Mrs. W., of Stow Vt., had a dis- 
torted pelvis, but at the age of thirty-four saw fit to discard celibacy, 
and try a married life ; she soon found herself in a state of gestation. 
When I was called, she had been in labour forty-eight hours, the head 
of the child in the superior strait, and dead. The attending physician, 
Dr. R., of Stow, assured me that according to the best measurement he 
was able to make, the haunch bones approached each other, within 1£ 
inches. It was readily determined to perform craniotomy, which was done, 
and the trunk extracted with a blunt hook; the woman recovered 
speedily. I then informed the lady, if she should again be pregnant, 
and was anxious to preserve an heir, labor might be induced at the 
completion of seven months, and there was a forlorn hope of a living child, 
but, that she could never have a child survive at the expiration of the 
usual period. On the 29th of April, 1842, I was called to her, and 
requested to induce premature labor, she averring that she had completed 
the seventh month. I performed the operation, and living some ten miles 
from her residence, directed her, when labour came on, to send for her 
family physician, which was accordingly done. After this lady had been 
in labour 24 hours, I was called to attend her; this child had also 
perished. The same management with this, as in the other case. After 
the child was extracted there appeared a depression on the parietal bones, 
caused by the proximity of the haunch bones; my comparison at the time 
was the width of my finger, and half the thickness. 

The 10th of March, 1845, I was again called to Mrs. W., at the 
completion of the third month of gestation, and requested to produce an 
abortion, which act probably some will condemn ; but let each reader con- 
sider all the circumstances, and the results that must follow, before 
censuring me for the relief I procured for this unfortunate lady. 

The operation was successfully performed, and I feel perfectly justified 
in having done it. An elderly physician of Burlington, Vermont, informed 
me long since, that in a case of distorted pelvis, he had on the same person 
produced an abortion seven times, and was not conscious, that it in the 



1852.] Singular Effect of Chloroform. 13 

least impaired her health. The operation necessary to induce premature 
labour, or abortion, with a skilful hand, and proper instrument, is not 
painful, or dangerous. I am able to relate more cases of this kind \ but 
the above are sufficient to establish the practicability, and safety of the 
practice, if it be thought by the faculty to be moral, and expedient. If 
the practice is not countenanced by the profession in the above cases, 
then, surely enough is written. It is the request of the writer, that the 
reader ponder well, before expressing an opinion. 

Hyde Park, Lamoille Co., Vt,, 1852. 



Singular effect resulting from the administration of Chloroform. 

A correspondent writes us as follows : 

" Some days ago I had a young gentleman about 22 years old under 
my charge, with a very large furunculus in the left axilla. At his 
request, I gave him a small quantity of pure Chloroform, by inhalation, 
prior to lancing. When insensible, I plunged in a bistoury. The 
operation caused the most piercing shrieks and spasms. I threw water 
in his face, when he immediately commenced laughing, then became 
furious, sprang up, and finally assaulted every one in the room, and drove 
them all out but his father and myself, whom alone he seemed to 
recognize. On recovery, he assured me that he felt no pain from the 
operation, and was totally unconscious of what he was doing. The boil 
was a sequela of Yellow Fever, which he had had in New Orleans some 
weeks before. He has frequently taken Chloroform in health, without 
any untoward result ; and that which he took this time was perfectly 
good, for I had repeatedly tried it upon myself. Yet the effect was 
worse than is common even with Sulphuric Ether. Can you explain it V 

S. 

We think that if our correspondent will make inquiry, he will find 
that his patient's mind was impressed, before taking the Chloroform, with 
the idea that he should scream or laugh, or both. We reason from a 
somewhat analogous occurrence in our own experience. 

The first time we inhaled nitrous oxide gas, while a student, with 
nothing definite on our mind, we demurely seated ourself on a bench 
until the effect passed off. 

The next time we took it, not wishing to deprive the class of the sport 
they anticipated ; we pre-determined to "made a demonstration/ - and 



14 Editorial. [Oct. 

our correspondent may remember with what fury we attacked an im- 
pregnable fortress, and then turned upon, and unceremoniously handled 
several of our friends, any one of whom could, in ordinary circumstances, 
have easily managed us. 

On the same principle we account for some of the deaths that follow 
the administration of Chloroform. We have no doubt that some of these 
are caused by a " fearful looking for" terrible consequences. It is on 
record that deaths have occurred in these circumstances, which were 
attributed to fright. (See British and Foreign Medico Chirurgical 
Review, for January and April, 1852.) We should hesitate very much 
about giving any anaesthetic to a patient, whose mind was much under 
the influence of fear. * 



EDITORIAL. 



OUR SIXTH VOLUME. 

In issuing the first number of Volume Sixth of the Reporter, we 
deem it right to say a word or two in explanation of a subject which 
has given dissatisfaction to some of our early friends. It is this. For 
two years after the Reporter was commenced, it was not conducted 
by the then Publisher, in a manner that pleased its readers: — its 
typography and general execution, were not as good as the profession 
desired, or deserved : it was not issued with punctuality, and a disappro- 
bation was felt and expressed. The justice of the feeling, or the 
propriety of the expression, we never questioned, but being aware of the 
fact, we felt mortified, and determined to remedy it if possible. 

We think this has been effectually done — the present Publisher has 
fulfilled his duty to the subscribers with remarkable punctuality, and we 
venture the assertion that there is not in the whole list of medical 
journals in the United States, one, that is superior in style and execution 
to the Reporter, We do not think that complaint should now be made 
against the work on account of its early imperfections. It is at present 
what it should be, and the profession of New Jersey, have no cause to 
withdraw their support. Don't desert us because we were once feeble and 
sickly — and are now becoming more strong and healthy. We then 
needed medicine, we now require nutriment. We may add that the 
Reporter is mailed every month, but that the occasional irregularity in 



1852.] Editorial 15 

the postal arrangements, may sometimes give rise to suspicion that the 
Publisher is wanting in promptness — but it is not so. Any of our 
subscribers who may desire to replace lost, or un-received numbers, will 
be supplied by the Publisher, so far as he can do it, on application being 
made to him. 



DEFINING OUR POSITION. 

Medical Education — County Delegation, 

When the American Medical Association first declared itself in favor' 
of a reform in the present defective system of Medical Education, we 
declared our intention to sustain its efforts, so far as our conscience 
and ability, would enable us to do so. In offering our pages for this 
purpose to correspondents — in reviewing the transactions of the Associa- 
tion from time to time, and in our editorial columns, we think we have 
in some measure accomplished that intention. When the Association 
took up the subject of its own organization, and commenced the work 
of revision, we entered into it as our judgment dictated, and were 
enrolled among the friends of the measure. We sustained the resolu- 
tions of the Philadelphia County Medical Society, which were submitted 
at Charleston, by admitting communications, and by editorial articles ; 
and the gentleman who presented those resolutions, was offered a place 
in our columns to defend them. He occupied it satisfactorily to ourselves 
and to many of our readers. We Went to Richmond in May last, and 
were pleased that the subject was again discussed — after our return, 
we gave a synopsis of the proceedings, and, as we thought, a just 
statement of the position of affairs relative to the two reports which 
were offered at that time, on the subject of re-organization. We are 
favorable to the report of Dr. Yardley, and to the address of Dr. 
Jackson : we believe these gentlemen take the right view of the subject — 
it is the Jersey view, and hence we will sustain it :— not for this reason 
alone, however, but because we consider it right. It has proved to work 
well in our own State, by more than eighty years experience, and we are 
satisfied that there is no State in the Union, where the profession is more 
united, and sustains a better and more harmonious organization — and so 
far as we had opportunity to judge by conversing with the delegates- 
from New Jersey, at Richmond, we believe they were unanimously in 
favor of Dr. Yardley' s report ; and had it been acted upon, they would 
have voted for it — should it be acted upon at New York, next year, we 

trust New Jersey will vote for it then, 

2 



18 Editorial. [Oct. 

The Reporter has not changed its ground, as has been intimated ; it is 
true we have spoken of the hospitality of our Richmond friends — of the 
" Virginia bacon, railroad excursion," &c; but we were not engorged by 
the one, or stifled by the other, so much as to undo what we have done, 
or unsay what we have said; and though it may be true, as Dr. Y. 
asserts at p. 396 of the Reporter, No. XI. Vol. V., that it is a " singular 
misnomer," to call the Report of the Richmond Committee (?), a com- 
promise report, the fact of our being guilty of a " misnomer," or of our 
error of judgment as to the form the question shall assume next year — or 
which Report shall be acted on,— does not alter our position upon the 
subject. We prefer Dr. Y/s Report. If we cannot have that, Dr. 
Dr. Hays' will come next : if his is to be rejected, the present plan of 
organization, it seems to us, had better remain unaltered, till the profes- 
sion shall be prepared for such a modification as is proposed in the report 
of Dr. Yardley : we approve of this report, because its provisions, if 
adopted, will save the Association from the very delicate task, of 
distinguishing between rival institutions ; which if done, will immediately 
excite, on the part of those not recognized, bitter opposition to such as 
may be acknowledged, and to the Association itself: while the great 
object of this body, will be thwarted, by making it an instrument of 
discord, instead of a medium for the advancement of knowledge. 

The American Medical Association belongs to the American medical 
public ; it was established, and is sustained thereby. The schools and 
Colleges of Medicine are private institutions, originated and conducted to 
promote private emolument ; we would not, however, exclude professors 
from the Association; we regard their influence and experience as 
important elements in its existence, and important excitants to its growth. 
The profession is entitled by the common laws of our fraternity, to all 
that they furnish us — while the laity, (so called), are in duty bound, 
not only to give their quota of experience to the common stock, but their 
support to such colleges, or schools of Medicine, as may comply with 
the regulations agreed to by all — professors themselves, voting as 
delegates from county societies, upon the establishment of such regula- 
tions ; for by this means, those professors, who regard the general 
interest, and not their own exclusively, will unite themselves with county 
societies, and lend their influence to support them ; while they in return 
will secure a well deserved influence to sustain themselves. There should 
be no clashing of interests in the great brotherhood of our profession. 
Let those who may seek self-aggrandizement, enjoy the strife among 
themselves; but those of lofty aims, and pure intentions, should ever be 



1852.] Editorial 17 

found watching over, and laboring for, the great interests of the whole, 
and the benefits of our common race. The high-minded physician, in 
public or in private, will not stoop to meddle with the low, and tricky. 
It is not his business. With him, the advancement of the profession, is 
his own advancement. He goes with it — the same car that wheels the 
science on to greater fields of conquest and usefulness, carries him, — and 
he is content therewith. 



Banking's Half- Yearly Abstract of the Medical Sciences — No. XV. 

January — June, 1852. 

We have not received the "Abstract" regularly, and cannot compare 
the present number with its predecessors. When we say for it, how- 
ever, that over three hundred closely printed pages are devoted to a 
general abstract of medical news, embracing diseases of the Nervous 
Respiratory, Circulatory, and other special classes, as well as the exten- 
sive domain of Surgery and female complaints, we say more than we could 
by particular references. The price is $2 per annum, or $1 per number 
when sent by mail to subscribers, the postage being pre-paid. It may 
be had at the Medical Bookstores for 75 cents per number. It embraces 
also, a series of reports on the progress of Medical Science in its various 
departments of practical medicine — Pathology and Therapeutics — on the 
progresss of Surgery, and Psychological Medicine. 

/ 

" HONOR TO WHOM HONOR IS DUE." 

We confess to a feeling somewhat akin to that of pride when we see 
articles, first published in this journal, copied in one and another of our 
exchanges, and trust we feel truly grateful for the honor done us. But 
we are constrained to demur to our productions, or those of our corres- 
pondents, being taken and used, without so much as a "by your leave 
sir" in the shape of an acknowledgment of the source from whence 
derived. In several instances of late, articles have been taken from the 
Reporter without credit being given. From our Eclectic Department, 
on which we bestow considerable labor in condensations and translations 
from foreign, as well as home journals, several articles have been taken 
without acknowledgment; which omission of course gives the credit of 
the labor, — if any is due — to the journal in which the extract appears. 
We regard this entirely as an oversight on the part of our confreres, and 
shall forbear mentioning any names at present, but keep an eye open for 
the future. 

Another thing, while we are in a complaining mood. Some of our 



18 Editorial. [Oct. 

articles are duly credited, but we would gladly " save the mark" on 
account of the formidable errors of the typos. We recall one copied 
sometime since into the Buffalo Journal on " Manganese." There was 
our name in unmistakable " small caps" at top, and "N. J. Med. Rep." 
at bottom — but alas, for human imperfection ! we were made to murder 
the " King's English" in a manner which was really painful to read ! 
And more recently, in the last number of the Nashville Journal an 
excellent report of a case of Tetanus is credited to J. Birdswell, M. D. y 
instead of S. Birdsell, M. D. ! But a much more important error occurs in 
the first prescription, in which f ^iss. (ounces) instead of f giss. (drachms) 
of Chloroform were ordered. Apparently slight typographical errors 
might be formidable in practice, and this induces us to be as particular 
with selected, as with original matter. * 



Proceedings op Medical Societies. 

We are under obligations to our attentive friend in Trenton, for 
furnishing us with the following outline of the last meeting of the Mercer 
District Society. Our pages for the past few months give pleasing 
evidence of the fact, that more attention is paid than formerly, to 
reporting the proceedings of the District Society Meetings. * 

"The last quarterly meeting of the Mercer County Medical Society 
was held on the 20th of July, Dr. Woolverton, presiding. — Dr. Quick 
reported a case of cephalalgy of long standing, cured by bleeding, iodine, 
and arsenic. It was a case of much interest, and gave rise to many 
inquiries, and remarks, all of which were met by Dr. Quick in the most 
satisfactory manner. 

Dr. Coleman read a paper on the variation of atmospheric pressure 
influencing the animal functions, and producing diseased actions. In it 
were cited examples of a sudden fall of the barometer, being attended by 
cases of madness, epilepsy, apoplexy, and haemorrhage. 

Dr. McKelway narrated a case of cancer of the lower lip, treated by a 
professed " cancer doctor," until the disease ran beyond his remedies. 
Having been consulted by the patient, at this stage of the disease, he 
recommended him to Dr. Pancoast, of Philadelphia, who, in his presence, 
removed the entire lip, and supplied the lost parts by transposed sections 
of the adjoining tissues. Considering the amount of loss and displace- 
ment, the parts healed, so that the patient, in a short time, had a well- 
formed mouth. 

Dr. McKelway, gave his opinion in favor of ether, as it was used in 
this case : it prevented pain, which otherwise would have been severe in 
so sensitive a part, during a protracted operation. He likewise acknow- 
ledged its value in quieting the dread of a very nervous person, from 
whom he afterwards amputated a scirrhus breast. 

The subject for consideration being 'convulsions/ a considerable time 



1852.] Editorial 19 

was occupied in discussing their cause and pathology. Dr. J. H. Phillips 
spoke at length on the pre-disposing and exciting causes of convulsions, 
particularly as they are manifested in children. Dr. Woolverton was 
questioned, and his opinions were given on a case of convulsions attended 
by intus-susception in a child, that had recently come under his notice. 
Dr. Coleman advanced the hypothesis, that in all cases of epilepsy, the 
nervous influence is accumulated in intensity, and thrown, at distinct 
intervals by discharges, rather than by the ordinary, gradual current that 
stimulates, and keeps in action the organic functions. He imagined 
these interruptions, or changed actions, were caused by partial insula- 
tions, or obstructions of the nerves, such as might arise from a vitiated 
animal chemistry, organic change, or direct pressure, as in Dr. Woolver- 
ton' s case, and that such interruption drove the nervous influence from 
the organ essential Co life, to the voluntary muscles, and thus produed 
convulsive phenomena. Analogies were brought to support these views. 
After the ordinary routine business of the Society had been finished, 
an essayist appointed, and a subject (Cholera) proposed for conversation 
at the next meeting, the Society adjourned." 

Ohio State Medical Society. — This Society as we learn from the Ohio 
Medical Journal, held its annual meeting at Cleveland, commencing 
June 1st, and continuing in session four days. The following officers 
were elected for the ensuing year. President, Dr. H. A. Ackley, of 
Franklin County : — Secretaries, Drs. McLane and Carey of Dayton : — 
Treasurer, Dr. Rickley of Cleveland. 

Medical Education was made to occupy a prominent position in the 
deliberations of the body. A committee appointed last year, of which 
Dr. Buckner, of Cincinnati was chairman, reported a series of resolutions 
which gave rise to a good deal of debate. The following are the 
resolutions. 

" Resolved, That a committee of three be appointed, to nominate, and 
report to this Society, at its next meeting, a Board of Examiners, 
consisting of jive members, whose duty it shall be to examine all appli- 
cants, who may wish to commence the study of Medicine and Surgery, 
touching their qualifications and preliminary education, and grant such 
applicant a certificate, if found sufficiently qualified. 

" Resolved, That it shall be the duty of said Board to satisfy them- 
selves that the applicant possesses sufficient energy of mind — is of good 
moral character, and has acquired a good English education, embracing a 
knowledge of Natural Philosophy, and the elementary mathematical 
sciences, including Algebra and Geometry. 

" Resolved, That no member of this Society shall hereafter receive into 
his office, any person, as a student of Medicine, without a certificate from 
the Board of Examiners, stating that he has been examined, and found 
qualified to commence the study of Medicine, as herein provided for, or 
on the presentation of a diploma from some literary college/' 



20 Editorial. [Ociv 

By those who spoke in support of these resolutions it was contended 
that they "contemplated commencing the reform in medical education 
in the right place— at the threshhold of the student's medical life, that 
the profession could be more successfully guarded at this place than at 
any other \ that a good Englith education, as contemplated in the 
report, ought to he regarded as an indispensable pre-requisite to those 
who aspire to become students of medicine; and that notwithstanding a 
few instances of success, and even distinction, may be adduced, where 
the primary training has been limited, the rule is not, as a consequence, 
the less positive or valuable, and that the appointment of a Board of 
Examiners, consisting of literary gentlemen, unconnected with the pro- 
fession, whose duty it will be to examine all applicants who wish to 
study medicine, and if found qualified, to grant them a certificate to 
that effect, will interest another class of influential men in guarding the 
interests of the prefession, and take from private preceptors a portion of 
the responsibility of making physicians." 

Those who spoke against the adoption of the resolutions " contended that 
there were about 3500 physicians in the State, only about 250 of whom 
had ever had any connection with the State Society, and, as a consequence, 
if the Society had adopted the report, there would be only about one 
physician in every fourteen, of the State, who would feel themselves 
under any obligation to comply with the mandates of the Society ; that 
the tendency of the measure would be to drive students of medicine out 
of the State, to places where the restraints were less rigorous ', that the 
measure was wrong in principle, because it takes away from medical men, 
who, it was alleged, are certainly the best judges, the right to decide 
upon the fitness of the student to enter the profession ; that the measure, 
instead of being addressed to the profession in the terms of respectful 
request, is mandatory in its character, to all members of the Society, 
making those liable to excommunication, who do not think proper to 
comply with its terms ; and lastly, that it is in advance of public opinion, 
and, as a consequence, will not likely be respected, much less strictly 
observed." 

This matter was warmly discussed by some of the most talented men 
in the State. It is we think, talking to some purpose, to discuss a 
matter of so much importance. The Society meets next year in Dayton. 

These annual meetings of State Societies ought not to be peripatetic, 
they would give greater satisfaction, and be better attended we think, if 
held, like our State Legislatures, at the Capital of the State. * 

Medical Association of the State of Missouri. — We have been much 
edified in looking over the transactions of this Association, which, though 
only in its second year, is accomplishing much for the cause of science. 
The Association met at St. Louis, on the 19th of April, and continued 
its sessions three days, giving time of course for the reading of reports 
and essays, and for conversation and discussion on the interesting topics 



1852.] Miscellany. 21 

presented. We may have occasion hereafter to recur to some of the 
papers read before the Association. 

From the number of general and special committees appointed, we are 
led to expect an elaborate and highly useful report next year. Of these 
there are no less than thirty-six, whose duties embrace almost every 
subject of interest to the medical man. This evinces a very commenda- 
ble zeal and energy on the part of our brethren in Missouri, and older 
States, and older Medical Societies we hope will profit by the lessons 
taught them, by this young but energetic Association. 

The following preamble and resolutions, presented by Dr. Edgar, were 
referred to a committee on memorializing the Legislature. 

Whereas, Capital offences increase in proportion to the uncertainty of 
the penalty ; and whereas, the plea of insanity is frequently a success- 
ful defence in cases undoubtedly feigned, thereby diverting the origi- 
nally humane intent of the law to a means of clearing the guilty ; and 
whereas, different degrees of responsibility and guilt must attach to 
different degrees and kinds of insanity : Therefore 
Resolved, That the cause of humanity in the persons of the unfortu- 
nate insane, as well as the better protection of the community, will be 
materially subserved by the modification of our present criminal code, in 
so far as it pertains to this subject; to the extent that the jury may find 
a verdict of guilty, in cases of partial insanity, and recommend the 
prisoner to the clemency of the Court, on account of his mental 
alienations, and that sentence shall be pronounced accordingly. 

Resolved, That the jury may find a verdict of not guilty, on account 
of insanity, which verdict shall consign the accused to imprisonment, 
with sanitary measures provided by the State. 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this Association, the remedy for this 
serious evil does not lie so much in the accuracy of our differential 
diagnosis, as the authority of the law to punish all cases according to the 
degree of responsibility and guilt of the accused, whereof the Court and 
jury may determine. 

The officers for the present year are. — President, Dr. J. B. Johnson, — 
Vice Presidents, Drs. C. A. Pope, J. C. Welborn, C. Q. Chandler, and 
J. Gr. Chirm, — Secretaries, Dr. J. S. B. Alleyne, of St. Louis, and Dr. 
L. S. Banks of Houston, — Treasurer, Dr. E. S. Lemoine of St. Louis. 

Adjourned to meet at St. Louis, in April, 1853. * 



Miscellany. 



Justus Liebig ceased on the 20th of August to be Professor of 
Chemistry in the University of Griessen, in the Electorate of Hesse Cassel, 
after having lived there in that capacity during the long period of twenty- 
eight years. Before commencing his duties as Professor in Munich, he 



22 Miscellany. [Oct. 

intends to visit Russia. Dr. Leibig was born in Darmstadt, in 1803, 
and Humboldt procured for him the appointment at G-iessen. Liebig 
was long the chief ornament of the University of Griessen, and his 
departure is an irreparable loss to the Electorate. 

— Fusel oil has been recently recommended as a useful remedy in 
tuburcular affections of the lungs, and scrofulous diseases generally. 
Dose — four or five drops three times daily, gradually increased as 
stomach will bear. If inhaled it acts as a poison. 

-^—Professors Drake and Cobb having resigned their chairs in the 
Louisville University, to accept appointments in the Medical College of 
Ohio, have been succeeded by Professors B. R. Palmer and Austin Flint 
of the Buffalo University. The latter gentleman retains his connection 
with the Buffalo school, and the former is succeeded by Prof. E. M. Moore. 
Dr. Worthington Hooker has just entered upon his duties as Professor of 
Theory and Practice in the Medical Institution of Yale College. 

— A new Insane Hospital has been established by the State of Massa- 
chusetts, located at Taunton. 

— A fierce competition seems to be going on between the Bush 
Medical College, located at Chicago, and the Medical Department of 
Iowa University, located at Keokuk, Iowa. The fees have been lowered 
indefinitely, and the strife seems to be as to which will die first of 
starvation ! The fees in the Buffalo University have been reduced to 
$50 in consequence of the free system of education, adopted by the 
University of Michigan, located at Ann Arbor. The Professors in the 
latter are paid by the State. 

— The Transylvania Medical Journal has passed into the hands of 
Dr. L. J. Frazee, and will hereafter be issued monthly, instead of semi- 
monthly as heretofore. — Dr. Adams having retired from the editorial 
management of the New York Medical Times, it will hereafter be con- 
ducted by Dr. H. D. Bulkley, a gentleman favorably known to the 
profession. 

— Two new Medical Colleges have recently been organized, viz : the 
Miami Medical College at Cincinnati, with Dr. Mussey at the head. 
The Faculty consists of eight Professors, besides a lecturer on Chemistry. 
The other school is located in Savannah, Georgia, to be called the 
Savannah Medical Institution. 

— Convention of Medical Schools. The St. Louis Medical Journal 
suggests that one be held in the city of New York, in May next, during, 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 23 

or immediately after the adjournment of the National Medical Association. 
— The same journal contains the following. " The Boston Medical 
and Surgical Journal complains that its articles are stolen by the 
1 Eclectic' and other Periodicals, and published without credit. No 
wonder — any respectable Medical Journal, which so far countenances 
and encourages quackery, as to exchange with Homoeopathic and ' Eclec- 
tic' Journals, and to advertise the Homoeopathic and Female Medical 
Colleges of Pennsylvania, must expect to be robbed, not only of its arti- 
cles, but also of its good name." * 



ECLECTIC AND SUMMARY DEPARTMENT. 



Iodine Clysters in the Treatment of Dysentery. — Dr. Eimer believes 
that the great point to which practitioners have to direct their attention, 
is the enormous amount of organic losses consequent on the continuance 
of this affection ; so that, according to CEsterlen,* within three weeks, 
more than the entire blood-mass may pass away as albumen in the stools. 
As a means of cutting these discharges short, he strongly recommends 
iodine clysters; which, in recent cases, may at once arrest the progress of 
the disease, and in all diminish the number of stools, and normalize their 
condition, whatever the individual peculiarities of the case may be. From 
five to ten grains of iodine, and as much iod. pot., are administered in 
two or three ounces of water, from two to four times a-day — twice daily 
usually sufficing. If the rectum is too irritable to retain it, ten or fifteen 
drops of tr. opii are to be added, and a mucilaginous vehicle substituted 
for water. In spite of unfavourable conditions, so constantly successful 
did Dr. Eimer find this remedy during an epidemic, that he believes the 
disease will, as a general rule, be found curable by it, if it be resorted to 
before the organic changes in the intestines have advanced too far, ex- 
haustion become too considerable, or important complications set up. In 
some slight cases it was employed alone. Generally, a simple oily emul- 
sion was also administered, and sometimes acetate of lead and opium. — 
B. and F. Med. Chirurg. Rev. } April, 1852, from Henle's Zeitschrift, 
Band x. p. 238. 

On the Hemorrhagic Diathesis. — Dr. Lange has recently contributed 
an interesting paper on this affection, containing the tabulated results of 
an examination of the history of one hundred and forty examples. It 
has hitherto been only met with in the northern hemisphere, occurring in 
America between 30° and 45° north latitude, and in Europe between 
45° and 60° north latitude. Germany is among the countries most lia- 

* See British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgieal Review, vol. v. p. 245. 



•24 Ectectic and Summary Department. [Oct. 

ble to it, and especially so along the course of the middle Rhine and the 
Maine. The coasts are far less liable than are inland regions. The in- 
habitants of mountainous districts are less liable than those of plains 
traversed by rivers. Vine countries are very liable. 

The subjects of the disease do not attain great age; for among one 
hundred and forty examples, only nine were aged more than fifty ; the 
female sex seeming to possess less power of endurance than the male. 
The causes giving rise to the hemorrhage have usually been insignificant, 
as, e. g., scratches, cuts, leech-bites, extraction of teeth. When the 
bleeding is spontaneous, that from the nose is frequent and oftenest fatal. 
Vomiting of blood is much more rare ; and, it is remarkable, that only 
one of the fatal cases arose from hemoptysis — the disease indeed seeming 
to have no affinity with tuberculosis. In one case vaccination gave rise 
to profuse bleeding, without, however, preventing the rising of the vesi- 
cle. The statement of Fordyce and others, that deep wounds bled less 
freely than superficial, is not confirmed; but the healing of all kinds of 
wounds is very tedious, although gangrene seldom occurs. 

The disposition to hemorrhage sometimes first shows itself during the 
first weeks of life, but usually during the first or second year, the latest 
period in these tables being the eleventh year. The earlier the hemor- 
rhage exhibits itself, the earlier, as a general rule, does death occur. At 
a later period the inclination to hemorrhage usually manifests itself as 
petechise and ecchymoses. Accessory diseases do not, as, a priori, it 
might have been expected they would, pursue a dangerous course in 
these subjects, excepting when those of the respiratory organs excite 
epistaxis. The duration of the attacks is very different, this being, per- 
haps, on an average, ten or twelve days — spontaneous bleeding usually 
continuing longer, but being better tolerated than traumatic. The effect 
of season is not determined ; but the bleeding seems to occur oftenest in 
spring and autumn. The blood is thin, and deficient in coagulability. 
In the majority of instances, the intellectual powers of these patients are 
of a high order ; and in most of them the color of the eyes is blue, the 
complexion fair and delicate, and the hair light. Usually the constitution 
is strong, and the muscular system is often powerful and developed. In 
certain cases, the radial artery has been observed to be transparent in 
some spots, owing to the deficiency of the fibrous coat — confirming Roki- 
tansky's view, that the disease consists in a remarkably delicate construc- 
tion and vulnerability of the vessels, and a watery condition of the blood. 
The cholerico-sanguineous temperament prevails, and so-called rheumatic 
pains are very constantly observed. Spots of ecchymosis, often absent, 
may, when present, be either spontaneous or traumatic, the latter being 
usually much larger than the former. They change in color, as after an 
ordinary contusion. Sometimes the ecchymoses stand in a critical or 
antagonistic relation to other affections ; thus, e. g., they may disappear 
on the advent of a paroxysm of gout, and re-appear at its termination. 
In some hemorrhagic families, they constitute a lower form of the dis- 
ease in certain of the members. Traumatic ecchymosis may be produced 
Jby strong muscular exertion, by falls, or even pressure. It usually dis- 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 25 

appears unaided, though requiring a longer period than the spontaneous ; 
and, if opened, it gives rise to dangerous hemorrhage. 

According to the tables, no difference seems to exist as to condition 
of life, or residence in town or country. The influence of hereditariness 
is only imperfectly indicated. The mortality from the disease seems to 
be greatest between twenty and thirty, and then diminishes. The earli- 
est age at which it has been known to cease spontaneously has been be- 
tween twenty-five and twenty-eight. Commonly, disease of the liver, 
hemorrhoids, gout, or rheumatism, supervenes, and the influence of art 
is of little use. In palliating the affection, a certain time must always 
be allowed for the blood to flow, or congestion of internal organs is pro- 
duced ; and, in such cases, where this precaution has been neglected, dry 
cupping of the extremities should be resorted to. Generally, the bleed- 
ing stops of itself ; but only when exhaustion has occurred. Compres- 
sion is of little use ; and, among the styptics, sulphuric acid, muriated 
tincture of iron, and a spirituous solution of sal ammoniac, are the best. 
Cauteries and caustics usually fail. — B. and F. Med. Chirurg. Rev. } 
April, 1852, from Schmidt's Jahrbuch, vol. lxx. p. 35. 

Cholera. — This disease is said to have again broken out in a most vir- 
ulent form on the frontiers of the kingdom of Warsaw, and that between 
forty and fifty cases have occurred within the space of two days in the 
city of Warsaw. It is further stated, that medical arrangements have 
been made in all parts of the country, with a view of being prepared for 
the calamity, should the epidemic unhappily again become general 
throughout the kingdom. The cholera had broken out at Flechon, in 
the Grand Duchy of Posen, and in ten days it had carried off seventeen 
persons out of twenty-two who were attacked. 1800 have died of chole- 
ra, out of a population of 12,000. — Accounts from the town of Kalisch, 
in Russian Poland, which, according to the last census, contained about 
670 houses, and 11,000 inhabitants, and is considered one of the princi- 
pal places of Russian Poland, in point of mercantile opulence and trade, 
represent the ravages of the cholera, which has been prevailing there for 
several weeks, as very fearful. 

The cholera has also made its appearance at Dantzic. Of every five 
persons attacked, it is said that four have died. — Medical News. 



Difficidties and Privileges of the Medical Profession. — At the Annual 
Meeting of the Medical Society of the State of Georgia, in April last, 
Dr. Henry P. Campbell, one of the Vice-Presidents, delivered an Ad- 
dress on the above subject, in which occurs the following passage on the 
anomalous position our Profession occupies in relation to society. — 

" It has been the misfortune of our Profession, to occupy a relation to 
Society, so anomalous, that to appreciate it justly, would require a 
greater amount of insight into many intricacies with which the subject is 
invested, than any non-professional body of men could be expected to at- 
tain j consequently, laws acting apparently favorably upon society in 



26 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Oct. 

general, have imposed the most embarrassing restrictions upon us. Laws 
have been enacted for the public weal, without reference to the important 
relations which the advancement of our Science sustains to the welfare 
of the community ; laws which, while we are pained by their untoward 
influence upon us, we can scarce refrain from smiling at, on account of 
their most contradictory and conflicting construction. We are threatened 
by legal enactments with fine and imprisonment for mal-practice, and we 
are at the same time warned of penalty, if we take the only possible 
means of accurate knowledge even in the rudiments of Science — We are 
the Graduates of institutions chartered by legislation, and our diplomas 
are necessary to the legality of our claims, while that same legislation 
licenses to practice and collect, many, without diplomas, without study, 
and without even the pretention to Science — We are constituted a Medi- 
cal Board, by legislation, for the examination and licensing approved 
candidates, while the same legislation licenses without reference to the 
Board, all who apply, and that without examination or even the presence 
of the applicant. — (Witness the acts of our last legislature.) An act is 
passed to protect the Regular Profession, (we may at least claim this dis- 
tinction here,) by penalties imposed on all who practice medicine illegal- 
ly — the same act embodies a proviso, by which quackery in every de- 
gree of pernicious power, from the most refined infinitessimality, to the 
grossest and most wholesale medication, is exempted. Indeed the whole 
history of legislative enactments in regard to our Profession, is replete 
with contradictions and inconsistencies, which, while they excite our sur- 
prise and regret, show but too plainly, that a just appreciation of our 
true relation to society is not yet fully attained. Here, as yet, we have 
received but little encouragement or protection, and what has been af- 
forded has been of so undiscriminating a character, as to place us on an 
equality with charlatans and empirics. It is only to the indefatigable 
energy and perseverance of its own members, that our Profession has 
attained its undoubtedly high position in society. 

Analogous to the difficulties we experience under the influence of our 
relation to the decrees of State, are those accruing from our relation to 
society in general. In the acquisition of our knowledge, there is often 
presented opposition of the most active and embarrassing nature. The 
study of Anatony — the very basis of medical science, without which 
Physiology, Pathology, Surgery and Therapeutics, are but theories of the 
most indefinite and even dangerous tendency — is often attended with the 
opprobrium and sometimes persecution, of the community in which we 
live; and yet an eminent degree of attainment in this, as well as in 
every other branch of knowledge, is admitted to be indispensable to the 
success and credit of our vocation. 



Early Operations for Hare-Lip. By A. L. Peirson, M. D. — Having 
advanced the opinion, in some of the former numbers of the Journal, that 
an early operation for hare-lip was more successful than when deferred, 
I wish to add some additional testimony and remarks in favor of that 
opinion. 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 27 

On the 2d, of February, 1851, I was called to operate on a child in 
Marblehead, born with a hare-lip. The late Dr. Briggs, who knew my 
preference in favor of an early operation, sent for me immediately on the 
birth of the child. I performed the operation when the child was but 
twelve hours old. I operated in the usual manner, with scissors and su- 
tures. My method is to use three simple sutures — one far up in the 
nostril — one at the epithelium of the lip, where the cutis terminates, and 
one midway between these. The wound healed at every point by the 
first intention, and the child was put to the breast on the sixth day, 
which was as soon as lactation was established. 

On the 22d of May, 1852, a healthy male child, with a hare-lip, was 
born in my practice. It had a cleft palate and superior maxillary bone, 
and the left alge nasi more than usually dilated, flattening the nose and 
giving a hideous expression to the countenance. I operated when the 
child was six hours old. I dissected up the skin very freely, separating 
the cartilage from the bone, and then brought the parts together with 
sutures, taking especial care that the upper one should be sufficiently 
high up in the nostril. Union Ijy first intention followed, and the child 
nursed readily in six days. 

For some years I have been more and more satisfied that operations in 
surgery are most successful as they approach nearest to the period of 
birth. In the earliest infancy, the recuperative powers seem to be 
strongest. I have also remarked, that the sensibility to pain is less dis- 
tinctly marked at first, than after a few days. In the last-mentioned case 
of hare-lip operation, the child actually slept while the lip was. being dis- 
sected from the maxillary bone. 

It was formerly generally believed that the earliest infancy was the 
period when the system was most liable to convulsions. I have been led 
to doubt this maxim, and to believe that the nervous system is more 
easily excited, the more its function is called into exercise, and this is 
certainly not the case immediately after birth. A newly-born child also 
sleeps more, and when awake is less observant and prone to motions of 
the extremities, than after a few days of extra-uterine life. The anxiety 
and unhappiness of the parents, also, are of so much shorter duration as 
we operate earlier on the patient. — Boston Med. and Surg. Journal. 

Salem, Sep. 7, 1852. 

Poisonous Chloroform. — In the Boston Medical Journal we find an 
article on this subject, from Dr. C. T. Jackson. It seems that Dr. J. 
has researches in progress, which he intends shortly to publish in detail, 
intended to show that the deaths which follow the administration of this 
agent, are attributable to the Fusel oil contained in the common corn, 
rye, and potato whiskey, which is now too frequently employed in the 
manufacture of cheap chloroform instead of using pure alcohol. Dr. JV 
is induced to make this statement pending the conclusion of his 
researches; in the hope that it will prevent the further sacrifice of life 



28 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Oct. 

from employing the cheap Chloroform of commerce. He concludes — 

" If my views are correct, it follows : — 

1st. That all chloroform intended for inhalation as an ansesthetic 
agent should he prepared from pure rectified alcohol, to he diluted with 
water when used for distillation from hyperchlorite of lime. 

2d. That no druggist should sell for ansesthetic uses any chloroform 
which is not known to have been properly prepared as above suggested. 

3d. That the mixture of chloroform and alcohol, commercially known 
under the name of strong chloric ether, must be made by the same 
precautions as chloroform. 

There is less danger of the existence of Fusel oil in sulphuric ether, 
which is always made from strong rectified alcohol. 

There is more danger of the existence of sulphurous acid in this liquid, 
and that is a dangerous poison, but it is one readily detected j and per- 
sons will object to inhaling ether containing it, on account of its well- 
known disagreeable odor of burning sulphur. 

Fusel oil itself, according to the microscopic researches of my friend 
Dr. Henry C. Perkins, of Newburyport, appears to act as a poison. His 
experiments were suggested by an article published by Mr. Henry A. 
Hildreth, imputing the poisonous qualities of some kinds of chloroform 
to Fusel oil contained in it. 

It is important, now that this Fusel oil has been introduced into 
medicine as a remedy in phthisis, that the profession should know that 
when it is inhaled it may produce fatal results, and that great caution is 
necessary in the use of so powerful an agent. Administered, a few drops 
at a dose, by the stomach, it does no harm, but is undoubtedly useful in 
some forms of disease. Experience will soon show how far it is remedial 
in tuberculous diseases ; and this remedy is in good hands at present — Dr. 
Morrill Wyman and Dr. Perkins having engaged in the researches as to 
its medical use." 

Bostoiiy September 1, 1852. 

Small Pox and Vaccination. — The culpable neglect of vaccination 
throughout our State is astonishing. From a careful inquiry we are led 
to think that not more than a third of all the inhabitants of our State 
are thus protected. Formerly this was a matter of comparatively little 
importance. So long a time was required to travel from the crowded 
cities on the coast to these regions that there was almost no possibility of 
the communication of small pox by those who had been or were suffering 
under this disease. The same want of facilities of travel kept our people 
at home and prevented them from going to the disease. Now all this is 
changed. The man who to-day asks our charity, or seeks with us 
employment, may yesterday have left the foulest pest houses ; and the 
young man who till this morning never left his paternal farm, may to- 
night be exposed to the contagion of the metropolis. Clearly, if unpro- 
tected by vaccination, we are constantly exposed to be marked if not 
destroyed by the foulest of diseases. Such a state of things ought not 
to be ; and we feel that it is our duty again to call the attention of the 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 29 

profession to this matter. Not because it chiefly concerns medical men, 
but because it is their duty again to warn the public, however much that 
warning may be neglected. The occurrence of this disease in any of our 
smaller towns throws the whole community into the highest excitement 
— interrupts, and, for a longer or shorter time, destroys the business of 
the place, and even if valuable lives are not lost, very great expense 
must be incurred both by individuals and the town. Under such cir- 
cumstances it is a matter of pecuniary economy, as well as personal 
safety, for each town to see to it that the people are vaccinated. Be this 
as it may, it is not realized till the pest comes, and then all crowd to 
obtain that protection which they should have had years before. 

A remedy for this evil is loudly called for. What shall it be ? We 
hope to have some suggestions from our correspondents on this subject. 
Meanwhile we would propose that the Legislature be petitioned, at its 
next fall session, to pass a law requiring every child to he vaccinated 
before it can be admitted to the distinct schools. In this way, although 
we cannot reach the adults, we can in time remedy the serious evil. — - 
Editorial in iV. Hampshire Journal of Medicine. 

July, 1852. 

Neglect of Vaccination. By T. Herbert Barker, M. D. — In 
common with many of our readers I have been considerably interested in 
the correspondence on the subject of vaccination, which has latterly 
appeared in your valuable journal. There can be but little doubt that if 
vaccination were properly and universally practised, small-pox would 
ultimately be well-nigh exterminated from the country ; and the correct- 
ness of this assertion is borne out by facts. Take Sweden, for example, 
where vaccination is enforced by the authority of government : 
In the year 1779 small-pox destroyed 15,000 persons. 
" 1784 " " 12,000 " 

" 1800 " " 12,800 " 

" 1801 " " 6,000 " 

" 1822 « « 11 " 

" 1833 « " 37 " 

In the absence of any compulsory act, however, I am persuaded that 
much may be done by adopting the suggestion of Mr. Owen Fox, of 
Broughton (see The Lancet, May 22, 1852), to make non-vaccination a 
disqualification for national schools, domestic service, admission to friendly 
societies, parochial relief, &c; and would refer to this town in confirma- 
tion of the statement. In Bedford we have numerous schools for the 
education of youth, founded by the munificence of Sir William Harpur, 
and some thousands of pounds are annually expended for this purpose. 
It was wisely arranged by the trustees of the charity, that a certificate of 
vaccination should be submitted to them before admission to the schools ; 
consequently this operation is universally submitted to as indispensable, 
and without prejudice. When small-pox has been accidentally intro- 
duced into the town, the cases of the disease have almost been restricted 
to adults who have not been vaccinated in early life, or to children too 



30 Eclectic and Summary Department [Oct. 

young to be admitted to the schools, whose parents had neglected 
vaccination. 

It will be well for medical men at once to use their influence in making 
vaccination a sine qua non in the instances referred to; but I must 
confess that I should like to see a powerful and well-organized effort 
made to induce the government to pass a compulsory Vaccination Act. 
Surely the benefits to be derived from universal vaccination could be so 
clearly laid before our government, as to induce it to disregard what Dr. 
Maunsell has very aptly described as " our own, almost national, caprice ; 
and childish refusal of the slight constraint upon personal liberty, that 
would accrue from the legal enforcement of vaccination." — London Lan- 
cet, from Nashville Journal. 

Bedford, June, 1852. 

Camphor an Antidote for the Poison of Strychnine. By I. PlDDUCK, 
M. D. — In Mr. Cooper Foster's paper, on Poisoning by Strychnine, he 
states that " no antidote is known." The following case will help to 
supply the deficiency of our knowledge in this respect : — 

J. W , pianoforte-maker, a weakly man, of intemperate habits, 

accustomed to work in a hot workshop, and to exposure to cold on his 
way to and from work, was the subject of severe attacks of rheumatic 
gout. After one of these gouty rheumatic attacks he was suffering under 
dyspepsia, neuralgic pains, and general debility. For the relief of these 
symptoms strychnia was prescribed, in the dose of a sixteenth of a grain 
three times a day. By mistake, at the Chemist's, (one of the first in 
London,) the grain of strychnia, with sugar, was divided into six instead 
of sixteen powders. 

The first dose taken in the evening produced severe twitchings of the 
muscles; but the second dose, early in the morning, threw him into 
violent convulsions. The messenger, who came for me, said he was dying. 
Immediately after discovering the mistake, and witnessing one of the 
frightful paroxysms, I prescribed twenty grains of camphor in six ounces 
of almond mixture, one-fourth to be taken every two hours. The first 
dose so completely quieted the convulsions that there was no need of a 
second. 

Cases of this kind rarely occur, and I have only this one to adduce, 
but the incompatability of strychnia and camphor proves, pro tanto, that 
the one is the antidote to the other. As a general rule, to which there 
probably may be exceptions, the poison and the antidote severally are 
to be found in the three kingdoms of nature. — Ibid. 

Of Flexion of the Limbs as a Means of Suspending and even Arrest- 
ing Arterial Hemorrhage — As arterial hemorrhage is at all times more 
or less dangerous and alarming, it becomes proper for us to notice all the 
means best calculated to put a stop to the flow of blood proceeding from 
divided vessels. To this end, we are pleased to notice that Dr. Bobillier 
has turned his attention to this subject — the views of whom we shall 
abridge from the February number for 1852 of the Journal des Con- 
naisances Medico- Chirurgical. 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 31 

This gentleman has found, from experiment, that when certain arteries, 
situated about the joints of limbs, are wounded, the hemorrhage there- 
from may be arrested permanently, by flexing the limb forcibly upon 
itself. By this means he arrested hemorrhage from a wounded radial 
artery ; and in another case, the same means succeeded after compression, 
etc., had been fairly tried and failed. 

The third was the case of a man whose brachial artery was wounded 
by a blow with a knife, just in the bend of the arm, at the usual point 
of venesection — the hemorrhage was frightful, and the patient was so 
situated, and the accident was so unexpected, that the application of a 
ligature was utterly impracticable in the case. Violent and permanent 
flexion of the fore-arm upon the arm arrested the bleeding. 

Dr. Bobillier deprecates any desire to place flexion of a limb in com- 
petition with the ligature, for arresting hemorrhage. He contends, 
however, that it is a precious means, under certain circumstances — when 
the usual instruments for the application of ligatures are not at hand. 

In 1834 M. Malgaigne, in his Manuel de Medicine Operative, speaks 
favorably of strong flexion of the fore-arm upon the arm, as a means of 
arresting hemorrhage from wounds of the brachial artery. Four years 
thereafter, he mentions a case in which he arrested a hemorrhage from 
the popliteal artery, by flexing the knees. — New Orleans Med. Journal. 



On Oil of Turpentine in Metretis. By Dr. W. H. Ballard, M. D. — 
Negro girl, Betsey, aged about twenty-two years, suffered much from 
dysmenorrhea; her courses, according to her own account returned every 
two weeks — she was frequently compelled to " lay up " ten days or a 
fortnight at a time. The discharge was clotted, mingled with shreds of 
membrane. I determined to try ammoniated tincture of guiacum as 
prepared by Dr. Dewees. The first return after the commencement of 
this treatment, was, as stated by Dr. D. to be generally the case, much 
more severe than usual, (and of this the girl had no previous intimation,) 
but the subsequent ones were much mitigated. About three months 
after the medicine was commenced she again complained of painful men- 
struation. The weather was quite cold (November) and wet. I directed 
a dose of castor oil, which acted rather freely, and she complained much 
of soreness about the lower portion of the abdomen. Next morning on 
visiting her, I found the pulse quick and small, the abdomen quite tender 
and probably a little enlarged. Calomel in small doses was prescribed 
with sufficient opium to restrain its action on the bowels, Flannels 
wrung out of warm turpentine were applied to the hypogastrium. In a 
few hours as soon as it could be procured, mercurial ointment spread on 
muslin, was substituted for the turpentine fomentations. After giving 
some eight grains of calomel, finding it to gripe and purge, I discontinued 
it. Next day the abdomen was much more enlarged, rising above the 
margin of the ribs ; skin cold, pulse small, weak and frequent, and the 
face haggard and covered with cold perspiration. At this time I 
requested an old practitioner (but who had retired from the profession 
for many years,) to see the case with me. We differed, however, 
4 



32 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Oct. 

diametrically about the treatment, and for an Lour or so nothing was 
done. I was anxious to try the oil of turpentine, but as he was opposed 
to it, and having great confidence in his judgment, I feared to assume the 
responsibility. Finally, as the case was a desperate one, and he 
regarded it as beyond remedy, I determined to try the turpentine. At 
about eight o'clock we gave ten drops. On visiting her an hour after, 
my delight was great to find a most favorable and magic-like change. 
The face had become quite animated, the cold perspiration was gone, the 
surface pleasantly warm and pliant, the pulse slower and fuller. She 
expressed herself much easier. Content to let well enough alone, I did 
not push the remedy further. 

Next morning the abdomen was much reduced in size, and the case 
wore a more promising aspect than the day previous, though the amend- 
ment had somewhat subsided : I gave five drops more of turpentine with 
the same favorable results. 

From unavoidable circumstances I did not see the case again, but the 
gentleman alluded to, who saw the case with me consented to pursue the 
same course of treatment. In a short time the girl entirely recovered. 

The case is an interesting one, first, from the hysteritis and probably 
peritonitis occurring during the administration of the guiacum, whether 
as a consequence or a mere coincidence no one can say. Secondly, from 
manifest advantage arising from the use of the oil of turpentine. Thirdly, 
from these beneficial results following the use of so small a quantity. 
Many authorities seem skeptical of the advantages of this drug, and it is 
possible that if, presuming on the happy effects of the first dose, it had 
been repeated in a short time from fear of the first impression subsiding, 
or in hopes of^till further benefit from it, acute inflammation might have 
been re-kindled or, the excitability of the system, already much weakened, 
would have been wholly exhausted. A careful perusal of Dr. Dewees' 
works had fully impressed me with the danger of over stimulation. One 
might reasonably contend that no judicious practitioner would think of 
pushing a remedy when he had derived all the benefit he could expect ; 
but it is a matter of opinion founded on a close observation of any 
particular case when we have achieved this end, and any one may proba- 
bly find instances in his practice where he has aimed at too much good, 
if not, a case in point may be found in Dr. Dewees' work on females, 
above cited. And it is highly probable, that if my case had not been 
seen so often, and general directions given instead, as to the repetition of 
the remedy used, inflammation would have been augmented and the case 
no doubt hurried to a fatal issue. — N. 0. Medical Register. 



Observations on some Peculiar Varieties of u After Pains" By 
C. Joel Hendrick, of Auburn, Ind. — It is well known to physicians, 
that, after parturition, females are subject to periodical pains, which re- 
semble, in some respects, the pains of labor, and are induced by the 
further contraction of the uterus after its contents have been expelled. 
These pains sometimes continue several days, and are very distressing to 
the patients, insomuch that it frequently becomes necessary to subdue 



1852c] Eclectic and Summary Department. 33 

or palliate them by the administration of medicine. Generally, opium 
or some of its preparations in full doses will arrest them promptly ; but, 
from my own experience and observation, I am induced to believe that 
opium is too frequently given in cases where periodical pains occur soon 
after parturition, without a due consideration of the character of the 
pains. To confirm this opinion I will cite the following cases : — 

Case I. — Mrs. Brown, a very robust and healthy woman, was deli- 
vered of her first child in the spring of 1848. Nothing worthy of note 
occurred during the labor, and when I left the house, which was soon 
after her delivery, she appeared entirely comfortable. About four hours 
afterwards, however, I was again summoned to see her, and found her 
laboring under very severe pain, which recurred at regular intervals like 
ordinary after pains. As there was also occasional syncope with a fre- 
quent and feeble pulse, I was induced to examine the condition of the 
uterus, per vaginam. On attempting to examine the uterus, I was 
surprised to find the vagina much distended by an immense and very 
firm coagulum, which I immediately broke up and extracted. No 
haemorrhage followed the extraction of the coagulum, and the pains im- 
mediately ceased. 

Case II. — I was summoned in haste on the morning of the 4th of 
January, 1850, to see Mrs. Williams who was reported to be in labor, 

under the care of Dr. E . I arrived at the house about two o'clock, 

A. M., and found the woman suffering from very extreme pain, though 
she had been delivered, I was informed, about an hour before my arrival. 
The pains were decidedly periodic, though not at any time entirely 
absent, and were described by the patient as much worse than the pains 

she had suffered during labor. Dr. E. informed me that the after 

pains, as he regarded them, had set in soon after the delivery of the pla- 
centa, and as they were unusually severe he had given a very large dose 
of morphine, which, however, had produced little or no impression upon 
them. I suggested the propriety of examining the condition of the 
uterus, and was requested by Dr. E to make the necessary examina- 
tion. On introducing my hand I found protruding through the os uteri, 
to the extent of an inch or more, a substance which was highly sensitive 
to the touch, and which I concluded was the fundus of that organ. I 
therefore made firm pressure upon it, in consequence of which it sudden- 
ly receded within the os, upon which the pains immediately and entirely 
subsided. 

In both the foregoing cases it is obvious that opium, to whatever ex- 
tent its administration might have been carried, could not have afforded 
any material relief. — N. W. Med. and Surg. Journal. 

Arabian Method of treating Stone in the Bladder- — In an old work, 
published in London in the year 1743, entitled A View of the Levant, 
&c, by Charles Perry, M. D., there is described a curious method of 
treating a very formidable disease, which is practiced by the Arabs in 
the city of Cairo. Thinking it might interest your readers, as a medical 
curiosity, I have copied it out word for word, merely modernising the 
spelling a little. Yours truly, Gr. H. 



34 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Oct. 

u Being the other day in discourse with one Signior Gabrieli, a Vene- 
tian, who has practiced here as a Medico for many years, he entertained 
ns with an account of a great cure which he had lately performed. His 
story was thus, or to this purpose : That a certain Efiendi, a person of 
great affairs and consideration, and about fifty years old, had been tor- 
mented with violent and continued pains in his reins, for twelve years 
past, without intermission : that during this long and irksome time of 
twelve years misery, he had applied himself to all the doctors, (whether 
real or nominal,) that he could meet with or hear of in this city, but 
without any sort of benefit ; for they all alike mistook his case, judging 
it to be no other than a cold, which had determined and fixed itself upon 
that region. At length, about eight months ago, good luck or provi- 
dence directed him to this Signior Gabrieli. He was no sooner called, 
and fully instructed of the patient's complaint, than he judged and pro- 
nounced it to be of the nephritic kind ; but he judged much better of 
the disease than of the medicines he applied for the cure, for he gave 
nothing but mallow water in large quantity, with oils and syrups to lubri- 
cate. These indeed were very innocent remedies, and, as one would be 
apt to think, equally impotent, as in fact they proved. But Signior Gra- 
brieli, having experienced those, and such like things, for a considerable 
time, without any fruit or effect, and being acquainted with an Arab, who 
was famed for his dexterity in blowing wind up the penis for the cure of 
stone and gravel, he went in search of him, carried him to the patient, 
and ordered him to perform the operation without delay, in the best 
manner he could. The operator, having his instruments about him, 
went to work directly. He first ordered the patient to stand up in an 
erect posture ; then he put the end of a common cane pipe, (which was 
about three inches long, and cut taper, after the manner of our penis 
syringes,) into the urethra ; and the instrument being adjusted in such a 
manner as he thought proper, he blew into it with all his might, for a 
considerable time; then, holding the urethra, to prevent the wind's flying 
out again, he played about the bottom of his belly with the other hand, 
(especially above the os pubis and near the groins,) for a considerable 
time ; then, relieving the urethra, he let the wind discharge itself, beat- 
ing his belly gently with his hand, to force the wind out with a greater 
impetus. When the wind was pretty well discharged, he applied a pipe 
again into the urethra, and then sucked with the same force as he had 
before blown. By this first operation the patient voided eleven stones 
near as big as vetches; and the same operation being repeated every 
morning and evening, till he was entirely freed from pain, and from all 
further emissions of stone or gravel, the whole quantity of stones dis- 
charged, (besides an incredible quantity of gravel,) amounted to near 
three tea cups full ; and besides these, he excreted a great deal of white 
viscous matter in his urine. 

" However, we confess we were rather pleased and diverted with this 
story, than satisfied about it ; because people are generally partial in 
their own favor ; or at least will exaggerate in their accounts of things 
Which tend to their own glory and honor. We therefore desired Signior 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department, 35 

G-abrieli, for our full satisfaction and conviction, to carry us to see the 
person. Signior Gabrieli replied, without the least scruple or hesitation, 
that we were masters to go wherever we would j and no longer ago than 
yesterday, we went and had an interview with this Effendi. We saw the 
stones which he had voided, and had all the other circumstances of the 
cure confirmed by the patient's own mouth. Most of the stones are as 
big as vetches, and somewhat of the same figure ', they are all of a dark 
yellow color, and of a friable texture. The Effendi told us that he had 
not been able to mount his horse, nor scarce to move about the house, 
for the space of twelve years before, but was now pretty well, and very 
easy. He said, however, that when he urined, he had yet a burning 
pain in the urethra, near its extremity ; and examining his urine, we 
found it of a wheyish color, abounding with a number of white fila- 
ments.' ' — Buffalo Med. Journal. 
August 10th 1852. 

Democracy and the Doctors. By R. H. Paddock, M. D., Chesire, Ct. 
— It is a commonly received opinion, that the old forms of government, 
being patriarchal in their character, and celestial in their origin, are 
favorable to the cultivation of the liberal arts and professions. 

It is also just about as commonly supposed that democracy can 
appreciate only that which is of obvious practical utility, and affords little 
countenance or protection to amateurs in literature or art, or to those 
engaged in the practice of the learned professions. A single individual, 
as a king, or a single and comparatively small class of persons, as an 
aristocracy, — having had the best instructors and the most ample facili- 
ties for the acquisition of all useful learning and elegant accomplishments, 
— must surely better understand, and more safely guard the interests of 
learning and the learned ; must more readily detect, and more profoundly 
abhor, all schemes of quackery and imposture, and will more effectually 
crush them, at a blow, than can be expected of a whole people, of all 
conditions — whether of fortune or misfortune. On the other hand, the 
very notion of liberty implies the toleration of manifest evils, and opens 
to eminence in all that is hateful and degrading, as well as in all that is 
lovely and exalting. 

Now we doctors see and feel so much of the intolerable impudence, 
conceit, and ignorance, of tolerated quacks, that we are sometimes 
tempted to abjure our own political creed, and go back to the hated and 
antiquated forms of absolutism — seeking, under the iron wand of despo- 
tism, protection for ourselves, and vengeance on swaggering charlatanry. 
But alas ! in this day to whom shall we go ? To the leagued tyrants of 
continental Europe? All the beauties of absolutism, in the abstract, 
celestial in origin, as it might be, tender and parental, as it should be,— 
vanish at a glance of these miscreant ministers of an angry God ! But, 
upon a " second sober thought," were despots less despotic, and tyranny 
even tolerable, we would not invoke its aid. Medical quackery has its 
cause and cure in something back of all forms of government; and, 
though sometimes not allowed to be practised openly, it nevertheless 
insinuates itself into all states, however ruled or misruled. 



36 Eclectic and Summary Department [Oct. 

A very common and very erroneous notion in reference to the nature of 
disease, furnishes those who have more brass than brains, with an oppor- 
tunity to mislead a multitude to their own hurt. It is something like 
this: Every malady is distinct in its nature; well characterized; of 
specific form, and requiring a specific mode of treatment. 

The doctor is expected to recognize diseases as readily and as certainly 
as the naturalist does plants and animals, and to apply to each the 
specific remedy which nature has provided. According to this simple 
and beautiful theory the practice of medicine should be a very easy and 
satisfactory business, and the doctor should be certain death, not only 
u on fits," but also on disease itself. 

A good practical illustration of this notion is seen in that system of 
seething, spewing, and injecting, known as the Thomsonian. The semi- 
civilized discoverer of the wonderful secrets that heat is life and cold is 
death ; that every substance should come out of the body through the 
same channel by which it enters it ; and that red pepper and lobelia, 
administered hot to both extremities of the body, will drive out the seeds 
of all diseases, viz : cold and canker — commenced his original treatise on 
the healing art by advising all men to shun the lawyers, the doctors, and 
the ministers of religion. The remainder of his book is a worthy com- 
mentary on the text, and like Joe Smith's Bible, finds those in every 
community, who are captivated by its vulgarity, and enlightened by its 
profound revelations. 

There is something attractive, too, for a certain class of persons, in the 
operations of a Thomsonian doctor. His is no light duty — no easily 
earned reward ! he throws off his coat, rolls up his sleeves, and swelters, 
for hours, over a steaming cauldron of concocting boughs and herbs. 
The huge bowls of hot drinks, the bath frames covered with woolen 
blankets, and the red-hot, hissing stones, all show that something is 
to be done effectually, and that either the disease or the patient must 
yield before this formidable enginery. 

Now it is neither the highest nor the lowest portion of our race in 
point of intelligence, that are imposed upon by such theory and practice. 
Those nations which have undergone the process of calcination and calci- 
tration, through the wickedness of their rulers, till they can not, or dare 
not, aspire to think for themselves upon any subject, make the very best 
class of medical patients. They surrender their bodies to the legitimate 
doctors, and their souls to the lawful priests, to be healed of their 
respective maladies with an equally blind and unwavering faith in both. 
It is when the human mind has been released from the bondage of igno- 
rance and oppression ; when some straggling rays of light begin to fall, 
and it begins to put forth its early and uncertain efforts in speculative 
philosophy, that it embraces such crudities. 

What wonder if, in the twilight of their mental illumination, when 
men have acquired just that " little learning," which is always a " dan- 
gerous thing," in speculating about doctoring themselves, as well as about 
governing themselves, and acting for themselves in every capacity — they 
should often adopt undigested schemes of corporeal, as well as of spiritu- 



1852-] Eclectic and Summary Department. 37 

al salvation ? What wonder that their inexperienced ears should listen 
to the noisy quack, pasted all over with glaring certificates and lying 
advertisements ? 

Another form of medical imposture, more refined in its character, and 
perhaps quite as extensive in its influence as the preceding, owes its 
origin and advocacy to minds of a contemplative and visionary mould. 
These are found in the ranks of the most refined, intelligent and vir- 
tuous, and when controlled by a powerful judgment, as was that of Co- 
lumbus, are often among the most distinguished of our race. Affluence 
and independence, or at least a condition in life exempt from the neces- 
sity for physical labor, are almost indispensable to the formation and 
cultivation of such a mental habit. The man who earns his daily bread 
by daily toil, has little time or inclination for day dreaming ; while the 
student, the cultivators of science, art, and the learned professions, are 
quite liable to fall into speculating and theorizing. 

Even the despicable tyrant, who enchains the bodies and minds of the 
great mass of his subjects, will sometimes foster the spirit of speculative 
philosophy, or of devotion to the fine arts. He is willing to engross the 
minds of the contemplative with such topics as can have no practical in- 
fluence to enlighten and elevate the people, and for this reason he has 
sometimes been hailed as the patron of all liberal learning. 

The medical hallucinations of these transcendental philosophers, like 
all their ethereal lucubrations, are wonderfully exquisite and psuedo-logi- 
cal. Their thread of ratiocination is microscopically attenuated, and their 
deductions are the doubly refined extract of nonsense. 

At one time they inform us that a wet sheet, wrapped around the 
human body, will certainly absorb the active elements of any disease ; 
while a little Croton water, introduced within the body is far more pow- 
erfully curative than Croton oil. At another time we are gravely told 
that any cause which can derange the delicate mechanism of the human 
system, is itself the proper means of cure ; and hence a sledge hammer 
is a fit tool to mend a watch; and also that the less is more powerful 
than the greater, of the same kind 3 and hence that nothing at all is ab- 
solutely omnipotent. 

Furthermore — if any man doubts the truth of these startling proposi- 
tions, they can be verified by thousands of testimonials, and by actual 
experiment. This cannot be said of the propositions of Euclid — so away 
with your mathematics, and give us the documents ! 

Doubtless there are other forms of medical imposture, dependent upon 
other peculiarities in the constitution and condition of the human mind. 
These it is not my present purpose to exhibit, but rather to infer from 
what has already been said, that the sources and the remedies of charla- 
tanry, are not to be sought in the forms of government; or in legislative 
enactments. Doubtless these have an important influence in the deter- 
mination of mental conditions and characteristics ; but men cannot be 
cured of ignorance or insanity, nor can they be endowed with a truly 
enlightened understanding, and good practical common sense, by the force 
of law. All experience shows that neither our moral nor our physical 



38 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Oct. 

maladies are likely to be better healed when under the care of the state, 
than when left to the care and the conscience of the individual patients 
themselves. 

Much then, as we are scandalized by the wide spread medical quack- 
ery of our time and country — much as we deplore its soils, abhor its im- 
pudence, and despise its flimsy sophistry — still, we shall do well to ad- 
here to our democratic notions of government — giving the fool full liberty 
to preach folly, and his hearers abundant permission to trust in him. 

"What then ? can no remedy, no alleviation be devised ? Yes ; let us 
follow the advice of the old Latin poet, and pray for " a sound mind in 
a sound body/' and let us accompany this prayer by such efforts as are 
suited to the fulfillment. Let all our States, and all our smaller commu- 
nities adopt the well known and approved methods of general education ; 
and let every species of useful information, practical, scientific, and pro- 
fessional, be as widely disseminated as possible. Let us also remember 
that, for this life at least, men have bodies, as well as minds, and that 
they sympathise so extensively with each other in their growth and de- 
velopment, disease and decay, that whatever measures are adopted for 
the spread of virtue and intelligence, as well as for the alleviation and 
cure of disease, should have an adaptation to both a physical and a men- 
tal constitution. 

Great intellectual advancement might be realized through the same 
means that we employ for the improvement of the brute animals; but 
though we may not regulate or restrict the license to increase and multi- 
ply, yet one thing may and should be done in this direction. It is a fact 
as universal as it is lamentable, in this country, that our native, and 
more intelligent and attractive females are sadly debilitated and degene- 
rated in bodily constitution ; and I need not say that this must unavoid- 
ably work the deterioration of our whole people — first physiologically, 
then mentally and morally. Now a glance at the flood of emigration 
pouring into this country, shows that this evil is artificial and may there- 
fore be exterminated. Our own progenitors, on the other shore of the 
Atlantic, are comparatively exempt from it. Let us but adopt the better 
portion of their hygienic regimen, especially their custom of daily and 
prolonged exertion in the open air, and I doubt not that in a few genera- 
tions we shall see more healthy mothers and fewer scrofulous children. 
This reform would be an important auxiliary in the great work of popu- 
lar education and elevation, the only radical cure, not only for quackery, 
but also for all our ills — whether physical, mental, social, or moral. — 
Ohio Med. and Surg. Journal. 



THE 

Mf JEESEY MEDICAL EEPOETEE. 

VOL. VI. ELEVENTH MONTH (NOV.), 1852. No. 2. 

Hints on Physical Education By James H. Stuart, M. D. 

No. 3. 

In view of all the considerations before alluded to, I would propose an 
addition to the ordinary rules for Physical Education. Not to speak of 
Dumb bells, Gymnasia, Riding Schools, &c, because they have all been 
sufficiently amplified in the numerous treatises extant upon the subject, 
and because common sense teaches their propriety when circumstances 
warrant their use. But we make the bold proposal, that every, or nearly 
every child, above six years of age, shall, after a little preliminary harden- 
ing, be permitted and enjoined to sleep in a room with the windows open, 
and this both in summer and winter ; be the weather clear or rainy, cold 
or warm, damp or dry, windy or calm, or even hailing or snowing. This 
is certainly, at first sight, rather a startling proposition ; but it has borne 
the test of experience, and will, we think, bear that of philosophical in- 
vestigation. Let us examine the matter a little. The composition of 
the atmosphere is now pretty well understood, as also the changes under- 
gone by it after having been used some time for breathing. In accord- 
ance with this knowledge, physicians are in the habit of recommending, 
though not of sufficiently insisting upon, the necessity for " fresh air." 
In many varieties of fever they are anxious to have it circulating freely 
through the apartment of the patient, during the day-time. Bed cur- 
tains are reprehended, and wisely too ; though, if nothing more is done 
for ventilation, the evil hour is merely postponed, not prevented, But 
at night, when care should chiefly be observed, then, even physicians 
themselves, and their families, close their windows tightly, and creep 
into bed as if no danger whatever to their health existed ; fortunate, if 
indeed they have no roaring fire glowing on their hearth. 

At best, the majority merely draw down the casement a few inches 

from the top. Now this last is not sufficient. Carbonic acid is a heavy 

gas, and though, by the law of diffusion of gases, it will mingle equally 
5 



40 Stuart on Physical Education. [Nov. 

with atmospheric air, it will not all rise against gravity to escape by that 
aperture. The chimney, key-holes, &c, are manifestly insufficient for 
ventilation. For, is it not evident to any one blessed with olfactories, 
on entering an ordinary sleeping room in the morning, more especially if 
he have previously snuffed the fresh out-door breeze, that much foreign 
substance is mingled with the air of that chamber ? The odor is some- 
times really sickening, and that even when the occupant may have been 
gone and the door open for perhaps an hour ! 

No wonder people rise so often heavy and dull, as if from the effect of 
an opiate ! They have been inhaling a narcotic gas the whole night, and 
should feel grateful to Providence that they are spared to see the dawn. 
How many inquests are annually held in our cities, upon the bodies of 
persons " found dead " in bed ? And how many verdicts of u Apoplexy," 
" Visitations of G-od," &c, are carelessly rendered, which should read 
" ignorant felo de se from the respiration of impure air ! " But, because 
no pan of charcoal appears in the room, the idea of noxious gases never 
occurs to the sapient jury. Some may laugh at all this, and say trium- 
phantly, that they have slept with their windows closed during their 
whole lives, and were never injured by it. To this we answer, a poison 
is not the less sure because slow; and that, while the objectors are now 
perhaps tolerably healthy, they owe it " more to good luck than good 
management," u post hoc, non propter hoc," and would probably have 
been much more hardy and vigorous by pursuing proper means. Ner- 
vous, complaining hypochondriacs, are not found among men who sleep 
with open windows. The reason is obvious. 

There are however, men of such iron constitutions, that nothing appa- 
rently can injure them. An aged relative of our own — now dead — who 
in his youth would wrap himself in a blanket, and lie calmly down to 
rest in the lee of a snow-drift, would undoubtedly have ridiculed the idea 
that sleeping with closed windows was injurious to any one. Yet un- 
doubtedly the nervous symptoms which marked his own age beyond four- 
score, were in a great measure due to that very thing. It is evident to 
every intelligent being, that man cannot live in an impure and vitiated 
atmosphere. 

But some one may say, " If you open your window you subject your- 
self to the damp night air, and mayhap to poisonous miasmata mingled 
with it." Most true, if it is damp, and if the miasmata are there. And 
in that case, pray what does he breathe who shuts himself up close, but 
the very same air with all its impurities, and the additional ones genera- 
ted by himself ? He but makes matters worse. For if the air of the 



1852.] Stuart on Physical Education. 41 

chamber is not identical with that outside, whence is it derived ? The 
key-holes, through which it enters, are not sufficiently capillary to de- 
prive the air of its moisture, and we are not aware that carbonic acid gas 
possesses the power of neutralizing marsh malaria. But some may say, 
" when sleeping, the vital powers are low — ill calculated to resist the mi- 
asmatic influence." And, we ask, are they not lower when to sleep is 
conjoined the depressing influence of a foul atmosphere? Here we bold- 
ly appeal to experience, (our own and that of others,) and assert that 
those of our acquaintances who pursue this plan are not more subject to 
intermittent, than those who do not, or than they were themselves before 
commencing it. " Haud inexpertus loquor." Perhaps, however, some 
kind hearted personage may enquire " "Would it not answer the purpose 
to leave the chamber door open V f We answer, not fully ; for the house 
being shut up, we should merely extend the range of air to be breathed 
in a certain period, and have the rest of the family to assist in the opera- 
tion. To see that this plan is not good, we have only to reflect on the 
musty odor of an empty room when closed for some time. This is evi- 
dently caused by the stale air from other parts of the house getting in, 
and not being removed when the building generally is ventilated. Be- 
side, what would one do in Hotels, Colleges, &c. But it may be said ; 
11 you will perhaps serve the children as the fool did his horse ; which, 
when it had just learned to live on a straw a day, died. You will hill 
them in the hardening/' No danger whatever. Begin, after a little 
preliminary training, in early Summer ; carry it through the Fall, and 
before Winter they will be thoroughly seasoned. They should, of course, 
be warmly covered ; and for the first year or two, might on occasions of 
severe storms, or remarkable cold, be shut up till they were over. 

What a luxury it is, when snugly ensconced beneath the warm cover- 
ings, to feel the cold winter's wind sweeping over one's face and biting 
his nose, and to breathe deeply of the sharp, stinging, bracing air ! Even 
when the snow is dashing about, and curling through the room in little 
eddies, finally to subside in small drifts upon the floor, one can, when 
the bed is beyond its range, survey it with the most philosophical com- 
posure and then drop gradually and comfortably to sleep. Our own first 
experiment was made under very unfavorable circumstances. During 
the preceeding summer at College, we had been blessed with an obstinate 
chum, who positively refused to allow either the door or window to be 
open at night. Consequently, we sweltered through the season and found 
our health poor in the Fall. During the winter, thanks to a strong minded 
and sensible uncle, we commenced sleeping in a small room with the win- 



42 Stuart on Physical Education. [Nov. 

dow immediately beside our bed, and the sash raised. It snowed the first 
night, and deposited about an inch on the floor beside the bed ; indeed 
some of it was sprinkled on the quilt. Next morning we had a " bad 
cold/' which lasted some time. But u Perseverentia vincit omnia," — 
and did conquer the catarrh. We have never had a cough since, — 
about seven years now, — -save one winter while attending lectures, from 
the introduction of a stove into the bed room. By continuing this 
system and extending it, we are equally proof against water, wet feet, &c. 
True, there are some exceptional cases, when this course is inadmissible. 
But the rule is that a child who began this training while young would, 
when a man, need no further hardening to enter the woods and " camp 
out" on hemlock boughs, as fearlessly as any hunter of the wild. 

Another thing we would insist on in the Education of children, is 
daily cold bathing. At the beginning, the water should be, of course, 
quite warm, but gradually lowered in temperature, until, at length, the 
child could bear it cold as it is usually found in our hydrants. This 
bathing should be regularly enforced every morning- — in the coldest 
weather of winter, as well as in the heat of summer. It will at first be 
urgently resisted, and a tender hearted mother might be induced by 
the cries of her apparently suffering offspring to swerve from her duty 
and finally neglect it almost entirely. But, even when it suffers most 
under the infliction, it will feel delighted immediately after, and be 
brighter and happier all day. If, however, reaction does not occur, it 
will be an indication that the cooling of the water has been too sudden, 
this should henceforth proceed more gradually. Habit will soon render 
even the cold dash pleasant, and that which was feared as an evil, will 
be eagerly sought as a joy.* 

It is unnecessary to enlarge on the advantages and physiological effects 
of cold bathing. They are well known, and parents need but little 
urging from an authoritative source to make use of them. 

But Physical Education should not cease when a young person, eman- 
cipated from parental control, assumes the care of himself, and enters 
upon life. No. Far from it, for then new temptations to injure the 
body and ruin the mind present themselves, and require peculiar care and 
watchfulness to be avoided. When a man has attained his full growth 

* To prove that we speak as " having authority," let us instance the child of our 
friend, Lieut. D. S. McDougal, U. S. N., who became passionately fond of his bath, 
seeming to feel perfectly happy when splashing the cold water over him. And 
never was a stouter, healthier child born. Even during the paroxysms of pain 
from the acute disease which terminated his life, he would clap his hands and appear 
flighted at the feight of his bathing tub. And his case if but " e pluribus unum." 



1852.] Stuart on Physical Education. 43 

and development, a certain amount of exercise is still necessary to pre- 
serve his health, which, though generally more settled and firmer than 
before, is exposed to more undermining influences. But the majority of 
young men never seem to regard this at all. Their minds are fixed on 
business or pleasure. Most persons are obliged to engage in some regu- 
lar occupation for support. This, especially in cities, keeps them closely 
employed often during the whole day. Now a reasoning being ought at 
once to see the necessity for some healthful recreation in the evening, to 
do away with the ill effects of the day's confinement • — -and a walk, a 
row, a ride, a bath, or an hour in some gymnasium should at once sug- 
gest itself. But clerks, mechanics, merchants, and even students, who 
should know better, are not thus inclined. On the pretext of amuse- 
ment, relaxing their minds (which, by the way, are not often overtasked,*) 
they rush in shoals to the Theatres, Circuses, Monkey Shows, Bar-rooms, 
Dance Houses, and Bagnios. There, amid crowds of others, composed in 
part of the vilest of the vile, they sweat and gasp for breath, inhaling a 
vitiated and disgusting atmosphere, often redolent with the odors of 
tobacco smoke, coal heavers, oystermen, and fashionable perfumery, and 
reminding one of Coleridge's " seven and seventy stinks in the town of 
Cologne." This is by way of relaxation and recovering from the fatigues 
of the day ! Look too at the poor miserable exquisite, casing his already 
scant proportions into still smaller dimensions, and mincing along our 
streets with the perfume of Musk, Cologne, Macassar Oil, and " Yinaigre 
aromatique, Cosmetique, et antimephitique de Bully/' wafting in gentle 
breezes about his " ambrosial locks" and shuddering if perchance a 
u howwid twadesman" should come " between the wind and his nobility." 
Poor butterfly ! His ephemeral career is truly pitable, however well de- 
served ! 

Nor are our fashionable women one whit better. Starting out late at 
night, about half dressed, in stormy weather, they will dance some hours, 
overheat themselves, and undergo the various excitements of love, jeal- 
ously, vanity, and envy. Then, with their "delicate constitutions," 
they will, in merely stepping to their carriages, frequently cause Amenor- 
hoea or Dysmenorrhoea, or " catch a shocking cold/' from the effects of 
which they perhaps never recover. 



44 Editor on the Pulse. [Nov. 

Observations on the Pulse. By the Editor. 

To trace the variety in the symptoms of disease as they occur from 
time to time, under the observation of a careful physician, is a duty mu- 
tually interesting and important, to both the patient and his attendant ; 
hut while we feel the pulse from habit , at every visit to the sick, we are 
not always careful to consider the conditions on which it depends, and to 
scrutinize the symptoms with accuracy, and judge from ihem all collec- 
tively. Acting under the general law of the economy, that a supply of 
arterial blood is necessary to the action and growth of every organ, we 
are too apt to conclude if we find a full and bounding pulse, that blood 
is becoming too rapidly concentrated in some particular part, and that 
the lancet must be employed to diminish its quantity, and control its 
force. On the other hand, we may be led to suppose from an evident 
feeble action at the wrist, that a stimulating course is necessary to 
increase the vigor of the circulation ; and, while we may be right in 
both instances, — we may also be wrong, as the pulse is not always a re- 
liable symptom. 

There are a number of considerations to be taken into- the account, 
some of which it is proposed to consider in this article ; such as the fol- 
lowing—viz : the action of the heart is materially modified by that of the 
nervous system; sudden or strong emotions, whether of joy or grief, 
pleasure or pain, often produce a striking difference in the force and fre- 
quency of arterial action. Persons suffering from acute neuralgia, even 
those of delicate and nervous constitutions, who have less blood in the 
system than they actually need, will sometimes have a strong and full 
pulsation at the wrist, during paroxysms of pain ; and yet to deplete 
such persons by venesection, would only aggravate their symptoms. 
The nervous system will also act upon the capillaries of the organs, and 
by their irritability, an increase of supply will be furnished to those or- 
gans, and give rise to inflammatory symptoms, which may be better re- 
lieved by nervous stimulants or sedatives, than by evacuants ; and so the 
nervous force which regulates the action of the lungs, may be so distri- 
buted as to cause the pulmonary circulation to act irregularly upon the 
heart, and create a degree of arterial disturbance, which may often mis- 
lead the practitioner who relies too much upon the pulse as a diagnostic 
sign. Again, we should remember, that the distribution of the filaments 
of the great sympathetic nerve upon the arterial parieties, may exercise 
considerable control over the contraction of the arteries, when the great 
motive power is in any way deranged or modified. 



1852.] Editor on the Pulse. 45 

In some conditions of alarming debility, the arterial system is most sin- 
gularly irritable, and the pulse very deceptive ; in phthisis pulmonalis, and 
in many chronic affections, this is frequently seen. Again, the constitu- 
tional pulse of many individuals is full and frequent ) in others quite the 
reverse, while in all, it depends much upon the mental and moral quali- 
ties of the individual, as well as physical organization ; and this very want 
of uniformity renders it an uncertain indication, and increases the neces- 
sity of regarding it only in connection with general symptoms. How of- 
ten do we see in aged persons, worn down by chronic disease, the 
work of death going rapidly on, and one organ after another failing to 

perform its office, and yet the pulse continue firm and full, till the lungs 
cease entirely to act ! I remember being particularly impressed with this 
fact while a student, when watching with an aged gentleman in his last 
moments ; after the eye had lost its brilliancy, and the evidences of 
speedy dissolution were apparent, the pulse was the last to answer the 
call of the destroyer, but retained its fullness and volume till the latest 
moment ) while at the same time there was preternatural heat of the sur- 
face of the body. In active pulmonary hemorrhages which threaten to 
destroy life, the pulse is often extremely rapid and feeble, and will rise 
under the use of the lancet, the flow from the pulmonary vessels being 
diverted towards the extremities. 

A plethoric state of the system, in which the pulmonary circulation 
is obstructed, may create a small pulse, by causing congestion of the 
lungs, and a consequent want of supply to the left ventricle of the heart • 
which, failing in its natural efforts to furnish the organs with their due 
proportion of blood, labors with an increased frequency of pulsation, and 
with a corresponding diminution of force, to meet the demand made upon 
it by the general system. Also, in active inflammations of the serous 
membranes, as in peritonites, the pulse is frequently feeble, and yet the 
fever, tenderness, and pain of the abdomen, indicate a positive phlogosis, 
which may be reduced by bleeding • and with its reduction, there will be 
a corresponding improvement in the arterial pulsation. In local inflamma- 
tions, as in ophthalmia, the extent of which is often not sufficient to pro- 
duce evident constitutional sympathy, and in which the pulse cannot 
participate at once — prompt bleeding is often useful and indeed necessa- 
ry. In such cases, if we wait till constitutional symptoms become es- 
tablished, and the pulse indicates febrile excitement, the local affection 
may become much more obstinate, and difficult to remove. 

We are then to consider, in judging of the pulse, that its strength de- 
pends not only upon a mechanical impulse given to it by the force with 



46 Coleman on Poisoning by Honey. [Nov. 

which the ventricle is contracted, bnt upon the tonicity of the artery, 
and the quantity of blood, as well as upon the more vital and controlling 
power which resides in the nervous system. Hence the mental emotions 
and desires, together with the physical peculiarities of the patient are to 
be studied, before we can rely upon the pulse in diagnosticating disease. 
If these few suggestions will do no more, it is hoped they may con. 
tribute to establish in the mind of the intelligent medical reader, the im- 
portant maxim, that a strong pulse is not always an indication of vigor 
of constitution ; nor a weak one, of debility. 



Cases of Poisoning by Honey. Communicated to the District Medical 
Society of Burlington County, Oct. 19, 1852. By I. B. Coleman, M.D. 

We are all, no doubt, historically acquainted with the occasionally 
deleterious effects of recent honey, but many of us may finish our pro- 
fessional career, without witnessing an example of the kind. The fact 
may therefore be lost sight of, and we may fail to apprise the lovers of 
this delicacy, of the hazard attending an incautious indulgence too soon 
after it has been taken from the hive. It is highly probable that some 
localities may be more favorable to the production of a poisonous article 
than others, but even in situations where it is generally harmless, it will 
sometimes produce disastrous effects, and from what sources the poison 
is derived may not be apparent. It will be better then, to advise an ex- 
tremely cautious use of all new parcels, until their qualities have been 
ascertained. Were the medical botany of our county, and the necessi- 
ties of the bee, better understood, we might venture an opinion, a priori, 
but in the present state of our knowledge, we can but caution. The 
question being yet unsettled, whether honey is an animalization or mere- 
ly a transfer of juices to the cells, we may venture the opinion that it is 
exclusively neither j but, under certain circumstances, both a vegetable 
secretion and animal elaboration. That it is not exclusively a deposit, 
we may infer from the fact that analysis does not discover an identity of 
composition between honey and any known vegetable secretion. That it 
is not wholly an elaboration, we are warranted in concluding, from its 
occasional effects being so strictly analogous to those of known acrid nar- 
cotic poisons. As the change is effected in the stomach of the insect, may 
it not be that when the supply is abundant, and convenient to the hive, 
that organ may be surcharged and again speedily evacuated, before the 
elementary transpositions can take place. When the food is less abun- 
dant or the distance greater, the metamorphosis would be more effectual, 



1852.] Coleman on Poisoning oy Honey. 47 

and genuine honey be the result. This modification seems at times to 
be the effect of ordinary chemical action, as honey, hurtful at first, when 
left for a time, even though sealed in the cells, becomes harmless. Those 
isomeric and protean organic compounds, analogous in chemistry, to the 
kaleidoscope in optics, which so readily change their properties by the 
slightest elementary variations, or even re-arrangements, may furnish a 
solution to the problem* The merry maze through which the chemist is 
at present leading the hydrated oxide of amyle is a beautiful illustration. 
As prussic acid is found to be the active principle in many of the ever- 
green poisons, and as it is readily decomposed by light, it is probably 
the offender in the cases of which we are about to speak. This can only 
be inferred from the known properties of the stem, leaf and fruit, (as 
the secretions of plants do not necessarily possess the same qualities,) 
and from the toxicological effects exhibited, which were so much in ac- 
cordance with those of hydrocyanic acid. 

On the first day of September, fourteen persons, men, women, and 
children, ate of wild honey just taken from a tiee in the pines. Of this 
number, one died, six were severely affected, and the remainder very 
slightly, or not in the least incommoded. Upon receiving the summons 
I repaired to the spot, ten miles distant, armed for the contest, with 
ipecac, sul. zinc, and mustard, ether, brandy, carb. amnion., olive oil, &c. 
When arrived, I found the assault had been furious, and the defence so 
well sustained by the good woman of the house, that it was only neces- 
sary for me to cover the retreat. They had all been well drenched with 
a tepid solution of common salt, which produced emesis and relief, with 
the exception of the man, who died. He, either from too sudden pros- 
tration or obstinacy, did not take the potion, and paid the forfeit. The 
symptoms described were at first, and very soon after eating, a burning 
heat in the stomach and skin, with shiverings and general sense of cold- 
ness, retchings, with ineffectual attempts to vomit, muscular prostration, 
vertigo, delirium, hallucination, and tendency to somnolency. In some 
there were epigastric or cholic pains — pulse weak and slow. The fatal 
case had terminated before my arrival, and as the violence of the cere- 
bral disturbance had somewhat abated by the vomiting from the salt and 
water, a large dose of olive oil was given to each one who still complain- 
ed of the intolerable heat in the stomach, which gave relief. The lan- 
guor, disposition to sleep, and irregular muscular movements were one, 
two, and three days in disappearing. The perceptions of some were so 
much impaired that they were unconscious of all the transactions of 

twenty-four hours, and at first wandered about the wood, entirely at fault, 
6 



48 Editorial [Nov. 

The honey was taken from the tree that day, clear and good in appear- 
ance ; the comb was of various ages, apparently several years old, and, 
of this season's production. The patients ate indiscriminately (as they 
reported) of all parts, swallowing both comb and honey. The man who 
died, had eaten but moderately ; some of the children partook freely and 
escaped entirely. The effects were not in proportion to the quantity; 
and I regret that it is uncertain whether they bore any relation to the 
new or old cells, as they are but the architectural arrangements of the 
material already prepared by vegetable secretion, and might perhaps 
with more certainty contain the poison than the honey, which may pos- 
sibly be annualized and lose its virulence. The inflorescence of that lo- 
cality was of the Kalmia Angustifolia, of which the quantity was great. 
Rhus-Toxicodendron, not so abundant, and a variety of vaccinum, known 
as poisonous to cattle, was quite profuse. Not any of the animals there, 
to the best of my information, bear a bad reputation. It is a curious in- 
quiry in these cases, whether those who escaped owe it to idiosyncracy, 
or to not having eaten poisonous portions. It were almost too much to 
ascribe to a peculiarity of constitution ; but when we consider the great 
quantity eaten by some of the party, producing only an acrid heat in the 
mouth and fauces, the certainty with which new honey will cause cholic 
in some, without affecting others, we are nearly constrained to the belief. 
A quantity of the article has been left with a chemical friend to analyze, 
and if the result prove interesting it may be hereafter reported. 
Pemberton, Oct. 1852. 



EDITORIAL. 



The Approaching Annual Meeting. 

It has been suggested to us from one or two sources, to call the atten- 
tion of the profession throughout the state, to the fact that our 
Annual Meetings ought to sit longer than one day. By the time 
the delegates all get together, it is nearly noon; then a recess of 
at least an hour must be had to dine — and but a very short time left in 
the afternoon, before probably one half of the whole number present, feel 
that they must leave for home, because there is not enough of interest to 
induce them to remain till the following day. The President's Address 
is hurried over, and the Reports of Committees scarcely read, when the 



1852.] Editorial 49 

hour comes for adjournment. Ought it not to be differently ? We pre- 
sent the suggestion to our readers for consideration. 

Books Received. 
We have received the following books, though too late to be noticed in 
this number — Neligan on Diseases of the skin — Wilson on Syphilis — - 
Simon's General Pathology — Physicians Visiting List. 

Proceedings of Medical Societies. 

Most of the District Medical Societies hold their annual or semi-annu- 
al meetings at this season of the year, and we hope the Secretaries will 
furnish us with reports of the proceedings, together with any papers of 
interest that may have been read. 

The Semi- Annual Meeting of the District Medical Society for the Coun- 
ty of Burlington, was held at the house of Richard C. Humphreys, at Mount 
Holly, Oct. 19, 1852. Dr. Coleman, Pres't., in the Chair. Members 
present — Dr. Butler, V. P., Dr. Gauntt, Sec, Dr. Stratton, Dr. Heintzel- 
man, Dr. Longstreet, Dr. Elwell, Dr. Young, Dr. Z. Read, Dr. A. Reid, 
Dr. Parrish. 

The Minutes of the last meeting were read and adopted. 

The Chorographical committee reported progress, and were continued. 

Dr. Stratton proposed Dr. W. H. Worthington, of Mount Holly, for 
membership. Dr. Butler proposed Dr. W. L. Martin, of Rancocas, for 
membership. 

Dr. Coleman, the President, read an essay on the poisoning effects of 
honey, illustrated by several cases. 

The 10th Article of the Constitution which was proposed to be altered, 
was read, discussed, and amended as follows — 

Article 10th of the Constitution shall read — The District Medical Socie- 
ty of Burlington County shall meet quarterly, viz : on the second Tues- 
day in April — second Tuesday in July — second Tuesday in October, and 
second Tuesday in January. The last shall be the Annual Meeting. 

Dr. B. H. Stratton, one of the delegates appointed to attend the Na- 
tional Convention, at Richmond, Va., reported, that he experienced much 
pleasure in the discharge of that duty, and referred the society to the 
published reports for the full proceedings of the Convention. 

The Vice-President, Dr. Butler, read an essay, for which the thanks 
of the Society were returned, with a desire to have it published — also, 
requesting him to continue the subject. 

The following resolution was adopted : — 

Resolved, That the delegation to represent this Society at the Annual 
Meeting of the State Medical Society, at Trenton, in January next, be 
a committee to present the subject of Sanitary Reform to the considera- 
tion of the Society. 

Adjourned to meet on the second Tuesday in January, 1853. 

F. Gauntt, Sec'y. 



50 Editorial. [Nov. 

Mercer County Medical Society. — At the last quarterly meeting of the 
Mercer County Medical Society, held the 19th of October, Dr. J. B. 
Coleman read an essay on the " influence of the direct rays of the snn 
upon organized nature, and their effect upon health and disease." Dr. 
Woolverton read an article on "Alum, as a remedy in Croup," which 
occasioned considerable discussion. Dr. J. H. Phillips, of Pennington, 
produced a written synopsis of the common symptoms of Asiatic Cholera, 
with the treatment usually pursued. Cholera being the subject for con- 
versation, at this meeting, much was said by the different members, and 
the conclusion, drawn from all that was advanced, was, that under all 
kinds of treatment, as far as statistics proved, the mortality is about the 
same. Dr. Clements, of Philadelphia, being present, was requested to 
take part in the discussion. His views were clearly expressed, and his 
deductions, derived from observation, and the practice of some very emi- 
nent physicians, corroborated the opinion, that a loose pathology had 
given rise to every mode of practice, and that results were nearly the 
same, in all cases, as each practitioner claimed for his particular plan, 
many cures, especially towards the end of the epidemic. 

The subject proposed for conversation at the next meeting, was " Uri- 
nary deposits." 



Miscellany. 



Dr. Samuel Annan has resigned the chair of Theory and Practice in 
the Kentucky School of Medicine and Surgery, and is succeeded by Dr. 
Thomas D. Mitchell. 

The Western Lancet, which is a very valuable and able advocate of 
unflinching professional integrity, and which recently in an editorial, 
very properly discountenanced the use of the term " Allopathy," for rea- 
sons which had been previously pointed out by one of our correspondents 
---contains a circular of several pages, headed " The Practice of Allopa- 
thy" ! We notice too that several other journals contain the same circu- 
lar. Does it pay well? 

Dr. John A. Sicett of the N. Y. Hospital, has, we learn from the IS". 
Y. Medical Gazette, been appointed Professor of Clinical Medicine in the 
College of Physicians and Surgeons in that city. An important, and 
highly creditable appointment we should think, every way. 

Prof. Valentine Mott of New York has been unanimously elected an 
Honorary Fellow of King and Queen's College of Physicians, in Dublin, 
Ireland. He is the only American upon whom this honor has been con- 
ferred by that College. 

Dr. Stephen Smith of New York, gives us in the New York Journal 
of Medicine, for September, another valuable statistical article. It is on 
Amputations at the hip joint. Of 53 cases, mentioned as occur- 
ring in European continental practice, 20 recovered — of 34 occur- 
ring in British practice, 15 recovered — and of 11 cases in Ame- 
rican practice, eight recovered. The operation has been much more 



1852.] Editorial 51 

successful of late years than formerly. All the cases in which anaes- 
thetics were employed were successful. Of the several methods of per- 
forming the operation, " that of the double flap has been much the most 
frequently practiced, formerly with internal and external, but latterly 
with anterior and posterior flaps. * * * * In all the successful 
cases, where the details of the operation have been given, this method 
has, with a single exception, been followed." 

Yellow fever has been prevailing for some time, in Charleston, S. C, 
the deaths varying from 10 to 20 a day. It prevails also in New 
Orleans, and some of the other Southern cities. 

Rochester, New York, having a population of 36,403, has been visited, 
during the past season, with an unusual amount of sickness. In the last 
six months the number of deaths has been 979, of which 454 were from 
Cholera ! 

OBITUARY. 

Died — In Paterson, in this State, recently, Charles G. Adams Jr., 
M. D., son of C. Gr. Adams, M. D., of Massachusetts. 

— Recently in G-ermany, Mr. Herbert Mayo, author of several works 
principally on Physiology. He had of late years advocated the dogmas 
of mesmerism and hydropathy. 

— In Edinburgh, on the 12th of May last, suddenly of disease of the 
heart, set. 49 William Thompson, M. D., Professor of Medicine in the 
University of Glasgow, and author of " A Treatise on Diseases of the 
Liver," &c. 

— In Paris, recently, of pulmonary apoplexy, Prof. Recamier set. 77. 



ECLECTIC AND SUMMARY DEPARTMENT. 



Thoughts on Chloroform, by C. R. GriLMAN, M. D., Professor of Obstet- 
rics, &c, College of Physicians and Surgeons, New York. 

If any apology is needed for him who attempts to interest the profes- 
sion on the hackneyed theme of chloroform, it must be found in my case, 
in the deep feeling of responsibility which attaches to a public teacher, 
who is compelled by the results of his own experience to commend, and 
that earnestly, to his pupils, and thus, according to the measure of his 
influence, to extend the use of this agent, and yet can hardly open a 
medical periodical without learning that another and another and anoth- 
er life has been sacrificed to such use. 

Is it to be expected — is it to be desired that such an one should turn 
from these harrowing narratives, and, satisfied that he has had no direct 
personal share in such horrors, dismiss the subject from his thoughts ? 
Is not such an one to be pardoned if over zeal induce him to be " instant 



52 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Nov. 

in season and out of season" in his efforts to prevent such deeds of 
death ? Yet, how prevent them ? Shall we banish anaesthetics from our 
materia medica — proscribe their use ? Plainly, this is impossible. — We 
cannot and xoitt not give up the use of an agent which in our hands re- 
lieves suffering, cures disease, saves life — as we know chloroform does — 
because other men abuse it. Nobody expects us to do this with the for- 
ceps ; and yet how often is health, and even life sacrificed by the careless 
abuse of the forceps ! We must continue, then, to use, and those of us 
who are public teachers must continue to commend them. This, in the 
lecture room, is easy. There is no difficulty in there teaching the use, 
and guarding against the abuse of anaesthetics : the rules are well settled. 
But who can assure us that, be we ever so careful, be our commendations 
ever so guarded, our influence may not be for evil in this matter ? Even 
among our hearers, some may remember the commendation, and forget 
the cautions ; and if the story chance to pass from mouth to mouth, what 
chance is there that more will be repeated than that Doctor this or Pro- 
fessor that recommended chloroform? Such are the reflections that have 
induced me to ask a place in your journal for a few thoughts on chloro- 
form. 

I shall say nothing in detail in favor of the practice, and therefore, 
perhaps, ought to premise that my confidence in its powers is undimin- 
ished, the number of cases in which I use it enlarges every day. Thus 
much for the bright, but my present business is with the dark side of the 
picture. First, then, let me state very briefly a case, which, as I sup- 
pose, throws some light on the varying degree in which it operates on 
different individuals. Mrs. J. was taken in labor early in the morning, 
January 17, 1852,— the child was born in a few hours, but almost im- 
mediately afterward the patient had severe convulsions. She was freely 
bled, had an enema, cold to the head, &c. I saw her, in consultation, 
about three hours after the first fit ; the convulsions were slight, patient 
very restless, consciousness mil. I thought it a case for chloroform, and 
the drug was sent for. During the absence of the messenger, a more 
careful examination of the pulse convinced me that she would bear more 
bleeding — the pulse, as I had anticipated rose, and more than two pints 
were taken. Just as we were bandaging the arm, the chloroform was 
received, and at once administered. I gave it cautiously, my finger on 
the pulse, with no attempt to overwhelm the sensibility — a thing I never 
do ', yet, when the patient had taken four deep inspirations, the pulse 
fluttered — staggered — stopped. A dash of cold water, a few puffs in the 
face, and she gasped, her pulse staggered on — became regular, and all 
was well. Here the frightful symptoms were doubtless owing to the ra- 
pid absorption of the chloroform, consequent upon the profuse bleeding — 
the empty vessels were " all agape/' and every particle of chloroform 
was eagerly caught up. This influence of blood-letting in absorption is 
well known, yet I do not remember to have seen it alluded to in this con- 
nection. Its obvious importance will strike every one. It should lead 
the obstetrician to double caution in the use of anaesthetics where flooding 
has occurred, and the surgeon, in all bloody operations; especially if 
these latter are protracted, absorption will be rapid, and danger propor- 
tionally great. 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 53 

Thus much for a particular point ; now let me offer a few suggestions 
on the great end and aim of this paper : How to diminish the clanger. 
And, in the first place, let me urge on all who have not practical famil- 
iarity with the course and symptoms of anesthesia, to use ether — sulphu- 
ric ether, I mean, for I verily believe that chloric ether is worse than 
chloroform ; it is more likely to he used freely, i. e., carelessly; and thus 
used, it will hill. Use then sulphuric ether till you are at home in anes- 
thetics, yet, even then, beware lest this advantage lead you to careless- 
ness with chloroform — carelessness is death. But it is not beginners only 
who should prefer ether. — The state of the patient may render one or the 
other preferable. 

Without going into detail, I should say that exhaustion and prostra- 
tion call for ether — great nervous excitement and vascular activity, 
chloroform. 

Now, as to the extent to which the drug should be carried. Here 1 
find myself at issue with the great mass of the surgeons. They all — all 
at least of whose doings I am cognizant, carry anesthesia to the complete 
abolition of sensation. Is not this attempting too much ? Never in na- 
tural labor, and very rarely in obstetric operations, do I go beyond a de- 
cided benumbing of sensibility. This may or may not be attended with 
loss of consciousness, for there is certainly no regular order of succession, 
or at least no invariable order observed. I have seen consciousness per- 
fect and sensibility entirely gone, and vice versa. The rule then should 
be, go always beyond the stage of excitement ; till this is passed nothing 
can be done ; but as soon as it is passed, pause, and arrest the process 
always short of stertor. 

Such I believe to be the true practice in obstetrics, and under it no 
fatal case has occurred. 

Now, may not the surgeons profit by our good and their evil fortune, 
and stop short of the deep, dangerous state of anesthesia, into which they 
now plunge their patients ? Something ought, nay, something must be 
done to prevent these ever recurring deaths from anesthesia ; and it does 
seem to me that those who can guide and control surgical opinion, ought 
to be willing to sacrifice the advantages of complete insensibility, that 
others may not jeopardize life. It is very true that one who has very 
large experience may again and again crowd patients down into deep 
snoring anesthesia, and yet no harm come of it ; but if he do it, the man 
of less knowledge and of narrower experience will do the same thing, and 
death to the patient and disgrace to the practitioner be the disastrous 
result. 

There is another idea on this subject which presses upon my mind 
when I read those terrible cases, so strongly that I must give it utterance; 
and I hope that the thoughtful members of the profession, who feel as we 
all ought to feel, that nothing should be neglected that may by possibili- 
ty free the skirts of the profession from the deep disgrace of these repeat- 
ed deaths by chloroform, will not reject my proposition till they have 
well considered it. It is my deliberate opinion that, in every case of 
death from chloroform, the whole history of the case ought to be fully 
and impartially investigated by a Coroner's jury. I know and feel the 



54 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Nov. 

objections to this course* I know that it may— -nay, that it must fall 
occasionally with crushing force upon a brother practitioner, who may be 
entirely innocent of negligence or rashness — still I say it ought to be 
done. Let it fall where it may, the thing ought to be done. It will be 
a terror to evil doers, it will restrain the rash, it will punish the guilty \ and 
that there has been fearful rashness and deep guilt in some of these cases, 
no man who has used chloroform often can doubt. If in every case the 
inexperienced would use ether ; if, when chloroform was ventured on, a 
competent person had his fingers on the pulse, and his undivided atten- 
tion fixed on the anesthetic state of the patient, who believes that the 
fatal cases would have occurred ? / do not ! If, then, these precautions 
are neglected, is not such neglect criminal ? I believe it is, and that the 
profession owe it to themselves to have the question of guilt or innocence 
impartially investigated. The time will soon come, when, if we do noth- 
ing, the public will demand this in every case. It is better that the pro- 
fession propose, than that they be hereafter forced to submit to such in- 
vestigations. — Medical Times. 



Milk Sickness. By I. S. Swan, M. D., of Henderson, Ky. — In re- 
lation to the origin of this disease, I have nothing to say — for the best 
of reasons, that I know nothing which is satisfactory on that point. 
The disease is readily recognized in localities where it is found, by the 
distressing and obstinate vomiting, in all acute cases, and an odor pecu- 
liar to those suffering from iti Chronic cases may be known by nausea^ 
a sluggish state of the bowels, and an indisposition or inability to move 
about. The " Tires/' so called by the people, I deem a very appropriate 
name for this form of the disease* 

My present purpose is mainly to present to the readers of your valua* 
ble journal, a mode of treatment I have found almost invariably success- 
ful, after an experience of more than twenty years ; in fact, I am not 
aware of any case in which it has failed. In acute cases, I give calomel 
in doses of ten to thirty grains, made into pills with soft bread, which 
are allowed to dry. This is followed in a few hours by a cup-full of an 
infusion of senna, containing epsom or giauber salts in solution, after 
each spell of vomiting* At the same time, a folded cloth, wet with wa- 
ter, should be applied to the throat, and also to the stomach, provided 
there is more than a natural heat of the epigastrium. If there is not, or 
the temperature is reduced, a mustard plaster may be more appropriate. 
Instead of the senna and salts, I sometimes use the Seidlitz powders, or 
a mixture of cream of tartar and jalap. I do not, however, attach any 
specific effect to these articles, beyond their purgative qualities, and they 
are preferred on account of the certainty of their operation. Stimulating 
enemeta are often useful in hastening purgation. In very severe cases 
the abdomen should be vesicated with cantharides, or irritated by some 
other effective means, for the purpose of allaying, in some measure, the 
vomiting. I have very rarely produced salivation, and when the result 
is to be apprehended, it may be prevented by exhibiting small portions 
of the supercarbonate of potash, or saleratus, which is generally found in 
every house* 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 55 

In regard to the use of opium, I speak only to express my decided dis- 
approbation of its use. The torpor of the liver, and stubborn constipa- 
tion of the bowels, are aggravated by it, although it may sometimes tran- 
quilize the stomach, and produce a little momentary relief in that way. 

In chronic cases the treatment does not vary essentially. As a purga- 
tive, I generally use a pill of calomel, aloes and rhubarb, which I. some- 
times follow with a saline cathartic, for the purpose of hastening an 
evacuation of the bowels. In all cases I consider that the administration 
of a purgative is necessary, that will ^stimulate the liver to secretion, and 
evacuate the bowels freely ; so as not only to restore the natural function, 
but, at the same time, to eliminate the noxious poison from the system. 
Western Lancet. 



Three Cases of Tape Worm. By Henry S. Patterson, M. D., Pro- 
fessor of Materia Medica and Therapeutics in Pennsylvania Medical 
College. 

Case I. Successful use of Kwosso.— -Miss W., set. 22 years, consult- 
ed me in March, 1851, with tape-worm. She had been in failing health 
for several months, with headache, languor, variable appetite, nausea, and 
abdominal pains, but had not sought medical advice. Having taken a 
dose of citrate of magnesia, she observed in her discharges something 
peculiar, which proved to be joints of tsenium. As I was at that time 
expecting some kwosso from Europe, I postponed treatment until it should 
arrive. Early in April it came, and was administered during my ab- 
sence from the city by my friend Dr. Gilbert. He gave the dose (5>vj.) 
at once, the patient having fasted from the previous day. It excited 
some nausea but no vomiting. It was followed, in a few hours, by a 
dose of castor oil, which brought away a tape-worm several yards in length, 
but which unfortunately was not preserved for more minute examination. 
There can be no doubt, however, that the entire worm was expelled, as 
the patient rapidly convalesced, and has been in the enjoyment of unin- 
terrupted health since that period. 

Case II. Failure of Kioosso. Successful use of Pumpkin seeds. — 
The subject of this case was for some time under my care, in consulta- 
tion with my colleague, Dr. Darrach. I can aver that he was most tho- 
roughly put through the entire routine of tape-worm remedies, before he 
left Philadelphia. He tells his own story so well, that I prefer to give 
the following extract from a letter announcing his restoration to health. 
" In the early part of January, 1836, I was rather suddenly attacked 
with what seemed to be an alarming diarrhoea, which continued for some 
weeks, resisting the usual remedies. My symptoms had been peculiar 
for some time previous to the attack. Indeed I had all the prominent 
symptoms of taenia as laid down in the books : viz., dizziness; occasional 
false vision ; variable appetite ; pain in the lumbar region ; pain in the 
knee-joint; swelling of the abdomen; hesitancy of speech; restlessness 
in time of sleep ; unusual drowsiness during the day ; varying strength, 
being sometimes quite strong and then quite feeble. Somewhere about 
the middle of February of the same year I discharged, at a morning 
7 



56 Eclectic and Summary Department, [Nov. 

stool ; about nine yards of the taenia. From that time onward, for six 
years, I was more or less under medical treatment continuously. I took 
vast quantities of the spts. turpentine, (once or twice two ounces at the 
dose,) also the malefern, calomel and jalap, and Jayne's vermifuge ; and 
was several times under hoinoepathic treatment. I took also iodide of 
potassium, iodide of iron, decoction of pomegranate, and the ' kousso/ I 
discharged large quantities of the worm, but no head could be perceived. 
When the kousso failed, I began to despair of being cured at all, but my 

sister, Mrs. -, sent me in December last two numbers of the Boston 

Medical and Surgical Journal, containing two several accounts of the 
cure of taenia by the use of pumpkin-seeds. Having previously abstained 
from usual food for a day, on the 10 th of January last I took, at 8 
o'clock in the morning, two ounces of the kernels of pumpkin seeds pul- 
verized with two tablespoonfuls of white sugar, and commingled with a 
half pint of boiling water, making a very pleasant drink for a fasting 
man. I kept my bed, drinking frequently of cold water, and at 9^ 
o'clock I took an ounce of castor oil. At 10 J I drank a cup of hot black 
tea, and, in about two minutes, discharged about eight yards of the tape- 
worm, with the head. 0, how I wept for joy that I was again a free 
man, after a servitude of six sad years to this awful complaint. Since 
then, I feel like a new being in a new world. My life had often been a 
weary burden, and yet I grew fleshy and looked healthful. For months 
in succession I had discharged the worm daily in pieces of six to eighteen 
inches, and also in gourd-seed form. I suppose that, without any over- 
estimate, I discharged during the six years of my affliction about four 
hundred yards ! The remedy is very simple. Were I a practising phy- 
sician I would never administer the turpentine for tape worm ; I some- 
times fear that I have experienced irretrievable harm to my kidneys from 
using it. There is virtue in pumpkin seeds, doctor, even if it be a 
Yankee notion" 

Case III. Successful use of Xanihoxylon fraxineum. — For the fol- 
lowing curious case I am indebted to my friend Dr. Thomas J. Turner, 
of Port Richmond. J. R. set. 41 years, is a workman in a chemical 
laboratory. In December 1847, whilst a private in the British army 
in Ireland, he first perceived that he was afflicted with tape-worm. 
He states that he passed fifteen to twenty joints at almost every stool for 
a time, and on several occasions as much as thirty feet at once. The 
surgeon of his regiment treated him with 01. Terebinth, f. 3j. every other 
day. He also took tin-powder, malefern root, and " every other article 
he ever heard of." He finally abandoned the hope of a radical cure. 
The symptoms most prominent was a sense of gnawing and beating at 
the epigastrium in the morning. He was obliged to eat before rising, as 
he otherwise became faint, and "had all sorts of queer feelings." His 
appetite was insatiable. While at Port Richmond in the autumn of last 
year, he was attacked with tertian intermittent fever, for which he was 
recommended to take an infusion of prickly ash bark in brandy, a popu- 
lar domestic remedy. He digested an ounce of the bark in a pint of 
brandy, and drank the whole during the apyrexia. The result was a 



1852,] Eclectic and Summary Department 57 

most copious diaphoresis, as usual, and also some purgation, bringing 
away the entire worm. He has remained perfectly well since. — Medical 
Examiner. 

Cause of Idiocy in Massachusetts. — One of the Boston papers has the 
following paragraph : 

" Dr. Howe has examined carefully almost the entire number of cases 
of idiocy known to exist in Massachusetts, and the result is that in all 
but four instances, he found the parents of these idiots were intemperate, 
addicted to sensual vices, scrofulous, predisposed to insanity, or had in- 
termarried with blood relations." — Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. 

Extraordinary Fecundity. — A Belgian paper states that a woman, 
thirty-three years of age, is now living at Liege, who affords an astonish- 
ing example of fecundity. She was lately confined of triplets, who are 
respectively her twenty-second, twenty-third, and twenty-fourth children. 
She has thus had, during nine years of married life, twenty-four chil- 
dren; all in good health, and of the female sex. — London Lancet. 

Treatment of Uterine Debility. By ARIEL HuNTON, M. D. — T 
shall in this paper describe Uterine Debility, in a plain and familiar 
manner. The pathology is so Protean and complicated, that it is fre- 
quently difficult to determine where to commence operations, I have 
never met with a just description of the above disease, or series of dis- 
eases in any medical work ; some of the symptoms may be well defined, 
and proper measures recommended, but nothing further. 

It therefore having been a source of perplexity to me, I made 
its pathology and curative plan my study for years, and sought informa- 
tion of my senior professional friends, and gained valuable instruction 
from many. I have devised a plan of treatment, which, I trust, will be 
of service to the profession ) it has proved useful to me or my patients 
for nearly thirty years, and occupied my mind nearly ten years, before 
my plan was matured. 

If a lady with a pale, sallow countenance, of a peculiar aspect, which 
I shall not attempt to describe, but easily recognized by observation, 
consults me, I think her laboring under the disease in consideration, or 
of some of its complications. We usually examine the pulse, and whether 
we can divine any useful inference or not, we find it accelerated. 

Active and passive, or acute and chronic inflammation, are terms of 
nice distinction, but must be used to convey ideas of disease, or abnormal 
pathology. I would interrogate my patient thus : Have you a pain in 
your back and bowels, through you, a heavy bearing down pain ? Yes. 
Is there a heat in the bowels, in the genitals, and a tenderness in the 
vagina ? Yes. Is there an intolerable itching within the labia ? This 
is not a constant attendant. When you urinate, is there scalding and 
burning, with an insufferable anguish : the urine high colored, and the 
calls frequent and urgent ? Yes. Are you troubled with the whites ? 

The examiner may if he pleases, use the terms leuchorrcea and pruri- 
tus, but they will require an explanation, and I am in the habit of using 



58 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Nov. 

language which is intelligible to my patient. I would next ask her, if 
she had a faint, gone, or sinking sensation at the pit of the stomach, a 
distress ; to which she will reply, that she usually does. Females afflicted 
with this disease, frequently have an irritation of the spine, upon which 
they may be consulted. There is frequently a tenderness and enlarge- 
ment of the os and cervix uteri, and which cannot be ascertained but by 
an examination ; the parts are usually found prolapsed, the os tender, 
and apparently studded with tubercles or tumours. All these ailments 
are not present in every case, there being occasionally others, the most 
frequent being a dragging pain between the ilii, and ribs, extending 
down to the groin or thigh. The heat of the vagina, uterus, &c, is com- 
municated to the rectum, and costiveness is present as well as hemor- 
rhoids ; the first should be obviated by injections, if the liver is not im- 
plicated. 

The nervous system is very sensitive, and from the heat and irritation 
of the genito-urinary organs, the urine is high colored and ichorous, the 
patient cannot retain it, being compelled to micturate frequently and with 
great distress ; and before this has entirely subsided, nature calls again 
for some evacuation. 

The cause of this disease in the majority of cases, is from puerperal 
women leaving their bed, and attending to domestic affairs too soon after 
confinement. The relaxed state of the vagina can be imagined, and there 
is nothing to prevent the womb from sliding into the passage, there to 
remain a source of irritation and pain. My directions to child-bed women 
are, uniformly, as soon as they are removed to bed to pin a towel or some 
substitute around the abdomen, to support the hips, bowels, and back, 
and as a preventive of the disease, by keeping the uterus in place ; they 
are further directed to tighten the bandage as the abdomen subsides, 
wearing it at least three weeks, or until the restoration of the pristine 
vigor. Were these precautions strictly adhered to, they would greatly 
diminish the number of cases of uterine debility. Where there is no 
prominence of the abdomen, and the bandage affords no support to the 
bowels, I direct folds^of linen to be laid on the abdomen and pubic legion, 
and to sew straps on the lumbar portion of the bandage, bringing them 
under the perineum and pinning them over the pubis, with a wad of rags 
placed in the perineum, so that in the sitting posture the parts may de- 
rive proper support ; or, one of the thousand-and-one supporters in vogue 
may be applied. There are other symptoms frequently present, the re- 
medies for which will suggest themselves to the attentive practitioner. 

The Remedies. — Although, in the affection under consideration there 
is febrile action, frequency of pulse, and irritation in the pelvis and 
neighboring parts, the extremities are usually cold, and the patient fre- 
quently requires her room to be heated above the healthy standard. The 
circulation must be equalized, and the nervous irritation or chronic in- 
flammation abated, this is a sine qua non, a term I would not employ 
could I substitute a more appropriate one, for I do not wish to be pedan- 
tic. In all cases where we discover debility and a low quick pulse, a 
tonic is required and used by most practitioners, perhaps some vegetable 
stimulating bitters ; and ; how often have not several of my readers been 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 59 

foiled — your prescription made the patient worse, yon are informed, the 
medicine could not Be taken, and you have to regret that you did not 
understand the case. 

Reduce the heat and irritation in the first place, if it require an anti- 
phlogistic course. To equalize the circulation, and to direct the blood to 
the extremities, give an emetic of Lobelia, and the Nitro-nrariatic acid 
bath for the hands and feet. As an evacuant, soothing and cooling in- 
jections per anum et vaginam; if the liver is gorged, colomel or blue pill 
according to circumstances. The next class of remedies is refrigerating 
diuretics, such as Had. Asclepias Syriaca, or Gum arabic, with one scru- 
ple of Nit. Pot., to the half pound of the infusion or solution, a wine glass- 
ful every hour, or half hour, or in such other quantity as the stomach 
will bear, and to be continued until the strangury is removed, and the 
urine becomes limpid. Dissolve half a drachm of Nit. Potas. in one pint 
of water, wet several thicknesses of cloth in this solution, and apply them 
to the pubic region, this will aid much in reducing the heat and irrita- 
tion in the pelvis. Some nervine or narcotic, or both may be given to 
assist in quieting the nervous irritation, and prepare the system for a 
tonic course. As a nervine, I use the Clematis Virginica in infusion, 
which is a good substitute for foreign drugs, and I am particularly fond 
of indigenous remedies. To correct the tenderness of the vagina and os 
uteri, I use an ointment composed of narcotic and mucilaginous vegeta- 
bles known as the " Kittredge Ointment ;" it relieves promptly, and I 
would give the formula if desired by the profession. 

When the heat and irritation are removed or partially so, commence 
the exhibition of tonics of the least stimulating nature possible ; some of 
the preparations of iron are my hobby. I use a preparation similar to 
Griffith's myrrh mixture, rejecting the stimulant : — 
K. Sulphas Ferri, ") 

Carbonas Potassoe, vaa^ss; 
Gum Myrrhae, j 

Aquae, £xvj. M 

A small teaspoonful to be taken in milk or sweetened water, three times 
a day, increasing the dose as the system will tolerate the medicine. The 
best remedy I am acquainted with for the sinking sensation, or &s some 
would express it, " as if the bottom of the stomach had dropped out," a 
symptom that perplexed me for years, and which can be removed by a 
saturated tincture of the Pinus nigra in fifty per cent alcohol ; take a 
spoonful of sugar, and drop on it sufficient of the tincture to moisten it, 
and to be taken three times a day, or at any time when the sensation is 
present. 

The pain in the hypochondriac and lumbar regions may be promptly 
removed by the Tincture of Iodine, with the addition of Camphor or Cap- 
sicum as a wash, the part to be kept bathed with it until a sessation of 
heat is produced; and it will in a measure alleviate any pain when no in- 
flammation is present. The leucorrhcea is to be treated with astringent 
injections ; the pruritus can be relieved in a short time by wetting cotton 
in a solution of Borate of Soda ; and applying it within the labia ; if these 



60 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Nov. 

parts arc examined, they will be found covered with a thrush, the sensa- 
tion of which is highly disagreeable. Where the uterus is much pro- 
lapsed, I have occasionally derived some benefit by the use of a pessary, 
but have not that exalted opinion of the instrument some writers have. 
After the above course has been pursued for some time, and the heat and 
irritation have been subdued, the vegetable tonics may be used with ad- 
vantage. 

I have pursued the above plan of treatment for thirty years with good 
success, though I cannot say that it will prove the same in other hands. 
If any one derives benefit from my suggestions, I shall deem myself am- 
ply remunerated for my labor. — Northern Lancet, 1851. 

Extent of Professional Obligations. — By the following report of a case 
recently before the public in England, we gain an idea of the views of 
the people of that country in regard to the responsibility attached to one 
class of professional duties, which it may be proper to have defined in the 
United States. 

" Mr. Bourne, a surgeon practising at Wellon, near Bath, was tried at 
Wells Assizes for the manslaughter of Ann Noakes, who died, on the 
21st of June, in consequence of excessive haemorrhage after a very dim- 
cult delivery. The case was one of " arm presentation." Mr. Bourne 
was called in because the poor woman had not an order on the parish- 
doctor ; he attended her for nine hours, but left the house at four in the 
morning, to go to the assistance of a farmer's wife named Parker, to 
whom he was engaged. The cardinal point of the trial was, practically, 
the question whether Mr. Bourne was justified in leaving Ann Noakes in 
the hands of midwives at a critical stage of her trouble. Before he de- 
parted, however, he told the women that they must instantly send for 
Mr. Marsh, the parish-doctor. Mr. Marsh lived six miles distant, and 
could not reach Wellon until six o'clock ; thus leaving her in great dan- 
ger for two hours. Mr. Marsh accomplished the delivery with instru- 
ments, and the woman died with excessive hoemorrhage. Evidence was 
taken to show that Mrs. Parker, the woman to attend whom Mr. Bourne 
left Ann Noakes, was in great danger; and it was shown that although 
Mrs. Parker was delivered at half-past four, Mr. Bourne was obliged to 
remain with her until half-past six. Two medical men were examined 
upon the point, as to whether it was dangerous to leave the patient for an 
hour ; and both decided that by all ordinary calculations it was not. 
One thought that a surgeon ought not to leave one patient whose life was 
in danger, to attend another to whom he was engaged. They also 
thought that a patient ought not to be removed for less than one hour 
after delivery. Some evidence was brought to show that Mr. Bourne 
was a kind man and well spoken of by the poor. The Jury returned a 
a verdict of ' Not guilty/ and the audience applauded." — Boston Med. 
and Surg. Journal. 

On the Diagnosis of Fractured Ribs. By John Hilton, Esq., f.r.s. 
-^Lancet, March 13, 1852. — [The following simple rules for diagnosis 
in cases of suspected fracture of the ribs, occur in a clinical lecture upon 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 61 

the subject, delivered at Guy's Hospital. In such cases, Mr. Hilton ob- 
serves :] 

1. There may be external ecchymosis, but this symptom may he en- 
tirely absent. 2. Sharp pain in a determinate locality on full inspira- 
tion ; this pain is sometimes intense, and the constancy with which it is 
met with in different cases gives much importance to the symptom. The 
pain is caused by the compression of the intercostal nerve at the ends of 
the fractured rib on a strong inspiration, ordinary breathing giving little 
or no uneasiness ; according as the direction of the fracture leads to the 
compression of the nerve, or to no such structural complication, so will 
there be more or less pain. Hence the reason why some patients suffer 
a great deal, and others but little pain. This association of pain is not 
peculiar to rib fractures. The same thing occurs in fracture of the ana- 
tomical neck of the humerus, which lesion may and does frequently cause 
compression and irritation of the circumflex nerve ; the latter being for- 
cibly caught or drawn between the fractured ends of the bone, produces 
intense pain at the part. 3. By placing your hand upon the sternum, 
you may feel crepitation as the breathing goes on — nay, the patient some- 
times hears and feels it himself. 4. Great tenderness over a certain sus- 
pected spot is a sympton upon which great reliance cannot be placed. It 
is better to press forcibly upon one rib after the other near the sternum, 
during inspiration, from above downwards. With some attention you 
will thus be able to detect the broken rib by resisting the elevation of its 
sternal end whilst its vertebral extremity is in motion, and a further ex- 
amination of the individual rib discovers the exact seat of the fracture. 
5. You may be much assisted in your diagnosis by using auscultation, 
either with the stethoscope or the naked ear; the fine grating of the 
bones may sometimes be distinctly heard in this manner. 

But, if in spite of careful examination, you cannot find any or all these 
symptoms, remember that it is far better to treat obscure and doubtful 
cases as if fracture of the ribs had been detected ; you will err, if at all, 
on the safe side, and the therapeutical means necessary are so simple 
that you cannot possibly do your patient any harm. — Ranking 's Abstract. 

Treatment of JJn-united Fracture of the Patella. By M. Bonnet. — 
Revue Medico- Chirurgical, Nov. 1851. — Fractures of the patella some- 
times fail in becoming consolidated, but are united by ligamentous tissue, 
which is incompetent to sustain the necessary movements of the knee- 
joint. A case of this kind is recorded by M. Bonnet, in which he ob- 
tained bony union by a peculiar process, which, together with section of 
the triceps muscle, is thus narrated : 

The subject of this case was a vigorous man, aged 44, who had been 
treated for fracture of the patella in the usual manner, without inducing 
consolidation. He therefore entered the Hotel Dieu of Lyons, under the 
care of M. Bonnet, who considered that some amelioration, at least might 
be accomplished by section of the triceps, and after scarifying the ends of 
the bones, keeping them in contact by clamps, as suggested by M. Mai- 
gaigne. 

Accordingly, M. Bonnet commenced by subcutaneous section of the 



62 Eclectic and Stimmary Department. [Nov. 

triceps, a few lines above the upper fragment. This allowed the descent 
of the fragment, which, together with the lower portion of the bone, was 
scarified by two other subcutaneous punctures; and the limb was then 
put in appropriate splints, with the heel elevated. For the first few days 
there was some swelling of the joint; but the inflamation speedily subsid- 
ed, and M. Bonnet proceeded to complete the operation by inserting 
small screws into each fragment, and causing these to be brought togeth- 
er^ and retained in apposition by waxed thread. The screws are said to 
have remained forty days without producing any other unpleasant effects 
than some hydrarthrosis. The result was highly satisfactory, the frag- 
ments being brought nearly into apposition, and the uniting tissue being 
sufficiently resisting to allow of active use of the limb. — Banking's Ab- 
stract, i 



On Diarrhoea of Infancy. By Dr. Kunzmann. — London Journal 
of Medicine, March, 1852. — Dr. Kunzmann, of Lowenburg, in an article 
published in the "Journal fiir Kinderkrankheiten," for September and 
October 1851, states that he has arrived at the following conclusions : — 

1. Cases of diarrhoea in children are to be divided into sporadic and 
epidemic. 

2. Sporadic diarrhoea arises from various causes, chiefly from such as 
give rise to irritation or inflammation of some part of the mucous mem- 
brane of the intestinal canal. 

3. The treatment of sporadic diarrhoea depends on the causes, which 
must be removed, on the amount of inflammation present, and on the 
amount of exhaustion which the child has suffered. Special rules cannot 
be laid down, as the cases vary much ; and it will depend much on the 
sagacity of the physician to determine whether he is to use emetics or 
purgatives ; leeches or fomentations ; natural salts or emulsives ; astrin- 
gents, stimulants, or opiates. 

4. Epidemic diarrhoea in children occurs under two principal forms — 
dysenteric (enterocolitis, enteritis) and choleriform, (diarrhoea cholera- 
formis, cholera infantum?) Less marked cases sometimes occur,, and 
sometimes appear as mild as diarrhoea, sometimes as mild gastro-enteritis 
or colitis, sometimes as diarrhoea with typhoid symptoms. 

The treatment of these epidemic forms must be much more decided 
than that of the sporadic, inasmuch as the type is more strongly defined. 

Dr. Kunzmann has had opportunities of witnessing an epidemic of 
each form of diarrhoea — the dysenteric and the choleroid ; and he de- 
scribes the symptoms which he observed in each form ; these, however, 
will be understood from the designations. The dysenteric form attacked 
children from three years old to ten ; the choleroid, children from five 
months to ten years. 

Treatment. — In the dysenteric diarrhoea, Dr. Kunzmann found no 
indications for bloodletting ; not even where there was active fever, 
great tenderness of the abdomen, severe colic, and tenesmus, did he deem 
it proper or advantageous to apply leeches. In very severe tenesmus, he 
used clysters, first of lukewarm water, then of cold water. As an inter- 
nal remedy, he gave at first small doses of castor-oil; and, when 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 63 

there was very active fever, hot skin, and very severe pain in the abdo- 
men, he alternated this with small doses of calomel, with carbonate of 
magnesia and gum. When the inflammation has somewhat lessened, 
and when the skin was cooler and the dejections less copious, he found 
carbonate of magnesia, with bismuth and charcoal, very useful. To a 
child from three to five years old, he gave gr. j or gr. ij of bismuth, gr. 
iv or gr. v of carbonate of magnesia, and the same quantity of charcoal 
of poplar wood every three or four hours. Sponges dipped in cold water 
were also applied to the anal region. With these remedies, he obtained 
favorable results. 

In the choleriform diarrhoea, observed last summer, the treatment was 
more difficult. Sometimes the vomiting was so violent, and the children 
collapsed so rapidly, that there was no time for medicine. Happily, 
these cases were the exceptions. When the tongue was loaded, and there 
appeared to be a bad taste in the mouth, emetics of ipecacuanha with 
oxymel of squills were very useful. In other cases Dr. Kunzmann gave 
moderate doses of carbonate of soda : and he has a very high opinion of 
this remedy. The inclination to vomit diminished, and entirely disap- 
peared ) and the dejections became feculent. After the vomiting had 
ceased, fever often supervened, with evening exacerbations. The carbo- 
nate of soda was still continued; but, in the intervals, disulphate of qui- 
nine or tincture of cinchona was administered. Dr Kunzmann gave this, 
because he believed the disease to be traceable to a malaria ; and the re- 
sults corresponded with his expectations. — Ranking' 's Abstract. 



On Uterine Hemorrhage. By George King, Esq., Bath. — Prov. 
Med. and Surg. Journal, March 31, 1852. — The object of this commu- 
nication is to direct attention to internal uterine hemorrhage, and to 
bring to notice a few cases that have recently occurred in the author's 
own practice. This passive or insidious hemorrhage going on within the 
cavity of the uterus, whether during pregnancy, at the time of labour, or 
after the contents of the uterus were expelled, does not seem to have at- 
tracted that notice in the practice of midwifery that its importance de- 
serves. That distinguished obstetric physician, Dr. Baudelocque, some 
years since published a pamphlet, entitled "Traite des Hseniorrhagies In- 
ternes de riJterus," and the cases related by him of concealed hemorr- 
hage are highly interesting and well worth consulting. The author has 
not met with any other work entirely on the subject. In internal he- 
morrhage we do not meet with those frightful appearances or terrific 
floodings — gushing out the vital fluid until stopped by syncope, or nature 
refuses to supply more — and in this alarming condition it is well known 
that there is no time for reflection, consideration, or consultation ; all our 
skill and moral courage are at once suddenly taxed, and we must instant- 
ly act. Still internal uterine hemorrhage is equally dangerous, requiring 
all our attention and the most prompt and energetic treatment ; and al- 
though it may proceed slowly and unobserved, its effects are, neverthe- 
less, often fatal to mother and child, the latter generally. There may be 
no external sign of mischief going on, and its effects on the constitution 
8 



64 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Nov. 

are not known until repeated faintings take place, the patient "becomes 
exhausted, and the pulse almost extinct. For these distressing 
and troublesome cases our remedies are but few, and our controlling 
means very limited. Dr. Blundell remarks, in one of his lectures on this 
subject : " That it is of rare occurrence, and in the present condition of 
our knowledge scarcely admits of a remedy." This statement was made 
some years since, and there has not been any improvement in this branch 
of our practice. The use of bandages and pressure is more practised now 
than it was at the time the Doctor's lectures were published, but the au- 
thor has no confidence in them. He believes in internal hemorrhage this 
kind of treatment does more harm than good. 

The following plan of applying pressure in cases of internal or exter- 
nal hemorrhage is recommenced in a recent volume of the " Lancet." — 
ic The accoucheur is directed to take three or four octavo volumes, and 
wrap them up together in a towel, then lay them longitudinally over the 
rectus muscles, and place a half hundred weight upon them." Should 
there be any blood left in the uterus or pelvis, when these weighty mea- 
sures are applied, this certainly is a good way of pressing it out, and not 
unlikely to extinguish life too ! While all this preparation is going on, 
or as the patient sinks, no doubt the flooding stops. The author believes 
a bandage is a great support to the muscles of the abdomen after labour, 
and is no doubt a great comfort to the patient, and it will also tend to 
keep down the uterus within the pelvic cavity, but his opinion is that it 
has but little effect in restraining or stopping the discharge. Pressure 
by the hand in order to secure the contraction of the uterus immediately 
after the delivery, is very useful, and should be done. 

The only medical remedies that the author knows of are tincture of 
opium and the secale cornutum ) and mild aperients should be occasion- 
ally given, to keep the intestinal canal emptied, to prevent any irritation 
of the uterus from that quarter. Cold water is also a most valuable re- 
medy in all cases of uterine hemorrhage. If internal uterine hemorrhage 
should occur at an early period of pregnancy— say within the second and 
third month — -it may be restrained by tincture of opium, the recumbent 
position, and rest of the mind as well as of the body. At a later period, 
nothing but the removal of the contents of the uterus— no other treat- 
ment can be depended upon— will stop it v j and this should be done early, 
before the system becomes affected by the great loss of blood. This ope- 
ration is, he observes, often delayed too long. Nothing is to be gained 
in these cases by waiting, as, in all cases, we may be pretty sure the 
child is dead ', and the mother may follow, if We are not very prompt and 
active in our movements. The only means available for removing the 
contents of the uterus at this period of gestation is a small hand and the 
blunt hook. In the last month or during parturition, ergot is the only 
medicine to be relied on, This is a powerful auxiliary to the uterine 
pains ; but the author thinks that it does not seem to act on the uterus 
until the liquor amnii, or part of it, is discharged ; and he does not ex- 
pect it would have any influenoe on a uterus distended by internal he- 
morrhage. The secale cornutum seems only to be capable of stimulating 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 65 

the action of the uterus, not exciting it. When the expulsive power of 
the uterus has been set in motion from natural causes the ergot possesses 
the peculiar property of helping it. The last and most frightful, as well 
as troublesome to the accoucheur and dangerous to the patient, is inter- 
nal uterine hemorrhage after delivery. The only contracting power in 
this case is cold water. This produces contraction of the mouth of the 
bloodvessels that are open, pouring out their contents into the cavity of 
the uterus. The sudden application of this simple but most valuable re- 
medy, and the shock to the system produced by it, is no doubt the cause 
of hemorrhage ceasing; but much of the efficiency of this powerful 
agent in these urgent cases, is in the mode of applying it. It is not 
enough to put up a cold napkin in the usual manner, wet with water that 
has lain a long time in a cold bed-room. The water should be procured 
immediately from the pump or spring, and the napkins saturated with 
this, and spread over the pubes and the whole hypogastric region, and 
removed and fresh ones applied every two minutes, till we are sure the 
hemorrhage is checked. The repeated shocks produced by this rapid re- 
moval of the napkin produce the most salutary effects in these perplexing 
cases ; and while we are trying or looking for more complicated remedies 
the patient may go off in a fatal syncope. The following cases illustrate 
and explain some of the circumstances connected with internal uterine 
hemorrhage : — 

Case I. — On Saturday morning, September 21st, about four o'clock, 
I was called up to Mrs. H— , who had engaged me to attend her with 
her first child. On my arrival she said she had got better, and I was not 
wanted. I found that she had been roused from her sleep by flooding, 
which greatly alarmed her ; but she was in no pain. She had arrived at 
the full period of gestation. I satisfied myself that the discharge had 
stopped, ordered her an anodyne draught, and left her, with directions 
that I was to be sent for if the flooding should return before I called. 
At twelve o'clock I saw her again. There had been no return of the dis- 
charge; but the nurse. told me her mistress was * rather queerish,' and 
she thought I should soon be wanted. About three o'clock, P. M., I 
was sent for in a hurry, and found the pains coming on regularly, but 
seemed unusually faint and weak. On examination I found the os uteri 
dilating, about the size of a crown piece, and the head presenting. With 
the next pain I ruptured the membranes. There was not a great deal of 
water (liquor amnii) discharged. In about two hours after, a very fine 
dead child was born. From its appearance I should say it had not been 
dead long, as it was exsanguious and flabby, clearly proving that it had 
suffered from the hemorrhage, although the mother was a strong robust 
young woman. She was very faint for some time after the delivery. 
There was not the slightest hemorrhage during the labour, The placen- 
ta was expelled without any assistance on my part, about five minutes 
after the child ; but before it was a large, tough, coagulated mass, as big 
as the child's head, the produce, no doubt, of the insidious internal he- 
morrhage. The patient had but little discharge afterwards, and did well. 

Case II.— The same evening, about eight o'clock, I was requested to 



G6 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Nov. 

call on Mrs. B — , who was in the eighth month with her first child. 
She had been out to tea, and on her return home she felt herself sick, 
and thought that the green tea which she had drank did not agree with 
her. She retired to her bed-room : and in the act of throwing up her 
tea, the waters broke, and rather a large quantity was discharged, with 
slight pain in the back. Eor these pains in the back I had been con- 
sulted some days befere ; but I did not prescribe for them. On exami- 
nation, I found no signs of labour. The uterus was very high up and 
difficult to get at. The os uteri was not at all dilated. She was fright- 
ened and restless. I gave her twenty-five drops of tincture of opium. 
About twelve o'clock she became more tranquil, and I left her. At five 
o'clock in the morning I was called up. On my arrival the child was 
born. It was very small, and quite blanched. There did not appear to 
be a drop of blood in it. On dividing the cord, not a drop escaped. I 
had some difficulty with the afterbirth. Before it came away I had to re- 
move from the vagina a hard black mass, which turned out to be layers of 
coagulated blood, which I have no doubt had been accumulating from 
the first time I was consulted about the pains in the back. This patient 
also got about very well, with the exception of the milk being rather 
troublesome. It is very clear that in both these cases the internal he- 
morrhage was fatal to the child ; and from the exsanguious appearance 
of the bodies, it must have been from the placenta, and not from the ves- 
sels of the uterus, perhaps towards the insertion of the cord into the pla- 
eenta. Had I ruptured the membranes at my first visit, in the first case, 
the child might, I believe, have been saved, as the effusion appeared to be 
recent j but there was then no symptom to demand such treatment ; and 
it would, I think, have been considered bad practice." — Ranking 's Ab- 
stract. 

On the Anemia of Pregnant Females. By Geo. Martin, M. D., of 
Delaware County, Penn. (Bead before the Delaware County Medical 
Society.) — Every obstetrical writer mentions plethora connected with 
pregnancy as the source of some of those diseases, which, when they oc- 
cur, so often compromise the safety of both mother and child. 

Much has been said about it, and so little about anemia, that it has 
been, and is yet considered by some practitioners as the almost constant 
complication of pregnancy. The bare announcement of a poor woman 
being pregnant, has been to them clear evidence that she was plethoric, 
and a sufficient warrant for the use of the lancet ; and to so great an ex- 
tent has this been carried, that many females, even at the present day, 
think they cannot be delivered of a healthy child, and themselves do well, 
if they have not been bled once or twice before the pains of parturition 
come on. Moreover, the physician who has been called upon to perform 
the operation, if he should chance to think differently, and have the har- 
dihood to stand by his opinion, will find, in the event of a misfortune 
occurring either to the mother or child, that the blame will rest upon his 
shoulders ; and there will be persons, and those not a few, who will not 
hesitate to tell him that the result would have been otherwise if he had 
not refused to bleed, 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 67 

Now this is certainly wrong ; for, though no one will deny that pletho- 
ra does exist in some instances, yet it does so much more rarely than 
anemia ; and I shall here endeavor to show that most of these cases in 
which bleeding is resorted to, arise from an impoverished blood, and 
that the use of tonics and even of the chalybeates would be followed by 
the happiest results. 

Are the nausea, vomiting, and depraved appetite that are so common, 
and occupy so large a portion of gestation, symptoms to lead to suspicion 
of danger from an over supply of nutriment ? On the contrary, if such 
derangements of the digestive apparatus were met with at any other time, 
would we not immediately try to relieve them, for fear that debility, ema- 
ciation, and even death might ensue ? All medical experience points to 
such a course; and why should not the same in one case as well as the 
other. There surely is nothing mysterious hanging over the pregnant 
female that will reverse all our known laws of the animal economy. 

It has been said that the stoppage of the menstrual secretion counter- 
acts these influences, and produces the supposed plethora ; but this can 
hardly be, for the amount of nutriment drawn from the blood in forming 
a highly organized living being weighing from seven to eight pounds, with 
two or three more of appendages, must far exceed the amount required 
for nine catamenial periods. 

The symptoms calling for depletion, as they are commonly described, 
are headache, vertigo, flushes of heat, depression of spirits, a full, frequent 
pulse, a feeling of fullness and pain in the pelvic region, and a tendency 
to hemorrhages in various parts of the body. Now it will be easy to 
show that many of these are often produced by anemia ; and though 
bleeding may relieve some of them for a time, they will be sure speedily 
to return, as the remedy only aggravated that condition of the circulating 
fluid in which they originated \ and to this may be attributed that neces- 
sity of a frequent resort to the lancet which many practitioners will tell 
us they have found. Anemia also has a strong tendency to derange the 
circulation ; for when the blood is in this condition, it does not carry with 
it that stimulus which is necessary to excite the capillaries to do their 
part, and congestion will frequently ensue. 

The nervous excitability, too, is greatly increased by this condition of 
the system, and this is the common cause of simple neuralgia, which it 
may produce in two ways : first, by its not being stimulating enough to 
the nervous centres to maintain a healthy action in them ; and secondly, 
by its not affording the different organs a proper amount of good plasma 
to keep them in a healthy condition, and they demand through the ner- 
vous system a better supply. This also is the reason of that frequent, 
easily excitable, and sometimes full pulse which is often met with in 
pregnancy and anemia ; for the heart here, in endeavoring to answer the 
demands made upon it, acts much more rapidly than it does in health, 
and as these wants are augmented in proportion to the amount of labor 
performed, we shall find that the least exertion will be followed by a 
great increase in the number of pulsations. During gestation, this exci- 
tability is manifested to a great degree, though in this case it is not to be 



68 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Nov. 

attributed solely to the impoverished "blood, for the nervous disturbances 
created by the changes wrought in the womb after conception tend con- 
siderably to increase it. 

If we investigate the manner in which the above symptoms are pro- 
duced, we shall find when they may be considered as evidences of pletho- 
ra and when not. To begin, we will take the pain in the head, which, 
when not sympathetic with some other disorder, often arises from neural- 
gia, sometimes from congestion, at others from irritation, and occasionally 
from inflammation. Now, I have before stated that anemia is the com- 
mon cause of neuralgia, and I have shown that it strongly predisposes to 
congestion, which will be liable to take place whenever there is any ex- 
citement or irritation of the brain ; and this may occur in any condition 
of the system. Yet, the result will be very different in the two cases ; 
for when plethora exists, we shall have inflammation immediately follow- 
ing the congestion j whereas, in anemia, it may exist for some time with- 
out it. And this is very true in pregnancy 5 for here we sometimes have 
it lasting for weeks \ producing much suffering, and at times followed by 
the most disastrous results, without our being able in many cases, to dis- 
cover a symptom of inflammation during life, or a trace of it after death ; 
and when it does occur, it will generally be found to have arisen from 
some direct injury which the overloaded vessels have inflicted upon the 
tissue of the organ. Vertigo generally arises from it, as does also the 
disposition to hemorrhages, when they do not occur from the vitiated 
blood relaxing the vessels, and thereby obtaining a free exit \ and the 
sense of pain and fulness in the pelvic region must be attributed to the 
same cause affecting the womb. 

The flushes of heat and other nervous symptoms not unfrequently met 
with, proceed from the excitability before treated of as arising from a 
deficient plasma ; and as this must necessarily have a great influence over 
the moral functions, too, it will account for that depression of spirits so 
common in gestation. 

From the foregoing facts, it will require no force to arrive at the con- 
clusion that the symptoms of anemia greatly preponderate in the above ; 
and to them I shall add a few others, which will serve to place the sub- 
ject in a still clearer light. Thus, the face often appears somewhat bloat- 
ed and discolored, the blood, when drawn, frequently presents the buffy 
coat without there being the least evidence of inflammation existing at 
the time ) the carotids throb, and at times even a partial loss of vision 
ensues. Now, these are all known as symptoms of anemia j and the lat- 
ter has been frequently produced by an extensive hemorrhage. In an 
analysis of the blood by Andral and Gravarret (for the account of which 
I am indebted to Caseaux's work on Midwifery,) 32 cases out of 34 were 
found, in which the globules were below the healthy mean, in 6 of which 
they ranged from 120 to 125, and in 26 from 95 to 120 5 they also found 
for the first six months the fibrine in the 34 cases was uniformly below 
the natural quantity, varying from 1.9 to 2.9 ; while during the last three 
months it exceeded it, ranging from 2.9 to 4.8, and averaging nearly 4 ; 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 69 

this, therefore, gives the true reason for the huffy coat ; and we here have 
32 cases out of 34 in which anemia was proved to exist. 

The treatment of this affection should, of course, consist of tonics, the 
best of which are the ferruginous preparations, a nutritious diet, fresh air, 
and moderate exercise ; the nervous symptoms, when excessive, should be 
allayed by the antispasmodics and opiates ; and when congestion occurs, 
it will generally be speedily relieved by cold applications to the part, 
counter-irritants and rest, with a little aperient medicine if the bowels 
should be constipated 5 and perhaps it may not be out of place to men- 
tion here, that when the brain is the seat of engorgement, the best mode 
of applying the cold to it will be by pouring water of a low temperature 
in a steady stream upon the head, care being taken to watch the patient, 
that she be not too much prostrated thereby. It would be easy to cite 
numerous instances in which the above treatment has relieved headache, 
vertigo, and even convulsions, in some of which after depletion had been 
fairly tried and failed ; but I trust enough has been said to show the real 
character of the complaint, and with a few words upon the injuries that 
a false diagnosis may inflict upon the child, I shall bring this subject to 
a close. 

It is an acknowledged fact, that tubercles and scrofula often originate 
in a depraved condition of the system, and as the vital organs of the foe- 
tus at the time of their formation are undoubtedly in their most delicate 
condition, and very susceptible of change, may not the imperfect plasma, 
which is all the parent can furnish out of her impoverished blood, lay 
the foundation for these diseases, which only wait for some exciting cause 
to call them into action ? And if this is the case, how highly important 
it is, both to the mother and her offspring, that the true nature of the 
affection be clearly understood, and the proper remedies at once applied. 
— Am. Journal of Med. Sciences. 



Test for the presence of Mercury. — If a strong solution of iodide of po- 
tassium be added to a minute portion of any of the salts of mercury, 
placed on a sheet of bright copper, a white metallic silvery stain will be 
developed, which cannot be mistaken, as no other metal presenting a 
similar appearance is deposited by the same means. In this way corro- 
sive sublimate may be detected, in a solution unaffected by potash or 
iodide of potassium. In a mixture of colomel and sugar, in the propor- 
tion of one of the former to two hundred of the latter, a distinct metallic 
stain will be detected with one grain of this mixture, containing but 
1-200 of its weight of calomel, and the binoxide of mercury can be thus 
detected, if mixed with 400 times its weight of sugar. This valuable test 
we owe to Mr. Arthur Morgan. — London Jour, of Med. &c, from An- 
nals of Pharmacy. 



70 Eclectic and Summary Department [Nov. 1852.] 

American Medical Association-^-At a Meeting of the Association held 
at Richmond, Va. May, 1852, the undersigned were appointed a Com- 
mittee to receive voluntary communications on medical subjects, and to 
award two prizes of $100 each to the authors of the best two essays. 

Each communication must be accompanied by a sealed packet, con- 
taining the name of the author, which will be opened only in the case of 
the successful competitors. Unsuccessful communications will be return- 
ed on application, after the 1st of June, 1853. 

Communications must be addressed (post-paid) to the Chairman of the 
Committee, Dr. Joseph M. Smith, 56 Bleecker street, New York, on or 
before the 20th ef March, 1853, 

Joseph M. Smith, M. D., 
John A. Swett, M. D. ; 
W. Parker, M. D., 
Gturdon Buck, M. D., 
Alfred C. Post, M. D., 
New York, Sept. 17, 1852. 

Editors of Medical journals in the United States are respectfully re- 
quested to copy the above. 

Ink for the Million. To the Editor of the American Journal of Phar- 
macy : — The following formula for making a very superior ink is not 
generally known. The facility of its preparation, and its almost incredi- 
ble cheapness (about two cents a gallon,) render it worthy a place in 
your Journal, 

R 12 oz. avoird. Ext. Logwood 
\ oz. " Bichromate Potash 
5 gallons water; 
Dissolve the ingredients separately in water and mix them together, in a 
short time the ink will be fit for use. 

An analysis of the above would be very desirable. 

As an instance of the very great coloring property of hsematoxylon, I 
have found that l-100th of a grain dissolved in 4,000,000 times that 
quantity of water, will be tinged a fine pink color by the addition of a 
little aqua ammonia. Yours truly, 

Philadelphia, Sept. 13, 1852. W. H. Pile. 

The excitement attending the Presidential" and State Elections, — ■ 
which occur about the time the Reporter should be mailed, — together 
with the unusual demand created by that excitement on the time and la- 
bor of the printers, must be our apology for appearing two or three days 
behind time. PUBLISHER. 



THE 

NEW JERSEY MEDICAL REPORTER. 

VOL. VI. TWELFTH MONTH (DEC), 1852. No. 3. 

Hints on Physical Education. By James H. Stuart, M. D. 
No. 4. Conclusion. 

Men frequently display great want of forethought in their choice of 
a profession. Many a one, of delicate frame and moderate intellect, 
whose health would have been roughened and invigorated by the active 
life of a farmer, and whose abilities would have insured him the respect 
and secured him the love of his neighbors, has lamentably mistaken his 
calling. Kind friends, fearful of losing the "Genius" of the family 
among " rough clodhoppers y" — an anxious mother, afraid to allow her 
pet to suffer the discomforts of such a life, and unreflective of the greater 
hardships of a profession ; — or, mayhap, his own misdirected ambition, 
have urged him on, and he has sought the ranks of learned men merely 
to languish out a few brief years of misery. Many such have perished 
even before completing their studies, particularly in our profession. 

Others, evidently, from their robust persons and slender intellect, 
created for coal-heavers, wood-sawyers, porters, &c, have, equally mis- 
guided, foully cheated those serviceable avocations of their valuable as- 
sistance, warred with their destiny, pushed themselves into a profession, 
and helped to swell the number of those unmitigated blockheads whose 
fotttttfllflCft brings Physic, Law, and even Divinity itself into dis- 
repute. The professions have ruined many a noble laborer, sca- 
venger, or boot-black. Love of Fame has much to answer for ; — for 

« Pitiful 
" Indeed, and much against the grain, it dragged 
"The stagnant, dull, predestinated fool 
" Through learning's halls, and made him labor much 
" Abortively, though sometimes not unpraised 
" He left the sage's chair and home returned, 
" Making his simple mother think that she 
" Had borne a man." 

Our profession seems to be peculiarly complimented by the favor of 

this class of gentry. The Cacoethes Medendi is tremendous. Per- 
9 



72 Stuart on Physical Education. [Dec. 

haps the gratitude of Leigh Hunt, who, in the preface to his Autobiog- 
raphy, thanks " two members of a profession, (medicine) which literature 
has always reason to thank and to love," — an observation true enough, 
— has something to do with the popular proclivity toward healing. Be 
this so or not, an opinion has, from some cause, very absurdly become 
prevalent that Medicine is quite an easy business to learn. Its intended 
votaries seem never to reflect on the vast ground it covers; the number 
of different branches, each in itself a complete science, embraced by it ) 
and the amount of common sense, cool judgment, reflection, nerve, pre- 
sence of mind, and prudence ; — to say nothing of talents, courtesy, and 
true good breeding, required to make a good and distinguished physician. 
They do not reflect that, owing to the recent discoveries necessary to be 
known and kept pace with, it now requires an exceedingly retentive 
memory to make even a mediocre a medical man. 

Is it not enough to extort an angry exclamation from the most pa- 
tient, to witness men crowding into and out of our medical colleges every 
winter, who, so far from possessing a liberal education, cannot even write 
a line without some orthographical or grammatical blunder, or even speak 
a sentence without an etymological one ? We " speak what we do know 
and testify to what we have seen" in all these accusations. As a very 
mild instance of the last, let us here quote a true anecdote, published in 
the October No. of the Knickerbocker Magazine. "A medical gentle- 
man having, by dint of hard struggling, achieved his diploma from the 
the board of examiners of one of the largest medical colleges, was enjoy- 
ing the smiles of beauty in return therefor. One of the ladies kindly re- 
marked to him, 'So, Doctor, you've passed the Rubicon' ? 'Yes ma'am/ 
answered he, modestly struggling with triumph in his countenance, i I 
passed them V " Comment is unnecessary. " Ne sutor ultra crepidam" 
is surely a motto as applicable now as ever. By the way, is the Scotch 
' souter' derived from or merely analogous with the Latin ' sutor' ? 

For some men the title of M. D. is sufficient. They do not care to 
deserve it, and would be as well pleased with any other title that cost as 
much ; (for to the vulgar, money expended is a true index of value, — as 
shown by the operations of most of our parvenus in large cities.) Some 
wish a parchment wherewith to " astonish their acquaintances." And 
verily they succeed. Their acquaintances are astonished to see persons 
be-doctored, whom they well know to be ignorant of the rudiments of an 
English education. They remind us of the old story of a theological ex- 
amination. Question. " Quod est creare ?" Answer, " Creare est facere 
aliquid ex nihil." Rejoinder. u Ergo creamus te Voctorem" The 



1852.] Stuart on Physical Education. 73 

facility with which some of our colleges now grant diplomas is amazing, 
and sad it will be for our country should this state of affairs continue 
long. But, as if the regular quacks were not sufficient, we have the 
whole vast train of irregulars,-— Homeopathists, Thompsonians, Herb 
doctors, venders of patent medicines, etc., etc., ad infinitum, — "usque 
ad nauseum," who annually fleece the community of tens of thousands ! 
And the more absurd their pretensions, the more sucessful they appear. 
It almost seems that the public esteem a quack in direct ratio with his 
ignorance. Every impudent Homeopathist who christens the Colic by 
the formidable name of Cholera Asiatica, and does nothing, with a solemn 
air, till it passes off, (or till the relatives relieve it by warm applications, 
&c.) is lauded to the skies; and the worse the disease had become from 
neglect, the more is he praised, should the patient survive. Should he 
not; — no matter. "It is the lot of all to die" ! ! 

The Lawyers are protected from such companionship. None can enter 
their ranks, but legally. True, there are thousands of blockheads among 
them, but they cannot complain. All was done " according to law." 
They were fairly examined, and if the examining committee were too 
stupid, lazy, or good-natured to detect their ignorance and incompetency, 
it is nobody's business but their own. Means should be promptly taken 
by the American Medical Association to protect medical men. If per- 
sons are prepared to practice medicine, they are surely prepared to pass 
an examination by impartial, qualified, and disinterested committees in 
each State. But this is a very long digression, and we have already en- 
larged upon the subject in a previous number. 

To return to Physical Education. A brief summary will express all 
our views on this important subject. It need not be objected against 
any of the propositions that they are impracticable by the poor ; for low 
indeed must that family be which cannot command a^the conveniences re- 
quisite ! Persons too poor for that are too poor to pay attention to any 
system of education. Let the infant be daily washed with water, beginning 
at the temperature of about 100° Fahrenheit, and gradually increasing in 
coldness until at eighteen months or two years it will be found that he 
can bear ordinary river or pump water with impunity at any season. 
Let him meanwhile be treated in other respects according to the excel- 
lent maxims of Dewees, Condie, etc. At about six years of age, should 
his health then be moderately good, let him commence in early summer, 
sleeping with his windows up, and continue to do so thenceforward. Let 
his couch be a mattrass or other hard bed, and let him be as lightly co- 
vered as safety and comjort permit. When he commences going to 



74 Stuart on Physical Education. [Dec. 

school, which should not be until his seventh or eighth year, (for earlier, 
he would, if bright, injure himself to excel, if dull, to equal his school- 
mates,) see that his bench has a back, and is sufficiently low to let his 
feet touch the ground, and that his desk is as high as the middle of his 
breast. Do not force him to study too long at a time ) he will see that 
he does not hurt himself by application while he is at it. (Or rather no 
study can be too hard if not prolonged too far.) Do not control his rea- 
sonable inclinations, but let him drink no Coffee, Tea, or liquor; nei- 
ther use Tobacco in any form. Let him early be taught to walk well, 
run, leap, wrestle, spar, fence, climb, ride, row, and swim. He should 
be instructed in fishing, pistol shooting, and gunning, if leisure and 
means for these amusements are at his disposal ; and, when old enough, 
permitted to indulge himself with them as often as he pleases, save in 
study or work hours. If this is persevered in for a score of years, you will 
have a man such as very few men are now-a-days. His taste and abili- 
ties should be consulted about the choice of a common or classical educa- 
tion, and a profession. When he grows up he will then have a business 
he likes, and devote himself energetically to it, with the prospect of be- 
coming distinguished therein ; which no man can be unless he is fond of 
his occupation. His habits will be founded, and he will be frugal, tem- 
perate, hardy, active, and strong. 

Girls should be treated on the same plan, with due allowance for the 
difference of constitutional strength, and the destinies of their sex. But 
even they should not be exempted from learning to swim and ride. 

If these, or similar principles were carried out, for say half a dozen 

generations, what a difference would be presented in the appearance of 

our population ! Exquisites and " fine ladies" would no more be seen. 

All portions of the community would be useful. Valetudinarians would 

vanish, for chronic diseases would expire with their last possessors. It 

would take some time to eradicate hereditary taints of constitution, but 

we firmly believe they would ultimately become extinct, and the world 

soon present a race of firm, healthy men and women. 

" For buirdly chiels an' clever hizzies 
" Are bred in sic a way as this is." 

Our profession would then rise in the public estimation. For, the 
race of Hypochondriacs and " nervous" people being extinct, and the de- 
luded consequently wanting, the deluders would die of inanition. Thom- 
sonians would no more kill men actively by doses of Red Pepper for gas- 
tro enteritis — (we " speak that we do know,") nor Homeopathists pas- 
sively by letting them die of neglect, (which also we " do know.") Hy- 



1852.] Hasbrouck on Acute Pluritis. 75 

dropathists would cease from their murders, and patent medicines, igno- 
rant pretenders, and quacks generally would disappear. Medicine would 
reach its golden age without the prospect of a brazen one to follow. For, 
people having once experienced the blessings of health, would take judi- 
cious means to continue healthy. The few acute diseases remaining 
would be easily treated in healthy constitutions. Longevity would in- 
crease, and without risk of an over-population ; for such a course of train- 
ing would so subdue the aphrodisiac sense as to reduce the number of 
conceptions to the proper standard, and thus almost meet Mathers' views 
without his measures. 

We firmly believe that such a time will finally arrive, but only when 
physicians become sufficiently disinterested to advise and insist on the 
exercise of common sense. True, it is easier to permit obstinate people 
to err than to take pains to set them right. Every physician has expe- 
rienced this. Yet, let us rejoice in knowing that eventually 

"Truth crushed to earth shall rise again j 
" The eternal years of God are hers ; 
" But Error, wounded, writhes in pain, 
" And dies among its worshippers." 



Remarks on an Obscure Form of Acute Pleuritis.. 
By Charles Hasbrouck, M. D. 

The diagnosis of acute pleuritis and pneumonia, is usually represented 
to be an easy matter ; and, except in cases of intercurrent pneumonia, 
the location and kind of pain, the difficult respiration, cough, character 
of the expectoration, &c, are, generally speaking, abundantly sufficient 
to remove all doubt as to the seat and nature of the attack. Unfortu- 
nately, however, cases occasionally occur attended with unusual symp- 
toms, or rather in which the usual diagnostics of these diseases are en- 
tirely absent, or in which the pain, if present, is referred to parts remote 
from the chest, and thus tends to distract the attention from the real 
point of attack. Judging from my own observation, cases of this charac- 
ter are of by no means unfrequent occurrence ; and it seems to me, that 
by directing attention to this fact, you will confer a favor upon the 
younger members of the profession, and perhaps upon such of the elder 
brethren as affect to sneer at the value of auscultation, as a means of 
correct diagnosis. 

The following case occurred in the early part of my practice, and I am 
anxious that others may be spared, if possible, the mortification and pain 
of similar errors. 



76 Hasbrouck on Acute Pleuritis. [Dec. 

Case I. — Mrs. E K , aged about 30 years, of a constitution 

naturally delicate, and still farther impaired by an almost constant condi- 
tion of pregnancy or lactation, was confined with her fourth child in the 
latter part of July, 1841. On the 7th of August, while she was yet con- 
fined to her room, she was taken suddenly with violent pain in the right 
iliac region, extending along the course of the ureter to the lower part of 
the loins. The pain was constant, very severe, and rather increased by 
a full inspiration. It was accompanied with a chill, followed by mode- 
rate febrile excitement, the pulse being not very frequent, but full and 
rather incompressible. There was no cough, nor, excepting the pain be- 
ing aggravated by a moderately full inspiration, any other of the so called 
rational symptoms of disease within the chest. Indeed, the seat of the 
pain in connection with the puerperal condition of the patient, rather 
pointed to the uterus or ovary as the organ at fault ; and I did not be- 
come aware of the real nature of the attack, until the respiration became 
impeded, and life seriously endangered by effusion in the pleural cavity. 

This patient fortunately recovered after a tedious illness, by persever- 
ing in the plan of treatment suggested by the late Dr. Hope, viz : mer- 
cury to salivation, repeated blisters, with nourishing diet, the alterative 
tonics, as Iodine, &c. 

Since the above case first directed my attention to these anomalous 
forms of the disease, many similar but more fortunate ones have occurred 
in my practice, in which the ear readily detected a pleuritis, or a pneu- 
monia, in the absence of all, or nearly all, the rational symptoms of its 
presence. It is seldom however, that a case presents itself, so complete- 
ly masked and obscure, as the following, viz : 

Case II. — July 8th, 1852, at 8 o'clock, A. M. I was called to see 
Gilliam R. Bogert, aged about 60 years, who was awakened at midnight 
with violent pain in the right iliac region, or rather over the ureter. On 
the day previous, he had drank two glasses of root beer, and towards 
evening had some colicky pains in the abdomen. This pain, which he 
attributed to the beer, was soon relieved by an evacuation from his 
bowels, and after eating a hearty supper, he went to bed, as he supposed, 
perfectly well. He had no chills before nor after this midnight attack ; 
his pulse was natural in frequency, but was full, hard, and quick ; skin 
natural, tongue clean, no thirst, nor any sign of fever. The pain was 
referred to the space between the crest of the ilium and the floating ribs, 
was constant with short periods of very slight remission, and rather ag- 
gravated by lying on the sound side. Indeed when I entered the room, 
the patient was walking the floor with his body bent forward and to the 



1852.] Hasbrouck on Acute Pleuritis. 77 

affected side, keeping his hands pressed upon the seat of the pain, and 
groaning with intense suffering. There was no pain in his shoulder, no 
tenderness, no cough, no difficulty of breathing, no " catching" pain even 
on a very deep inspiration, no difficulty in flexing his thigh on the pelvis, 
no retraction of the testicle ; but his stomach and bladder were rather ir- 
ritable, having vomited and retched occasionally, and having passed his 
urine three times in as many hours. 

I was at a loss what to make of this assemblage of symptoms. The 
entire absence of cough and other evidence of chest disease, led me not 
to suspect any difficulty there, so that I did not even think of applying 
my ear to his chest. The seat and character of the pain, with the ab- 
sence of tympany satisfied me that it was not colic ; while the irritable 
stomach and bladder, the suddenness of the attack, and its extreme se- 
verity, seemed rather to indicate that a " gravel" was probably impacted 
in its passage to the bladder. At all events, I could make nothing else 
out of it, and accordingly began the treatment under the impression that 
such was the real condition of things. 

Having placed my patient upright in a chair, I bled him to approach- 
ing syncope. This required 18 ounces of blood drawn in a full stream, 
and was followed by immediate and almost entire relief. I then admin- 
istered a quarter of a grain of Morphine, to be repeated every hour or 
two as might be necessary, with four grains of Calomel every three hours 
until twelve grains were taken, to be followed by castor oil. I also or- 
dered fomentations to be constantly applied, and a warm hip bath in 
case the pain again became severe. The blood drawn from the arm was 
considerably buffed. 

At 9 o'clock, P. M., I found the patient much relieved, but the pain 
was still so severe as to prevent sleep. Had taken a grain and a half of 
Morphine. The warm bath had thrown him into a profuse sweat. — 
Bowels not moved ; pulse 96 in a minute, full ; skin warm, tongue very 
thinly coated, no tenderness, no cough, breathing natural. I directed an 
enema of salt and water. Fomentations to be continued, and also the 
Morphine if necessary. 

July 9th, 11 o'clock, A. M. Patient has more fever. Bowels have 
moved freely ; pain still troublesome, but not severe.; no tenderness ; 
stomach and bladder no longer exhibit any signs of irritability ; tongue 
more thickly coated; pulse 108, full, hard, and quick; skin hot, but 
moist; no cough, nor frequency of breathing; pain not aggravated by 
deep inspiration. Not satisfied with my diagnosis, I was prepared to 
expect the development of some local inflammatory lesion; and to be 



78 Hasbrouck on Acute Pleuritis. [Dec. 

positively certain that it did not involve the lung or pleura, rather than 
with any expectation of finding it there,— I made a careful exploration of 
his chest. On percussion I detected rather more dullness than natural, 
over the lower portion of the right lung, as the patient was sitting in bed, 
and on passing my ear over the part, I was surprised to find unequivocal 
evidences of inflammation there. The respiratory murmur was feeble, 
almost entirely suppressed, and over a surface as large as my hand, there 
was distinct crepitant rattle during each inspiration. In short, I had be- 
fore me a case of pleuritis, which had already extended to the lung, and 
resulted in slight effusion in the chest, without cough or the least diffi- 
culty or frequency of breathing, and without the very usual " catching" 
pain, even on making as deep an inspiration as the patient was capable of. 
I immediately bled the patient, again to the extent of 18 ounces, with 
entire and permanent relief from the pain. The blood still exhibited the 
buffy coat. The bleeding was followed by one-sixth of a grain of Tartar 
Emetic and a drachm of Sulph. Magne., every four hours, with one of 
the following powders two hours after each dose, viz : 

R. Pulv. Opii, gr. vi. 

Hyd : Clorid : Mit : gr. xvi. 

Ant : et Potass : Tart : gr. ii. 
it£ . ft. divid. in pulv. No. viij : 

July 10th. No pain ; pulse 88; skin moist; no cough; crepitant 
rattle heard over less surface, its place being supplied by the feeble vesi- 
cular murmur. Omit the Tartar Emetic and Salts. Continue the pow- 
ders at intervals of six or eight hours. 

July 11th. Dysenteric symptoms setting in; discharges every four 
hours, of mucus and flakes of lymph mixed with blood ; tenesmus. The 
physical evidences of pleuro-pneumonia becoming less. Omit the powders. 
Take one of the following powders after every discharge from the bow- 
els, viz : 

R. Pulv. Opii. 
" Ipecac, 

" Acet. plumbi ^ gr. viij. 
itj? . ft pulv. No. viii. 

It is unnecessary to follow the notes of this case any farther. From 
this time he rapidly convalesced, and on the 14th I discontinued my 
visits. 

The history of these obscure attacks, so far as I have observed them, 
is generally as follows. The patient usually is suffering from an attack 
of " common cold ;" that is, he coughs some, and feels chilly and unwell, 
but is not sufficiently indisposed to confine him from his ordinary busir 



1852.] Hasbrouck on Acute Pleuritis. 79 

ness. While in this condition — or perhaps without any previous indis- 
position — he is suddenly taken with violent pain, (if the pleura be in- 
volved) accompanied with chills, but generally no distinct ague. The pain 
is usually referred to the iliac region, sometimes to the lower portion of the 
loins, and in rare cases, even to the hypogastrium, and is generally ag- 
gravated by a full inspiration. Sometimes indeed, the pain interferes 
with ordinary respiration, each inspiration being attended with catching 
pain. At other times, as in the above case, respiration is entirely unaf- 
fected. Cough, if present, is usually less than before the pain was felt. 
The febrile reaction is generally moderate ; occasionally, as violent as in 
an ordinary attack of pleurisy. Besides the pain interfering somewhat 
with the full expansion of the chest, there is usually nothing in the ra- 
tional symptoms to lead the inexperienced practitioner to suspect any 
mischief there ; and perhaps the persistence of the fever, and the general 
unsatisfactory progress of the case, will first induce him to auscult the 
chest, when feeble respiration, or an entire absence of the respiratory 
murmur, with dullness on percussion and perhaps egophony, will warn 
him that he has a pleuritis with effusion to contend with ; or small crepi- 
tation, or even a total suppression of all vesicular sounds, with bronchial 
respiration, &c, may awaken him to the fact, that the lung itself is seri- 
ously, perhaps fatally, involved. 

If the pleura be not involved in the attack, the case is rendered, if 
possible, still more obscure. Then no pain is complained of, and the 
patient will appear to be laboring under a simple febrile attack, without 
any apparent local disease, and nothing but a careful physical exploration 
of the chest, will enable the practitioner to arrive at a correct diagnosis. 
The following 'may be taken as a fair example of this class of cases. 

Case III. — Mr. H Z , nearly 70 years old, of good constitu- 
tion and robust health, was exposed and got wet, in a storm in the last 
week of November, 1851. A day or two after, he was taken with head- 
ache, pain and stiffness of his extremities and back, chilliness, lassitude, 
&c, followed by fever, hot skin, thirst, &c. I first saw him on the 
second of December, three or four days after the attack. He was con- 
fined to his bed with moderate fever, his pulse beating from 75 to 80 times 
in a minute. His principal, and almost only complaint was of head- 
ache. His tongue was slightly coated; bowels had been freely moved 
by Epsom Salts. He had no difficulty in lying in any position 3 his 
breathing was natural, and upon particular inquiry, I could not ascertain 
that he had had any cough. Indeed there did not appear to be any par- 
ticular local mischief, but simply a general feverishness, which I attribu- 



80 Rex on Hepatic Abscess. [Dec. 

ted to exposure and suppressed perspiration. Accordingly, I prescribed 
warm pediluvia and warm drinks, with nitre, antimony, &c, with a view 
to equalizing the circulation, and promoting the cutaneous excretion. 
But my patient did not improve, when on the fifth day of the treatment, 
as I was sitting by his bed, he gave a short dry cough that arrested my 
attention. On inquiry, I then learned that he had coughed, " three or 
four times" during the preceding day, but not before that, that the fa- 
mily had heard. He had no pain, no shortness of breathing, but from 
the unsatisfactory result of the treatment, I suspected that there must be 
some lesion which I had not yet detected. I now sat my patient upright 
in bed, and carefully examined his chest, and in the lower portion of his 
right lung I found unequivocal evidence of pneumonia, still in its first 
stage. The respiratory murmur was partially suppressed, and distinct 
crepitant rattle existed in a part of the lung, about three or four inches 
in diameter. There was no perceptible dullness on percussion, but this, 
if I am not mistaken in my observation, is not unusual in the pneumo- 
nia of the aged. 

I immediately established counter-irritation over the seat of the dis^ 
ease, and prescribed Tartar Emetic in solution with the Muriate of Am- 
monia, with the most prompt and happy effect. The patient rapidly re- 
covered. 

In certain states of the system, and in some forms and stages of the 
inflammatory affections of the air passages, it (the muriate of ammonia,) 
is one of the most admirable alteratives we possess, and one that is en- 
tirely too much neglected by the majority of American practitioners. 

SCHRAALENBURGH, N. J., Nov. 1852. 



Case of Hepatic Abscess. By George P. Rex, M. D. 

W. F. C, set. 52, a hard working industrious farmer, of temperate 
habits, had never been sick until Saturday evening, April 17, 1852, 
when he was seized with a violent pain in the right hypochondriac and 
epigastric regions. I found him lying upon his abdomen, pain violent, 
pulse 85 and soft, skin moist, and tongue slightly furred. I supposed it 
to be a case of bilious colic, and prescribed R. Calomel gr. xij, Sulp, 
Morp. gr. j in Ch. iv. one every three hours, and a teaspoonful of Solut. 
Sulp. Morph. every hour until the pain was relieved; sinapism to the ep- 
igastrium, hot pediluvium. 

April 18th. — Has passed a comfortable night ; free from pain ; tender- 
ness at the epigastrium and tympanitis. As the bowels had not been 



1852.] Rex on Hepatic Abscess. 81 

opened, I prescribed 01. Ricini f §j. 01. Tereb. f £j. to be repeated in six 
hours if it did not operate : — 19th, oil has operated twice, and reduced 
the tympanitis ; pulse 82, skin dry, anorexia, complains of a salt taste, 
even cold water, as he says, tastes like brine : prescribed Cal. gr. iv. 
Ipecac, gr. j. in Ch. iv. one every four hours : — 20th, improving, contin- 
ued the treatment : — 22d, relaxed condition of his bowels, has had seve* 
ral clay colored stools; prescribed Cal. Opii aa gr. iv in Ch. iv., one eve- 
ry three hours : — 23d, bowels improved ; has had three evacuations, no 
change in color, continued Cal. and Opii. 

24th. — Has had three evacuations; was informed that the color 
was changed, being more natural ; did not see the evacuations ; continued 
Cal. and Opii. 25th, Bowels improved; one evacuation since my last 
visit; nurse says improved in color; continued treatment. 26th, Bowels 
quiet, tongue cleaning, complains of weakness and intense saline taste, 
which has been the case throughout his sickness ; prescribed Infus. Gent, 
and Serpentaria. 27th, Bowels more relaxed, slight pain in the abdo- 
men, prescribed Mass. Pil. Hyd. gr. iv. Opii. gr. j in Pil. iv. one every 
four hours. 28th, improving; continued treatment. 

29th and 30th, — continued to improve, appetite good, bowels na- 
tural, tongue clean, pulse 75. Complains of weakness and the saline 
taste, with these exceptions he says he feels well ; is up and about his 
chamber; discharged the patient as convalescent. 

In passing his house on May 6th, I saw him out, feeding his pigs ; he 
said he felt well, except some weakness ; the saline taste had slightly di- 
minished, his appetite was good, and he said he felt as if he would 
soon be able to plough. His pulse 75, tongue natural, countenance 
good, and I said to him he would soon be at his accustomed employment. 
He rode three or four miles that afternoon, in a carriage, paid a visit to 
a relative, and returned feeling stronger and better. On Friday, the 8th, 
I was sent for about noon, and learned the following particulars. On 
Wednesday evening the 6th, just before he retired to his bed, he gave a 
slight cough, and brought up some very fetid matter ; he felt well at the 
time, and had not the least pain. It was supposed by the family that 
he had taken cold, which would soon pass over. He coughed several 
times through the night, and expectorated more of the fetid matter. The 
stench was so great, that the family were sickened by it. On Thursday 
morning the 7th, he did not feel as well as yesterday, yet he dressed him- 
self and walked to a neighbor's, an eighth of a mile distant, and returned 
at noon, the cough and expectoration increasing. In the afternoon he felt 
weaker and kept his bed. When I saw him, about noon on Friday, he 



82 Cleaveland on Animal Poison. [Dec. 

was free from pain, felt perfectly well, appetite good, tongue clean, pulse 
90 and small, was very weak, and still had the saline taste; the cough 
and expectoration had increased through the night and morning. The 
fetor from the expectorated pus was so unpleasant as to drive the attend- 
ants from the room. The room was at once fumigated with Chlorine and 
the smell removed. There was no physical sign of disease of the chest, 
I therefore diagnosticated an Hepatic Abscess, which was discharging the 
pus; prescribed free doses of Sulp. Quin., and small doses of Sul. Morp. 
good diet of chicken soup. 

Saturday, 9 th. — Has rested well, pulse small, 120, copious perspira- 
tion, feels weaker, cough and expectoration the same ; continued treat- 
ment and added milk punch and brandy. In the afternoon, 5 o'clock, 
my friend Dr. Samuel Lilly of Lambertville, saw the patient in consul- 
tation with me. He coincided in my diagnosis and treatment, and was 
of the opinion that the abscess had pointed upwards, and perforated the 
diaphragm and parenchyma of the lungs, discharging through the 
bronchia. The patient continued to sink until noon the next day, when 
he expired. His appetite remained good j was conscious until death, and 
died from exhaustion. It is a safe estimate, that he expectorated from 
Wednesday night until Sunday noon, upwards of three pints of pus, 
clearly showing that the abscess must have involved the greater part of 
the structure of the Liver. 

I regret that I was so much indisposed at the time, that I could 
not make a post-mortem examination. The case is interesting, from the 
fact, that such extensive organic disease of an important organ had been 
going on for some time, without any indication of it. A query also arises 
in my mind, whether the intense saline taste, may not be pathognomo- 
nic of this pathological condition, and I respectfully commend this parti- 
cular point to the attention of the profession for future observation. 

Reaville, N. J., October 26th, 1852. 



Inoculation with Decomposing Animal Matter. 

By C. H. Cleaveland, M. D. 

About the twenty-fifth of February, 1850, while in the enjoyment of 
excellent health, I was asked by a neighbor to look at a valuable mare 
of his, which he thought must be dying, as she was very sick, and in an 
unusual manner. I at once stepped to his stable, and a moment's obser- 
vation of the animal, led me to conclude she was on the point of foaling. 



1852.] Cleaveland on Animal Poison. 83 

The owner and his hostler both denied the possibility of such being the 
fact, both because she had been in their possession during the year pre- 
vious, and because she had menstruated regularly during the entire year, 
and had one of those turns only two or three weeks previously. I, how- 
ever, chose to be guided by the advice of my former teacher, Professor 
Crosby, of Dartmouth College, who used frequently to tell his students, 
" In all things trust not too much to others, but see with your own eyes, 
feel with your own hands, and judge with your own judgment/' Act- 
ing accordingly, I soon drew forth, a two-thirds grown colt, which had 
slightly commenced to decompose. 

J gave directions for the proper care of the animal, and after but a 
very brief period, carefully washed myself with water and soft soap. As 
my hand still retained the putrefactive odor, I again washed with care, 
and proceeded about my business. 

At this time the air was quite cold, and my arm was chilled, so as to 
have the appearance of u goose flesh," but it, and my hand were entire- 
ly exempt from any abrasion of the skin, or any eruption ; but two days 
afterward, I discovered the arm to be plentifully covered with little pim- 
ples, which burned and smarted in a very unusual manner, but as yet, I 
had no suspicion of the true cause of them. 

The next day these eruptions were enlarged and more painful, and I 
then recollected the exposure I had been subjected to, viewing the poison 
as an animal acidiform product, I applied cloths wet with moderately strong 
aqua ammonia, for the purpose of neutralizing the acid, and also of pro- 
ducing irritation upon the entire surface. The hartshorn remained applied 
until vesication was produced upon the apex of each eruptive point. 
Then I could see what appeared to be a dead gland, in the centre of each 
swelling, the glands ranging from the size of a mustard sesd to that of a 
pea. I now wrapped my arm in ice-cold water, in which the acetate of 
lead had been dissolved, to the point of saturation, and changed the ap- 
plications every hour or two, or as often as the cloths became warm. 

Seeing that this course of treatment did not arrest the disease, I took 
Seidlitz Powders until they produced free catharsis; I then consulted 
with several members of the profession, who advised nothing in the way 
of treatment, and spoke in no very encouraging terms in regard to the 
final result. The disease had now progressed eight days, and was affect- 
ing the general system somewhat, as was shown by a feeling of fretful- 
ness, and general lassitude, and a want of appetite, and also by rigors, 
and a crawling sensation in the muscles, a general soreness and lameness 
throughout the system, but expecially in the back } and an irritability of 



84 Cleaveland on Animal Poison. [Dec 

the nervous system never before experienced ; yet all this time there was 
no apparent inflammation of the lymphatics of the arm, or swelling of 
the axillary glands, as I had anticipated. 

I now took blue pills with the Seidlitz powders, and drank freely of the 
infusion of the Scutellaria Laterifolia; and in place of the acetate of 
lead I dissolved the hydro chlorate of ammonia in the cold water, and 
kept my arm constantly enveloped in cloths wet in the solution, which 
were changed as dften as they became warm. Whenever the arm became 
warm, or was allowed to remain uncovered for even a short time, it felt 
as a severe burn does when brought near a fire. 

During all this time, although the weather was quite cold and raw 
even for March in Vermont, I kept almost constantly out of doors during 
the day time, and at night slept in a cold room with a window open, so 
as freely to admit the external atmosphere. 

About the twelfth or thirteenth day, the arm, which up to this time 
had been very much swollen and hard, began to soften, and that day, 
and the next, I was able to press from the swellings where the pimples 
had first appeared, cores, from the size of a pea to that of a filbert. These 
cores had apparently sloughed from the surrounding tissue, and around 
many of them there was a considerable amount of ill-conditioned, yellow- 
ish, watery pus. The arm was much decomposed from the elbow to the 
wrist, and in many places the muscular tissue became broken down, so 
that pieces two or three inches in length, and as large in the middle as a 
lead pencil, could be pressed from the openings. As fast as a softened 
point was discovered, I opened the skin with a lancet, and pressed out 
the softened tissue and pus, allowing as little as possible to remain to be 
taken up by absorption. 

"Within six -weeks from the attack, the arm was entirely healed, and 
during this time, there were but three or four pustular eruptions upon 
any portion of the surface, except the right arm below the elbow, and 
those healed readily after being punctured and having their contents 
pressed out. It was, however, several months, before the system fully 
recovered from the general effects of the poison, and I became able to en- 
dure my accustomed amount of labor. 

During the course of the affection of my arm, I never was fully con- 
vinced that the salts dissolved in the water used in the dressings, was 
any advantage to it, but rather supposed all the comfort and benefit was 
derived from the coldness of the application, and the facility with which 
the electricity was carried away by the moisture. 

The Scutellaria Laterifolia 7 which I used freely in infusion, during 



1852.] Bibliographical Notices, 85 

the times when I suffered most, I know to have been a very good nervine 
and tonic in my case, but whether it acted in any manner to protect the 
system from the morbid poison received from the dead and decomposing 
animal, or from that generated in my own arm, it is not easy to decide. 
It has had a reputation, as a preventative of Hydrophobia, in those who 
had been bitten by a rabid dog, and whether it has acted solely upon the 
nervous system, or upon the general substance of the body, has never 
been determined, — neither does it seem of the greatest moment that the 
facts should be known, so long as it may be proved of benefit in one or 
other of those modes. In my case, however, I am of the opinion, that 
its beneficial effects were not confined solely to its effects upon the nerves. 
This plant is every way deserving the careful attention of the profession, 
which I would earnestly bespeak in its favor. 

The above case has already been reported in brief, in a Journal which 
at that time had but a limited circulation, and is now presented, in a 
more full and extended manner to the readers of the Reporter, not on 
account of any intrinsic interest it may possess, but that the writer may 
learn the experience of others in regard to an accident to which all are 
constantly liable, but in which the profession seem not to have settled 
upon any uniform or definite course of medication, 

Waterbury, Vermont, Nov. 1852. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



On Syphilis, Constitutional and Hereditary, and on Syphilitic Eruptions. "By 
Erasmus Wilson, F. R. S., Author of a " Treatise on Diseases of the Skin, 
&c," with four colored Plates. Blanchard and Lea, Philadelphia, 1852. 

We have before us a book of 284 octavo pages, executed with a neat- 
ness, that is seldom surpassed by the American Medical Press. Its ob- 
ject is to simplify the subject of which it treats; a subject, familiarly 
known by name to all, but the peculiarities of which are faintly drawn 
in the minds of the general professional reader. The author designs to 
establish the fact that there is but one syphilitic poison, and one syphili- 
tic eruption, and that the apparent differences in its appearance and cha- 
racter, are modifications of the disease, depending on time, treatment, and 
the temperament of the patient. 

" I am fully convinced that there exists but one syphilitic poison, and that all the 
varieties of its manifestation, which are met with in practice are due to modifications 
in the poison itself, modifications having reference to concentration, assimilation, and 
susceptibility. It would not be reasonable to expect the same train of results from 
innoculation of the lymph secreted by a recent chancre, as from a poison which has 
passed through the blood of a contaminated person, been filtered through his tissues, 



86 Bibliographical Notices. [Dec. 

and is presented in a state of dilution in his secretions. In like manner, a person of 
nervous or sanguine temperament is more likely to be violently affected by the ad- 
mission of a poison into his blood than one of lymphatic temperament. These modi- 
fications on the part of the giver and receiver may possibly explain some of the mul- 
tiform shapes in which syphilis is presented to our observation." 

The result of the syphilitic poison is to produce an ulcer, by contact 
with the mucus membrane of a sound person, though it is believed that 
it will sometimes produce a purulent discharge as in an ordinary Blenorr- 
hoea or G onerrhoea ; and cases are related, to prove that the constitiution- 
al symptoms of syphilis may follow such a discharge, with as much cer- 
tainty, as they will a chancre. The indurated chancre of Hunter of 
which much has been written, is supposed to be the result of a constitu- 
tional taint, presenting in some cases, the only evidence of syphili- 
tic poison in the blood. 

The disease is considered with reference to its divisions into its prima- 
ry and secondary manifestations, and the evolution of the poison upon 
the skin, in its various forms, with its peculiar local actions, its congeni- 
tal and hereditary forms and treatment. The plates are illustrative of the 
eruption in its various modifications. We cannot fail to recommend the 
book to the favorable notice of the profession. 



A Practical Treatise on Diseases of the Skin. By J. Moore Neeigan, M. D., 
M. R. I. A., Honorary Fellow of the Society of Physicians of Sweden, &c. &c. 
&c. Philadelphia, Blanchard and Lea. 

Fourteen chapters, devoted to the consideration of a long catalogue of 
cutaneous diseases, with their pathology, treatment, &c, and the diseases 
of the appendages of the Skin, and their Therapeutics, make up the 326 
pages of Dr. Neligan's Treatise. The condensed form of the volume, and 
the great number of prescriptions scattered through the body of the work, 
and the chapter on Therapeutics particularly, with a copious index, ren- 
der it valuable for reference. We have not space to give more than this 
brief outline of the book. It is deposited, however, on our shelves, as a 
valuable addition to our library. 



General Pathology, as Conducive to the Establishment of Rational Principles for the 
Diagnosis and Treatment of Disease. A course of Lectures, delivered at St. 
Thomas's Hospital, during the Summer Session of 1850. By John Simon, 
F. R. S., one of the Surgical Staff of that Hospital, and officer of Health of 
the City of London. Philadelphia, Blanchard and Lea. 

We feel very much like wanting more room than we have, to pre- 
sent a fair view of this book to our readers; for though it is small, 
there are to us some new views, which we should like to offer for 
the consideration of our brethren. We may however be able to give one 
or two extracts, that may induce a perusal of it. The relation of Patho- 
logy to Physiology is considered, and presented to the student, as an 
important basis for his future investigations ; both are supposed to treat 
of the science of life ) the one indicating the vital phenomena in health, 



1852.] Bibliographical Notices. 87 

and the other in disease j hut where the physiological condition ceases, 

and the pathological begins, is a question not clearly solved. 

" Any attempted line of demarcation between physiology and pathology soon 
melts away; the healthy and delightful rush of blood to the surface of the body, as we 
emerge from the cold bath, depends on the same apparatus and the same adaptation, 
as determine the still greater glow — the painful redness and effusion of serum, when_ 
boiling water, or the poison of erysipelas, is the provocant ; and if we were to pro 
ceed no farther in the subject, we should be prepared to modify the definition of 
disease with which we started, and to speak of pathology as the study of life under 
abnormal exterior relations. 

Disease is described as " something more or less than health/' some- 
times of exopathic origin ; and sometimes originating within the body, 
independently of external causation. 

" And accordingly, while we may describe Pathology to consist in the Science of 
Life under other conditions than those of ideal perfection, we are obliged to reserve a 
doubt whether the imperfect conditions in question may universally be referred to ex- 
terior causation, or may partly be considered as spontaneous tendencies, inherent in 
the vital principle of the individual." ###### 

" "We find that disease works according to laws definite, constant, invariable ; we 
find in it no contradiction to the laws of life; on the contrary, that the latter, in their 
simplicity and comprehensiveness, include and account for it; that the power of adap- 
tation to circumstances, the power of resistance to casualties, the power of repair 
after injury, would not be possible or conceivable attributes of the human body, except 
under conditions which impose the liability to disease. At every turn of the subject, 
and in every fresh illustration which new study reveals to us, we derive deeper and 
more steadfast convictions of the total absence of caprice, chance, or irregularity, even 
in the strangest influences of disease. We become habitual observers of that mystery 
which most of all tends to chasten and to elevate the mind — observers, namely, of the 
unbroken unforinity which prevails in the operation of Natural Laws." 

With these brief references to the style and doctrines of the lecturer, 
we may simply state, that the volume before us, treating as it does of a 
subject, of deep interest to every practitioner of medicine, ought to have 
its place by the side of Wood, Watson, Elliotson and others, as it affords 
a pleasant and useful variety in the study of physiological science. 



The Physician 1 s List, Diary, and Book of Engagements, for 1853. Lindsay and 
Blakiston, Philadelphia. 

We have used the visiting list for 1852, and can speak from daily 
experience of its convenience and utility. An Almanac, Table of Doses, 
Poisons and their Antidotes, and a portion of the code of Ethics, form 
part of the arrangement, while a weekly table is prepared on each page 
for the visits of the practitioner ; a margin being left for the names of 
patients. We have found sometimes in sickly seasons, that the page is 
not large enough to admit of a week's register, and would suggest to 
the,' publishers to increase its size, and also to furnish a character to de- 
signate obstetric visits. 



Books Received and to be noticed in next Number. 

The Principles and Practice of Dental Surgery ; by Chapin A. Har- 
ris, M. D., D. D. S., Professor of the Principles and Practice of Dental 
Surgery in the Baltimore College ) member of the American Medical 



88 Editorial. [Dec. 

Association ; Author of Dictionary of Dental Science and Medical Ter- 
minology, &c, &c. Fifth Edition j revised, modified, and greatly im^ 
proved, with two hundred and thirty-six illustrations. Philadelphia, 
Lindsay and Blakiston, 1852. 

Practical Treatise on Dental Medicine, being a compendium of Medi- 
cal Science, as connected with the study of Dental Surgery : to which is 
appended an inquiry into the use of Chloroform, and other anaesthetic 
agents. Second Edition, revised, corrected and enlarged, by Thomas 
E. Bond, A. M., M. D., Professor of Special Pathology and Therapeu- 
tics in the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery. Philadelphia, Lindsay 
and Blakiston, 1852. 



EDITORIAL. 



The Reporter, hand in hand with Quackery. 

Camden Affair. On page 361 Vol. v. No. x. of the Reporter, will be 
found the history of a " Case of Tetanus successfully treated, by S. Bird- 
sell, M. D.," of Camden, N. J. The case occurred in March last. On 
the 24th of April, a brief notice of it appeared in the "American Ban- 
ner," and we believe in some other public papers. On the 5th of May, a 
physician of Camden, wrote to the President of the New Jersey Medical 
Society, saying that he believed it to be the duty of the President, " as 
the conservator of professional etiquette," to advise against the insertion 
of the article in this Journal, because it had been noticed in a secular 
paper, and uncalled for reflections of an injurious nature were made upon 
another physician. Upon this suggestion being made to the President, 
he wrote to us on the 7th of the same month, enclosing the letter of 
his correspondent. We waited for, and finally received the article as it 
has been furnished to our readers -, but before inserting it in the Repor- 
ter, we wrote to Dr. B., informing him that we could not admit his es- 
say, if the article in the Banner was written by himself. On the 4th 
of June, Dr. B. replied, that he was not the author of the notice referred 
to, but that he did not wish to press his essay upon us, if li in accordance 
with duty" we could not receive it. At the same time he referred to the 
Editors of the different papers, giving their names, &c, for a confirma- 
tion of his statement. Receiving this avowal from Dr. B., we published 
his case in July. On the 7th of October, the medical gentleman who 
first wrote to the President of the State Society addressed a letter to us, 
in which the following language is used, in reference to the New Jersey 



1852.] Editorial. 89 

Medical Reporter. u The Journal admitting him, when forewarned of 
the facts of the case, aids and abets charlatancy in the profession, and I, 
as a member of the profession cannot give my support to such a Journal/ ' 

We again wrote to this gentleman, that as he, or the President, 
had not stated anything from positive knowledge, and as Dr. B. had de- 
nied having written the article, we had no just grounds for refusing it. 
Again he wrote to us, and urged that certain questions be proposed to 
the editor of the Banner, and a direct answer to each be requested, stat- 
ing that he had conversed with said editor, and was satisfied of the cor- 
rectness of the charge made against Dr. B. In order to satisfy ourselves, 
we did so, and by letter from the editor of the Banner, dated Nov. 13th, 
learned the following facts. The patient, and the Doctor, were personal 
friends of the editor, and as the case had excited a great deal of interest 
in the community, Dr. B. was prevailed on, by the editor, to give a sy- 
nopsis of it, while on a visit at his house, though not for the purpose of 
publication. " That Dr. Birdsell prepared the article for my paper, no- 
thing can be more false." "I wrote the article myself, and Dr. B. 
never saw it, till he saw it in print.' ' He further states, that " the Dr. 
presuming on an intimacy, that had existed for some time, did reflect on 
the skill of a so-called physician," by repeating some expressions of the 
patient himself; but that the language used in the notice, was his own, 
and not Dr. BirdselFs. 

We regret to have been compelled to occupy so much space, on a mat- 
ter of mere local interest, but the peculiar position in which we have 
been placed, is offered as our reason for doing so. 

We do not say, whether in this thing we " aid and abet" charlatanry 
or not. We rely upon the good sense of the profession at large, to settle 
the question in their own minds ; asking them to remember that the re- 
ference in the Banner, was a mere reporter's " crumb" without name, put 
in the " local department;" while that presented by us, was a full history 
of the case, under the signature of the attending physician. 



Reporters and Committees. 
We are requested by a correspondent to remind the county Reporters, 
of their duty, that they may prepare and forward their Reports, by the 
1st of January next to G. P. Rex, M. D., of Reaville, who is Chairman 
of Standing Committee. There are also a number of Committees, which 
have been continued from last year, that need to be reminded of their 
duty. In the minutes of the Society, they occur in the following order. 



90 Editorial. [Dec. 

1. To investigate the chemical action of the kidneys, &c. Joseph 
Parrish, S. W. Butler, D. B. Trimble. 

2. To investigate the effects of "blood-letting on the vital organs. A. 
Coles, L. A. Smith, A. N. Dougherty. 

3. To investigate the action of mercurial preparations on the living ani- 
mal tissues. J. B. Coleman, I. P. Coleman, J. Wolverton. 

4. On indigenous plants of New Jersey. Q. Gibbon, J. H. Thompson, 
J. a. Goble. 

We hope the suggestion of our correspondent, may be regarded by 
these committees. They will add to the cause of science, improve their 
own minds, and elevate the character of the profession by doing their 
duty. 



The British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Review. 

This excellent work, re-published by the enterprising medical book 
publishers, S. S. & W. Wood, 261 Pearl street, New York, is a regular, 
and very welcome, quarterly visiter. 

From the October number we learn that, commencing with January, 
there is to be a new feature in the work, in the shape of a limited num- 
ber of original communications of a high order, on various subjects con- 
nected with medical science. 

We know not to what an extent it is taken by our readers, but, 
we feel free to assure them that in the shape of medical literature they 
could hardly expend three dollars a year more profitably, than by sub- 
scribing to the B. and F. Medico- Chirurgical Review. Not a work ap- 
pears on any branch of medical science, but is elaborately reviewed, 
and its strong or weak points presented in such a shape, that the reader 
acquires a very correct idea of the views of the author, without the 
expense and labor attending the purchase and perusal of the book 
itself. Reader — when you appropriate two dollars for the Reporter, do 
not forget^to increase the appropriation by three, and include the Review, 
and we will guarantee that the five dollars will be the best investment 
you will make for the year. Try it, and see ! * 



Catalogues. 
We have received from S. S. & W. Wood, 261 Pearl street, N. Y., an ex- 
ceedingly valuable catalogue of medical books. Their collection is a 
very extensive and useful one, and is well worthy the attention of our 
readers. This plan of issuing catalogues separately, is much better than 



1852.] Editorial. 91 

that practiced by some publishers of disfiguring their books and journals 
by attaching it to them. In our opinion, it is a great objection to a 
work, to find that not a small part of it is a mere catalogue of books for 
sale by the publisher. One book now before us, recently published, 
contains 278 pages of matter, 32 of them being advertisements and no- 
tices of various books. In a journal containing 351 pages of reading 
matter, 58 of them are catalogues of books and advertisements. 

Another contains 151 pages of printed matter, 84 of which are cata- 
logues and advertisements ! * 

Proceedings of Medical Societies. 

The Semi- Annual Meeting of the Cumberland County Medical Society 
was held at Bridgeton, October 25th, 1852. 

An extended report from the delegates to the American Medical As- 
sociation was read. The Society, after a vote of thanks to the delegates, 
for the time and care bestowed upon the report, ordered it to be placed 
upon file. 

Dr. Ludlam, of Deerfield, read a report of three cases of disease, 
marked by the peculiarity of being pulseless. In two of them, this con- 
dition existed for more than a month. 

Upon calling the roll for a report upon Epidemics, there appeared to 
have been an unusual dearth of this form of disease, since the last meet- 
ing, except in one section of the county, where Dysentery prevailed. 

Dr. Porter made a report of the Small Pox, as it prevailed in the 
County Aims-House. The treatment was generally simple and expec- 
tant, and the efficacy of vaccination was tested in several instances. 

Dr. Bowen cited cases of interesting experiments made with vaccina- 
tion, at its first introduction. 

Dr. Elmer related a surgical case under his care, caused by the fall- 
ing of an iron plate of several tons weight, in which the pubic and sacro- 
iliac symphyses were disturbed, and the bladder injured. 

J. B. P., Secretary. 

National Pharmaceutical Convention. — Thirteen years ago, the Ame- 
rican Society of Dental Surgeons was formed, with evident advantage to 
the interests of that useful branch of medical science. Five years since 
that great institution, the American Medical Association sprang into ex- 
istence, and has already done much, and we firmly believe is destined to 
accomplish more for the advancement of the science of Medicine. And 
we have now the pleasure of announcing the formation of a National 
Pharmaceutical Association. The initiatory steps towards its formation 
were taken at a meeting of Pharmaceutists, held in the City of New 
York, on the 15th of October, 1851. That meeting called by resolution, 
another, to meet in Philadelphia, on the first Wednesday in October, 
1852, the result of which has been the formation of the Association, 
whose published proceedings now lie on our table. A variety of useful 



92 Miscellany. [Dec. 

and interesting business was transacted, giving promise of accomplishing 
much for the interests of pharmaceutical science. The principal topics 
discussed were, — 1, The formation of the Association, together with the 
adoption of a Constitution and Code of Ethics, — 2, Pharmaceutical Edu- 
cation, — -3, Secret or quack medicines, — 4, inspection of imported and 
manufactured or prepared drugs, — 7, the indiscriminate sale of Poisons, 
— 8, the separation of Pharmacy from the practice of medicine. These 
various subjects were ably discussed, and on many of them committees 
were appointed to report at the next meeting, which will be held in Bos- 
ton, on the fourth Wednesday, (24th) of August, 1853. * 

Miscellany. 

In the October number of the North Western Medical and Surgical 
Journal , Dr. N. S. Davis, reports a case in which the small intestine 
was ruptured in the left inguinal region, by blows from a man's foot on 
the parieties of the abdomen, leaving no external mark by which such a 
result could have been anticipated. Death followed the injury received, 
in a little more than forty-eight hours. This case is interesting in a me- 
dico-legal point of view. A similar case of laceration of the Colon, from 
the same cause, is reported by M. Morineau in the Revue Medicale, and 
copied into the B. and F. Medico-Chirurgical Review. 

In an article in the London Medical Times and Gazette, a writer 
speaks very highly of the Chlorate of Potash in the treatment of croup. 
Case : " J. P., three years; croup. This child was leeched, and treated 
with calomel, salines, and ipecacuanha. After these remedies, the chlo- 
rate of potash was employed, and the change in his breathing, and the 
hue of his countenance, was most marked after the first dose." The 
theory is that the chlorate of potash is decomposed, supplying oxygen to 
the system. 

Dr. Yattier, State Senator from Hamilton County, Ohio, proposes to 
advocate in the next session of the Legislature of that State, the passage 
of a law requiring that " each vender of patent medicine, nostrum or 
specific, shall be compelled to place a printed label in English, upon the 
outside wrapper, setting forth the composition of the contained remedy." 
Are there no physicians, members of our State Legislature, who, consi- 
der this matter important enough to bring it before that body ? The pas- 
sage of such a law, would unquestionably be an effectual blow at the 
Very root of a gigantic evil in the community. 

The Medical News for October, contains the report of a Committee 
appointed by the Pennsylvania Medical Society, to take into considera- 
tion the new views on the protective power of vaccination, recently pro- 
mulgated by Drs. Gregory of London, and Cazenave of Paris. The re- 
sult of the investigation was to satisfy the committee that those views 
were based upon erroneous grounds, and they regret that such state- 
ments have been put forth at a time when vaccination is so much neg- 
lected, and when efforts are being made to re-establish its protective 



1852.] Obituary Notices. 93 

power. The Committee presents an abstract of statements, made by a 
committee of the Epidemiological Society of London, through its Chair- 
man, Mr. Grainger, showing conclusively the general efficacy attending 
vaccination when properly executed. 

New buildings are about to be erected for the New York Hospital. 
Plans are advertised for. 

Dr. R. L. Howard, of Columbus, Ohio, has established an Institution 
for the treatment of chronic diseases. The institution is in a portion of 
the Starling Medical College building, which has been elegantly furnished, 
and provided with every convenience in the way of baths, &c. This we 
think is an excellent move, and we trust it will attract the attenion of 
the profession in other places. * 



OBITUARY NOTICES. 

Death of Dr. Edwin A. Heintzelman. — The sudden removal of Dr. 
Heintzelman, and the circumstances of his death, have cast a gloom over 
the community in which he lived, such as is seldom experienced. On 
the morning of the 12th of the present month, he left home with his 
student, to spend a few hours on an island in the Delaware, to indulge in 
shooting. In the afternoon, whilst preparing to return, he received a 
heavy charge from a gun, held by his own hand, which penetrated his 
abdomen, just below the umbilicus, passing upwards and entering 
some of the larger vessels, and completely destroying the pyloric orifice 
of the stomach. He spoke but a few words, sank down to the floor of 
the boat, in which he stood, and died almost instantly. Dr. Heintzelman 
was born in Philadelphia, on the 30th of October, 1827. After his scho- 
lastic course, he determined to study medicine; and entered the Medical 
Department of Pennsylvania College, on the 3d of November, 1845, 
and received the degree of the Doctorate, March 9 th, 1849. It is said 
of him, by those who watched his career as a student, that during the 
whole period of the three courses, which he attended, his conduct was ex- 
emplary, and that at the final examination, he exhibited a " thorough 
knowledge" of the branches of instruction, embraced in a complete me- 
dical education. Soon after he graduated, he located in Columbus, New 
Jersey, where he soon became favorably known, and rapidly secured the 
confidence and affection of a large portion of the people. His was a short, 
but useful career ; had he lived, he would probably in time, have occu- 
pied a prominent position in the medical community ; but it has been or- 
dered otherwise, and he is stricken down at the age of twenty-five, leaving 
a young widow and infant daughter, and a large circle of attached 
and afflicted friends. How true, that " in the midst of life we are in 
death." 

James Bruyn Elmendorf, M. D. 
Published by order of the Somerset Medical Society. 
It has become my duty to record the decease of a physician and a 
friend. Dr. James Bruyn Elmendorf, died at his residence near Mill- 



94 Obituary Notices. [Dec. 

stone, on the first of September, 1852. While we deplore his loss, and 
express our sympathy with his afflicted family, we mourn not without 
hope. He lived and died a Christian. 

Dr. Elmendorf was born in Somerset County, in the year 1788. He 
graduated from the College of New Jersey in 1807, after which he pur- 
sued the study of medicine with Dr. Charles Smith, of New Brunswick, 
for about two years. W hile attending lectures in Philadelphia, he be- 
came a pupil of Dr. Benjamin Bush, of whom he ever afterward spoke 
with admiration and affection. His diploma from the University of Penn- 
sylvania, bears date 1813 ; after which, locating in Somerville, he prac- 
ticed for a number of years in connection with Dr. Peter S. Stryker. 
Removing from Somerville, he practiced in Philadelphia, for about three 
years, soon after which, he retired to his farm near Millstone, and devoted 
the remainder of his life chiefly to agricultural pursuits. 

As a man and a physician, Dr. Elmendorf was possessed of agreeable 
qualities, which made him beloved by all who knew him. His generous 
nature and gentlemanly bearing, ever kept him above the petty rivalry 
and jealousies, which too often disgrace the Medical Profession. As a 
Medical man it is not in my power to speak as particularly of Dr. El- 
mendorf, as I could desire. He had, to a great degree, ceased practice 
prior to my acquaintance with him. But taking the uniform esteem of 
his former patients as my guide, I cannot doubt that he was both untir- 
ing and successful in his efforts for their welfare. His dignified manner 
and extensive acquaintance, ever commanded the respect of his fellow 
physicians ; while as a citizen and a neighbor, he has not left behind him 
an enemy or an evil wisher. 

Post Mortem Examination. Reported by H. F. Vanderveer, M. D. 

An examination of the body of Dr. Elmendorf was made, with a view 
of better ascertaining the causes of his death. Believing that the ap- 
pearances exhibited, possess some medical interest, I will describe them, 
premising a sketch of the ante-mortem symptoms. 

For five or six years previous to his death, the Doctor experienced pain 
of a severe character in his left hip. It was believed to be of rheumatic 
origin, with which view remedies were tried, without any very decided 
result. Partial relief was followed by still more severe paroxysms, and 
inconvenient lameness of the limb succeeded. After about three years 
the pain became more sharp and lancinating in its character, and numb- 
ness and tingling of the limb, especially in the course of the ischiatic 
nerve occurred. The case was now looked upon as neuralgia, and treat- 
ment was adopted accordingly. The neuralgia, however, appeared as 
obstinate as the preceding rheumatism had been, and little benefit was 
obtained, except from anodynes. This was the Dr's. condition, during 
the spring of 1851. Notwithstanding the remedies, a variety of which 
were tried, the pain continued and was even increased in severity and 
duration. During the latter part of same year, pain began to be felt 
throughout the left side of the pelvis, especially about the anus and 
rectum. By this time, almost every remedy for neuralgia had proved 



1852.] Obituary Notices. 95 

unavailing, which fact, with the severe suffering of the patient, gave the 
case a serious aspect. The anxiety of the Dr. and his friends was 
not diminished, when, during February, 1852, a tumor was discovered 
occupying the centre of the gluteal region. This tumor was deep-seated, 
pulsating, and, on auscultation, yielded a thrill similar to that of aneu- 
rism. Much obscurity prevailed as to its nature; extirpation seemed 
out of the question, and resolvent and mild antiphlogistic measures 
were adopted. During the summer, the tumor seemed to diminish in 
size, but without relief to any of the symptoms. From the time of the 
tumour's appearance, the Dr's. strength failed rapidly, and it became evi- 
dent that he could not sustain his sufferings much longer. Emaciated 
and worn down by the severity of the disease, his death was hastened by 
an attack of mucus diarrhoea, which supervened, during the latter part of 
August. 

Post Mortem. No tumor was perceptible externally after death. In- 
cisions were made, exposing the gluteal region. The gluteus maximus 
was dissected up and turned over, and the gluteus medius was partially 
removed, when part of the latter muscle was seen to be invaded by he- 
terologous deposite. The mass was dark colored, friable, and abounding 
in coagulated blood. It protruded from the sacro-sciatic notch. Dissec- 
tion of the tumour was difficult, on account of its extreme softness. It 
was extensively attached to the sacrum and ilium, and on its removal 
the bone exhibited erosion at the points of contact, leaving a rough sur- 
face abounding with spicuhe of bone. The sacro-iliac articulation was so 
far destroyed by this invasion, that it was easily separated with a scalpel. 
The greater part of the left side of the pelvis was occupied by the tumor. 
The whole of the diseased substance could not be removed through the 
opening, nor the exact state of the pelvic viscera ascertained. The nerves 
of the sacral plexus were dissected from the tumor in which they were 
involved. Though bones had been eroded, the nerves with their sheaths 
were untouched, nor was any pathological change observed in them. 

Remarks. — The tumor was regarded as Encephaloid in its character. 
The apparent diminution in its size, which occurred during the last few 
weeks of life, was doubtless owing to the softening of the tumor, and de- 
struction of the pelvic bones. From the protracted duration of the case, 
it would seem probable, that the disease commenced as a benign tumor 
and degenerated. 

Somerville, N. J., November 19, 1852. 

Death of James Paul, M. D. — Dr. Paul, so favorably known by 
the profession of New Jersey, died at his residence, at Trenton, on the 12th 
of last month, aged 54 years. Dr. Paul was a native of Edinburgh, Scot- 
land, and completed in his native city, the course of academical and profes- 
sional study, which fitted him for the active duties of after life : the princi* 
pal sphere of which was at Kingston, on the Island of Jamaica. He pur- 
sued his profession there for about twenty years, and then removed to 
the United States, hoping to derive benefit from our more favorable cli- 
mate. He lived in Canandaigua, N. Y., for five years ; spent the winter 
of 1847-8 in Philadelphia, and then took up his residence in Trenton. 

n 



96 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Dec. 

He soon became connected with the County Medical Society of Mer- 
cer, and with the State Medical Society, of which he was the first Vice 
President at the time of his death. His contributions to the medical 
literature of the State, are well known to those who are interested in sus- 
taining it. His report, read at the last annual meeting, as Chairman of 
the Standing Committee, is elaborate, and gives ample evidence of his 
diligence and fidelity. He has also contributed, essays on the "food and 
the teeth/' on the "secreting function of the Colon/' " statistics of Births 
and Deaths in the State of New Jersey, for 1850/' which were collected 
from the official documents, " medicinal, disinfecting, and dietetic pro- 
perties of coffee," with a history of the Asiatic Cholera, as it prevailed in 
the Island of Jamaica in 1850. These with numerous minor contribu- 
tions, have identified his name and abilities with the interest of the pro- 
fession in this State, which we trust may be long cherished. His mild 
and retiring deportment, and his character for Christian simplicity, 
adorned his professional life and commanded the respect of all. 

Death of Dr. Daniel Drake. — We regret to announce the decease 
of this veteran of the profession, who died in Cincinnati, on the 6th of 
November. Dr. Drake was a native of New Jersey, but early removed 
to Cincinnati, having become a resident of that city twelve years after it 
was founded. He was the originator of the Ohio Medical College, and, 
at the time of his decease was Professor of the Practice of Medicine in 
that Institution. He had but recently brought to a close the second vo- 
lume of his great work, the Medical Topography of the Mississippi Val- 
ley. This was his crowning literary effort, and will stand as an enduring 
monument to his indefatigable industry. In carrying on this work, he 
has, during the last thirty years travelled, from time to time, over almost 
every portion of the Mississippi Valley, in search of facts, Geological, Me- 
teorological, Botanic and Climatic. For most of the facts embodied above 
we are indebted to the public journals. Will not some of our Cincinnati 
readers furnish us with a biographical sketch of this distinguished son of 
New Jersey ? * 

The death of Dr. Buckner, Sen., editor of the Repertorium fiir Phar- 
macie, is announced in the British and Foreign Medico-Chirurgical Re- 
view. " He was another example of the ruling passion strong in death. 
Making some movement just before the fatal event, one of his friends 
asked the cause. ' I am thinking/ he replied. * Of what V l Materia 
medicaV * 



ECLECTIC AND SUMMAKY DEPARTMENT. 



On the Treatment of Facial Neuralgia — M. Cazenave informs us 
(Revue Medico- Chirurgicale,) that he has had marked success in removing 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 97 

the pains of hemicrania and facial neuralgia by means of the following 
pomade : — 

Pure Chloroform, dr. iv. 

Cyanide of potassium, dr. iijss. 

Axunge, oz. iij. 

Wax sufficient to give consistence. 
M. Cazenave professes to have tried the cyanide of potassium alone, with- 
out any benefit, and therefore concludes that it is this particular combina- 
tion which is so valuable. The mode of using it is to rub of the ointment, 
the size of a pigeon's egg, into the scalp, after which the head is to be 
covered with an oiled-silk cap. The inunction is to be repeated accord- 
ing to circumstances. In facial neuralgia it is rubbed in over the affected 
nerve. — Prov. Med. and Surg. Journal, from Western Lancet. 



Case of u Internal Derangement of the Knee Joint." — By Gr. H. H. 
The injury known by the above name, as well as by that of u partial dis- 
location of the semi-lunar cartilages" has received from medical writers 
but a small share of the attention it deserves. It was first described by 
the first William Hey, of Leeds, afterwards by Sir Astley Cooper, and 
was noticed by a few systematic writers twenty years since, but latterly 
has been passed by, either without notice, or with a few casual and inde- 
finite remarks; yet it is an incident of frequent occurrence, apt to be 
overlooked and maltreated, or neglected. A clinical lecture on this sub- 
ject, by Mr. Smith of Leeds, who looks at the injury as it occurs in 
general practice, and shows the liability we are under to mistake its na- 
ture, may be found in the 24th No. of Braith waiters Retrospect, (copied 
from the Lancet.) Mr. S. shows that Mr. Samuel Hey, an excellent 
surgeon, overlooked, for ten days, an injury of this character, which he 
then cured immediately by making " forced flexion." 

A perusal of this lecture brings to mind several cases of this injury 
which have come under my own observation, the best marked ex- 
ample of which I send for publication. 

Aug. 24, 1851. Was summoned to see a lad about sixteen years of 
age, who the messenger said, had hurt his knee. I was informed that 
about 5, A. M., by some accidental step, he had slightly injured the left 
knee ; he immediately discovered he could not perfectly straighten the 
limb ; from a slight limp his lameness increased so rapidly that in a few 
minutes he became unable to support himself, or to move the joint; in 
this condition he was assisted into a wagon and conveyed twenty miles, 
where he was left to recover by rest from what was considered a slight 
sprain. I saw him at 12 M. ; the pain which, on his arrival at 8 A. M., 
was very tolerable when in a state of rest, had increased to perfect agony, 
-rendered worse by the slightest jar or motion of the limb ; he was sitting 
in a chair, begging not to be moved — his pallid countenance, cold perspi- 
ration, and feeble pulse attested strongly the intensity of his distress, 
and, taken in connection with the history of the case and the absence of 
-any visible lesion of the joint, pointed conclusively to the nature of the 
injury. In spite of his protestations and supplications he was lifted and 



98 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Dec. 

laid on his right side ; then taking his left ankle with my right hand 
and making a fulcrum of my left in the popliteal space, I flexed the limb 
so as to bring the heel to the buttock and then brought it perfectly 
straight \ the first time it had been perfectly straightened since the in- 
jury. He made bitter complaint of severe usage, but, at my request, got 
off the bed, stood on both feet, and walked to a chair without assistance ; 
Was ordered to remain quiet and bathe the knee with an anodyne em- 
brocation. At my visit at 7, P. M., he was walking about the house, 
free from pain and but slightly lame. Since then I have not seen or 
heard from him. 

This case differed from others seen before only in the great physical 
depression rarely seen from any cause. Strong flexion, with a sufficient 
fulcrum, will, I think, always liberate the cartilage from the unnatural 
position which causes the pain and lameness. But, as extension by the 
muscles of the thigh alone might not be the safest in all cases, after such 
forced flexion it is always best to forcibly extend the limb before remov- 
ing the fulcrum from behind the knee. I have seen several cases of per- 
manently lame knees which I doubt not were originally of this character, 
but from neglect became incurable ; others, more fortunate, have been 
cured by accidental slip, causing forced flexion. — N. H. Jour, of Med. 

The Salivary Glands.. — M. Charles Bernard, the well-known 
French physiologist and anatomist, after a long and careful study of the 
salivary glands, has discovered, that each of the three common to most 
mammals, furnishes a different secretion. The saliva from the sublingual 
gland is viscous and adhesive, incapable of penetrating substances, but 
admirably adapted to cover their surface with a viscid coating which 
much facilitates their being swallowed. On the contrary, that from the 
parotid gland, is thin and watery, easily penetrates substances submitted 
to its action, and thus assists their assimilation. The saliva from the 
submaxillary gland partakes of the nature of both the others. 

The verification of these facts was established by macerating portions 
of the membrane in water (as well as by actual experiment on living 
subjects), the liquid in which the membranes were soaked presenting the 
same character as that of the secretions. M. Bernard considers the 
secretion from the parotid gland as especially designed to assist mastica- 
tion, more particularly as its amount varies according to the nature of 
the food masticated. The parotid glands of a horse fed on perfectly dry 
food, secrete a greater quantity than when the food of the same animal is 
moistened, or is of a succulent character. Similar results have been fur- 
nished by experiments on dogs and rabbits. It is likewise an extraordi- 
nary fact, that this gland will secrete, in the course of one hour, saliva, 
weighing ten times the weight of its own tissue ; — a wonderful example 
of the rapidity with which that secretion can be separated from the blood 
under certain circumstances, and proving the fallacy of drawing any con- 
clusion from the quantity secreted within a given time. The sublingual 
gland remains inert during the process of mastication, but as soon as de- 
glutition commences it begins to act, and envelops, or rather lubricates 
the macerated substance with its viscid secretion, facilitating its passage 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 99 

to the stomach. The office of the submaxillary gland has much to do 
with the sense of taste, its secretion diluting and diminishing the pun- 
gency of sapid substances, and at the same time decreasing their power 
of cohesion. These glands are identical in texture, although so different 
in their secretions. "Each gland/' says M. Bernard, " having a special 
act, its function is exercised under separate and independent influences. 
Notwithstanding the discharging into, and the mixture of their secretions 
in the mouth, their use remains distinct." — Boston Med. and Surg. Jour. 

Professional Aphorisms.- — The talented editor of U Union Medicale, 
lately gave a few extremely apposite and amusing professional aphorisms, 
in one of his clever fuilletons. We shall just extract a few : 

1. Life is short, the making of a practice difficult, and professional 
brotherhood deceptive. 2. A man's practice may be compared to a field, 
on which tact acts as manure. 3. A medical practice may be likened to 
a flannel waistcoat — neither can be left one moment without risk. 4. The 
practitioner who is often absent runs the same danger as the lover, for 
both may find themselves supplanted on their return. 5. Take great care 
of your first patients, ye beginners, for these are the seed from which 
your practice is to spring. 6. When a medical man wishes to get rid of 
a troublesome patient he need but send in his bill. 7. The practitioner 
who expects his reward from the gratitude of his patients, may be likened 
to the countryman who waited, in order to cross the river, until the 
waters had done flowing. 8. To ask an exorbitant fee always redounds 
to the disgrace of the profession. A wealthy patient who was asked an 
enormous sum by a surgeon, after an operation, answered, u You ought 
to have said at first, your money or your life." 9. When the blind cre- 
dulity of the public in medical matters is considered, one does not won- 
der that there are so many quacks and impostors, but on the contrary, 
that there are still so many upright medical men. 10. Consultations 
are either very useful or very dangerous, just as the medical attendant 
knows how to manage. It is foolish to have recourse to them too often, 
and still more foolish to reject them altogether. Don't wait until the 
friends of the patient ask for a consultation; but don't talk of a consul- 
tation if you think the result will be favorable. 11. It is not an easy 
task to come out of a consultation without being a little lowered in the 
estimation of the patient and his friends, — the more so as there are physi- 
cians and surgeons who, with the utmost urbanity, throw out perfidiously, 
concealed hints, which the practitioner should immediately take up, and 
boldly insist upon a clear statement. 12. A consultation is often a note 
of hand drawn by the usual attendant upon the patient, for the benefit 
of the physician called in to give his opinion. — Ohio Med. and Surg. 
Journal. 

In the October number of the Medical Times, Dr. Charles H. Still- 
man of Plainfield, in this State, highly recommends creosote for its anti- 
septic qualities. 

" Mrs. R. ; a lady residing in this place, died of puerperal peritonitis, 



100 Eclectic and Summary Department [Dec. 

a disease in which you are aware, decomposition often makes extensive 
progress before death. Soon after her decease, I opened the thorax by a 
small incision, and injected with a common syringe, 2 oz. creosote, di- 
luted with eight of alcohol, into the aorta, Decomposition was thus not 
only arrested, but seemed to retrograde, the tumefaction diminishing, 
and although the body remained unburied a week in warm weather, and 
was taken at that time to the southern part of this State, nearly one hun- 
dred and fifty miles, a large portion of the distance by private convey- 
ance, I was assured by the undertaker and friends who accompanied her 
remains, that not the slightest change was perceptible in her appearance, 
nor the least odor of decomposition when committed at last to the earth." 



Chloroform as a Remedy for Rheumatism. By Peter W. Martin, 
M. D., of Nashville, Tenn. — Prof. Bowling : — You know that acute 
Bheumatism is the evil genius of myself and family. Last summer my 
son, Schuyler W. Martin, Esq., was severely attacked with Bhematism. 
I applied Chloroform to the affected limb, rubbing on well for 30 
minutes. It gave him immediate relief. He has had no symptoms of 
the disease since, having a few months previous been confined eight 
weeks. At the time I used it in his case, his little sister had been con- 
fined for four weeks, never having turned in her bed without assistance. 
Seeing the relief given to my son, I had her extremities well bathed and 
rubbed with chloroform for 30 or 40 minutes. She went to sleep and 
slept soundly for 10 hours, not having slept more than one hour at a 
time previous to the application. I gave her no other medication, only 
using chloroform when the pain returned. In a week she was going 
about the room, and has had no return of the disease since. I have used 
it on my own person in the same way with the same result ; also, several 
other persons. I have applied it in one case of Facial Neuralgia, of long 
standing, with the happiest effect. The Chloroform should be rubbed on 
with the hand until the object is effected, (pain removed.) — Nashville 
Journal. 

New Method of Treating Still-born Children. By T. "Wood, M. D., 
of Cincinnati, Ohio. — Mrs. C was brought to bed in her first con- 
finement, and had a very protracted and tedious labor, from a rigid and 
unyielding vulva. The child on delivery was in a state of syncope, so 
profound as to leave but little hopes for restoration to life. Full five 
minutes had been lost in fruitless efforts to excite breathing, and the only 
sign of life in the child was a slight convulsive effort while its lower 
limbs were yet in the vagina, after which it lay flacid, ex-sanguineous, 
and in appearance dead. Cold air, cold water, and brandy had been 
thrown on its chest without producing the slightest effect, and I was 
about to inflate its lungs, when I noticed that the vessels of the cord 
were much distended with blood, and a very feeble pulsation in its arte- 
ries. Finding this condition of the cord, suggested the idea that, per- 
haps, if the blood it contained could be forced into the circulation of the 
child, it might afford the required stimulation. Instantly acting on the 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 101 

suggestion, I took the cord between my thumb and fingers, and drew its 
whole length between them, so as to force the blood into the child, when 
it immediately cried lustily, and animation was completely restored. It 
had no more difficulty in beginning life, and is now doing well. 

I report this case under the impression that this mode of treatment 
is original. 

Since having the above case, I tried the same treatment in a child that 
was delivered by a long labor embarrassed by convulsions. — Animation 
was at once restored on forcing the blood from the cord into the circula- 
tion of the child, but there was not, previous to resorting to this means, 
such complete prostration of the child as in the first case, and though 
effectual, the result was not so striking. 

My friend, Dr. A. M. Slocum, informs me that since I related my 
case to him, he has tried it in a similar prostration of the child, with the 
same happy result. — Western Lancet. 



Allopathy. — Allopathy — "What is it? We do not know — nor do we 
intend to learn. Let the pathys bury the pathys, or live by pathicism, 
if there be such a thing. The profession of medicine has stood a great 
deal of thieving in its time, without being materially deteriorated by the 
operation. Granite columns are but polished the brighter by the sand 
which the idle and ignorant throw upon them, though done with a view 
to blacken and deface. 

But a friend enquires of us, u seriously, what is Allopathy ?" Well, 
to be serious. In this age, quackery, which had waged a ceaseless war 
upon medicine without much profit to itself or injury to its enemy, de- 
termined to reverse the old maxim of " divide and conquer" — or rather, 
as it could not divide the enemy, it determined to divide itself. The 
various marauding parties into which it was divided having surrounded 
the iEsculapian camp, would each plunge in, as opportunity presented, 
and, seizing whatever they could grab, hurry off as fast as their legs could 
carry them. As the pathway to the public plunder was beset with dan- 
gers and difficulties, the plunder itself was in time designated as path or 
its diminutive pathy, as indicating its value from the difficulty of procur- 
ing it. That the stealage of each party might be kept separate, each 
attached a prefix to his pathy or plunder, and to keep it distinct from 
the petit larceny of the vulgar, dictionaries were consulted that these 
prefixes might smack of learning — hence, hydro, homoe, &c. Still the 
great bulk remained, despite the depredation of the marauders, seem- 
ingly undiminished. To this they would refer as the big pathy, or, to 
express their own contempt of what little they had got in comparison, 
all of the pathy ! This has now been contracted into allopathy. We 
might have exhibited more learning by the aid of dictionaries, (having 
learned how to find the words) in our history of Pathicism, but all his- 
tory should be so plain that a "wayfaring man, though a fool, could not 
err therein." — -Nashville Journal. 



102 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Dec. 1852. 

Fracture of the Os Brachii at the insertion of the Deltoid Muscle, in, 
a Colored Preacher while in the Act of Gesticulating. By W. Pahker, 
M. D. — I was called in consultation with Dr. Sargent, in July, 1844, in 
the case of Mr. R,. Jackson, a colored minister of the Methodist denomi- 
nation who was suffering from a fracture of his right arm. He was of a 
stout build, very muscular and well developed, thirty-eight years old, 
having no hereditary predispositions and had never previously suffered a 
fracture of any of his limbs. There was no circumstance connected with 
his history giving evidence of unnatural fragility of his bones. The ac- 
cident occurred while engaged warmly in an exhortation in a religious 
meeting, and upon making a violent gesticulation. On examination, the 
right humerus was found broken at the attachment of the deltoid. Union 
took place in the usual time. — JY. Y. Journal of Medicine. 

American Medical Association. — The Sixth Annual Meeting of this 
Association will be held at the City of New York, on Tuesday, May 3d, 
1853. 

The Secretaries of all Societies, and other bodies entitled to represen- 
tation in this Association, are requested to forward to the undersigned 
a correct list of their respective delegations as soon as they may be ap- 
pointed ; and it is desired by the Committee of Arrangements that these 
appointments be made at as early a period as possible. 

The following is an extract from Article II. of the Constitution : 

" Each local society shall have the privilege of sending to the Associa- 
tion one delegate for every ten of its regular resident members, and one 
for each additional fraction of more than half this number. The faculty 
of every regularly constituted medical college or chartered school of me- 
dicine shall have the privilege of sending two delegates. The profes- 
sional staff of every chartered or municipal hospital containing a hun- 
dred inmates or more, shall have the privilege of sending two delegates; 
and every other permanently organized medical institution of good stand- 
ing shall have the privilege of sending one delegate." 

EDWARD L. BEADLE, 

One of the Secretaries of the Am. Med. Assoc. 
42 Bleecker street, New York. 

The medical press of the United States is respectfully requested to 
copy the above. 



THE 

NEW JERSEY MEDICAL REPORTER. 

VOL. VI. FIRST MONTH (JAN.), 1853. No. 4. 

Organized Quackery .—How should it he dealt with f 
By S. W. Butler, M. D. 

Tired, and too sleepy to read profitably, we lay aside our books, and 
seek, by throwing thought and energy into a new channel to arouse our 
slumbering ideas in the use of the pen. Perhaps it was unfortunate, but 
the pen wrote the title of this article as the subject of a few nightly me- 
ditations. 

Quackery, in its various forms has become a hackneyed theme, and 
yet it is, and will be, an inexhaustible one, as it is, in itself, so changeable 
in its nature, that it must be met from time to time and combatted in some 
new form. Much has been ably written on the subject, and yet much 
11 zeal without knowledge" has been manifested by different writers who 
have treated of it. This is evident from the different and opposite 
modes recommended and adopted by members of the profession of dealing 
with it For while one will avert the eye from it, as an unclean thing, 
not fit even to behold, another will grapple with it, and would fain rid 
the medical body politic of the foul excresence vi et armis. Here, one 
deals with it argumentatively, and absolutely demonstrates the utter fal- 
sity of its pretensions, while there, another, deeming it wholly beneath the 
notice of serious argumentation, applies to it the test of sarcasm and ridi- 
cule. Meanwhile the evil flourishes like a green bay tree, and never 
have its pretensions been louder, or covered more ground than at the pre- 
sent day. Time was, when the quack peddled his specifics and his pro- 
mises over the country, and vented his spleen against scientific and honest 
practitioners of the healing art, by mounting the rostrum on fair-days, in 
the market-place, or on the corner of the street, and holding forth to 
motley groups of hucksters, street-sweepers, messengers, butchers and 
bakers boys, apprentices and footmen. But this business proved too 
profitable to be abandoned to illiterate peddlers, and soon, men entered 

the lists with them, claiming, nay, some of them holding, the honorable 
13 



104 Butler on Organized Quackery. [Jan. 

title of medicinal doctor, who, for a paltry mess of potage were willing to 
barter honor, honesty, pride, and all those qualifications, which combine 
to form the high-minded and heaven-born physician. 

The Professor's and editorial chairs, and, alas ! too often the pulpit 
too, now yie with these men in their warfare against the practice of me- 
dicine. Men there are, who receive the honors conferred by the diplo- 
ma, thereby tacitly at least (and it should always be in form,') agreeing 
to be bound by the code of honor recognized by the profession, who, 
when the day of trial comes, when, through incapacity, or want of patience 
to " bide their time" they have failed to realize their grovelling hopes and 
expectations, forgetting that " no legacy is so rich as honesty," they have 
wantonly divested themselves of it as of a cast off mantle, and with for- 
tune hunters and thieves, sought worldly wealth as their highest ambi- 
tion. 

Yet, comparatively few who have been properly educated in the ranks 
of the profession, have dared to run counter to their convictions of duty, 
and we must consequently look to the ranks of the illiterate and vulgar 
— the oi polloi of society, for the sappers and miners who wield the tools, 
while they take up and prolong the cry of these few, in their war against 
medicine, — " Hodie, hodie, delenda est Carthago !" It is idle to suppose 
that quackery is merely couchant — to borrow a figure from heraldry — 
seeking sly opportunities to take advantage of the unwary. "While it is 
this, it is also rampant claiming to be part and parcel of medical science ; 
nay more, volant, it boldly soars aloft and claims to be its very imperso- 
nation. Pelion must be piled on Ossa that the very heavens may be 
scaled to dethrone the mythological deity, who presides over health and 
longevity. 

The object, and aim of quackery is always, and everywhere, one and 
the same; yet, chameleon like, it changes its dress to suit times and cir- 
cumstances, and with more than kaleidoscopic variety, offers its wares to 
suit the fancies and the pockets of its admirers. A slave of fashion, it 
now presents them in the form of pills, and anon in the shape of draughts. 
Now powders, and then galvanism or cold water, are all the rage. Here 
it appeals in the shape of sugar pellets and tasteless " solutions" to the 
fastidious palates of single sisters, and fashion mongers of upper-tendom, 
whose sole occupation is to hear, and to tell of "some new thing," — and 
there, in the shape of lobelia and cayenne pepper within, and " yarbs" 
and steam without, it tickles the palates, and opens the pores and pockets 
of the other extreme of society. 

Nor is this all ? for each potion, pill, or powder must have some inhe- 



1853.] Butler on Organized Quackery. 105 

rent, independent attraction, as "golden/' "magnetic," "purely vegeta- 
ble," " sugar-coated," " Indian," etc., etc., as though one vied with 
another, to see to what extent poor human nature is capable of being 
imposed upon. 

But when quackery in one form is consigned to the tomb of the Capu- 
lets, forthwith it again mounts aloft, " and soars and shines, another, 
and the same." 

" Scarcely have the claims of legitimate medicine been vindicated 
against the attacks of Homoeopathy, Hydropathy, and the other fashion- 
able follies and quackeries of the day -, hardly have our allopathic ranks, 
to use the enemy's term, rested for a moment from the combat, when 
from the distant north come portents of a gathering storm, to task again 
our energies in the defence of the true science of physic. Old England 
is threatened once more with a Scandinavian invasion, not indeed this 
time of savage Vikings, and uncouth hirsute warriors, but of trained 
Gymnasts and Athletse, burning to take the field, and to carry by storm, 
or else under cover and pretence of science, those strongholds of our art, 
erected by the combined labours of the medical world during preceding 
ages. To judge from the proclamations of their leaders, nothing less will 
satisfy the invaders than the utter discomfiture of the drug trade, as con- 
nected with the healing art ; the Pharmacopoeia shall be scattered to the 
winds, Apothecaries' Hall shall be closed, and the doctors of the next 
generation shall forget the Materia Medica, and shall become accom- 
plished athletics, masters of the science of defence, and superintendants 
of gymnastic exercises,"* — and Kincsitheray becomes a new candidate for 
popular favor, and a new antagonist to the ranks of legitimate medicine. 

Well, — so it is, and so it will be, as long as there is one vain man left 
to seek after vanity. Not content with the allotments of Providence, 
man will continue to seek to rob death of his victims. The siren voice 
of the tempter, " thou shalt not surely die" still rings in his ears, and if 
scientific medicine fails to arrest the march of disease, as fail it must, 
sooner or later, if there be any truth in the sentence, " dust thou art, 
and to dust shalt thou return," he will continue his search after some 
universal catholicon, some elixer of life, before which disease and death 
will pale and vanish away. The wildest mythological fancies of the an- 
cients only led to the discovery of a stream whose waters rendered the 
bather invulnerable in all points save one, yet we, " grown wiser than 
our fathers" will be satisfied with nothing short of absolute earthly im- 
mortality. We hold that this furor after specifics and cure-alls, betrays a 
vague disbelief in the heart of man of the revelations of holy writ, nay, 
we have long felt that quackery in its different phases, and infidelity in 

^British and Foreign MedieoChirurgical Review. 



106 Butler on Organized Quackery. [Jan. 

her numerous forms, are but cousins-german. Certain it is that one sort 
of ism generally begets another. "With, we think, comparatively few 
exceptions, it is not the truly enlightened and Christian portion of the 
community who are the advocates and supporters of medical heresies. 
Homoeopathy had its rise with the neologistic notions of modern German 
philosophers, Michaelis and Kant representing the one in theology, and 
Hahneman the other in medicine. It will thus be seen that we regard 
the subject as having a great moral aspect, and we repeat so long as vain 
man will seek after vanity, so long as worldly immortality beclouds a 
heavenly, in his contracted vision, just so long will quackery and medical 
imposition flourish in some form, until, as the dying infidel is con- 
strained to say, "Thou hast conquered me, Gallilean I" — its votaries 
will when, it is too late, find that they have been pursuing an ignis fa- 
tuus, which has led them hither and thither, but to mock them, and 
then overwhelm them in bogs and quagmires, which they might have 
escaped many years longer. 

Perhaps in no country, is quackery so thoroughly organized, as in our 
own. The very genius of our institutions insures to all, full liberty to 
propagate their ideas on any subject that does not endanger the state } 
and, as in union there is strength, colleges, societies and associations, na- 
tional and sectional, are formed, for the propagation of every species of 
medical heresy. Journals and Transactions are published, the whole 
drift of which, is a crusade against legitimate medicine, with whining 
appeals to popular prejudice and sympathy. Nor does this organization 
of quackery with us, prove that we are more infidel than other nations, but 
that we have less stringent laws for its suppression than they have. 

And now, we will proceed to inquire in a few words, — What is the 
duty of the physician ? What course ought he to pursue in reference 
to this gigantic evil ? Should he fold his arms in utter contempt or in- 
difference ? While the enemies of scientific medicine are all on the alert, 
has he no hearths or altars to defend ? We are not of those who think 
that he ought to be indifferent in this matter, for as the conservator of 
the public health, it is the physician's duty to be active and bold in de- 
fence of the right. 

But first, let him see to it that his own skirts are clear. Let him not 
even in appearance strike hands with quackery, but hold himself entirely 
aloof from all connection with it. Alas ! the worst quacks are regular 
quacks, just as the worst infidels are those who profess to hold the prin- 
ciples of Christianity, while they deny its distinctive features, and refuse 
to acknowledge its divine author. There are, we fear, men of great pre- 



1853.] . Editor on Yellow Fever. 107 

tensions in the profession who do things they would scout in a professed 
quack. 

What then should be the form of our opposition to quackery — what 
should be our course ? We believe it should be eminently conservative, 
occupying a middle ground between utter contempt, and sufficient notice 
to give it notoriety. And in our estimation ridicule is a weapon which 
must be very guardedly wielded. It is a powerful weapon, but so equi- 
poised that it is easily turned upon him who wields it. With it, Cer- 
vantes met and disarmed, the knight errantry of the middle ages j but the 
Cervantes is yet to arise whose Don Quixote will, by ridicule, annihilate 
the knight errantry of modern quackery, as did his de la Mancha that 
of the medioeval period, and we sincerely doubt, if the hero of even a 
Cervantes should endeavor to break a lance with modern quackery, 
whether he would disperse so much as a flock of harmless sheep, or a 
solemn and defenceless funeral cortege. 

As the theologian meets infidelity in religion, and confutes it, by argu- 
ment, so should the enlightened medical man on proper occasions deal 
with infidelity in medical practice. And yet our war should be more de- 
fensive than offensive, unless we can so carry the war into Africa by 
rigid chemical analysis, as to make a systematic expose of the ingredi- 
ents of which empirical remedies are composed. 

We have endeavored to present a few new thoughts on the subject of 
quackery, and if the matter has not been such as our readers would have 
preferred, we have the consolation of knowing that the fault is theirs for 
not supplying us with better. 

Burlington, N. J., December, 1852. 



Remarkable account of the Yellow Fever as it prevailed among the In- 
dians on the Island of Nantucket, in 1763-64. By the Editor. 

The facts contained in the following interesting history of the Yellow 
Fever as it prevailed on the Island of Nantucket in the years 1763-64, 
are taken from one of the note books, kept by my father, Dr. Joseph 
Parrish, late of Philadelphia. 

The record was made in 1805, after a visit to the Island, and the facts 
were given by a gentleman who was one of the Selectmen at the time of 
the epidemic. It was introduced in the following manner — a vessel ar- 
rived off the bar of Nantucket, having on board a number of passengers 
from Ireland ; and the fact that two dead bodies were seen floating upon 



108 Editor on Yellow Fever. [Jan. 

the sea, aroused the suspicions of the authorities that a fatal malady was 
prevalent among the passengers. It was supposed to be Small Pox, and 
several of the inhabitants who had had this disease were deputed to as- 
certain the fact. They returned with information that it was the Yellow 
Fever. The Selectmen now issued orders to the Captains to throw no 
more of the dead overboard, but to bury them on the shore, for which 
purpose, spades and shovels were sent to them. At the same time, orders 
were given that no intercourse should be had between the inhabitants of 
the Island, and the people in the ship. 

Previously, however, to this command, several persons had left the 
vessel, and, together with their baggage, had taken lodgings at the house 
of an Irishwoman. A messenger being dispatched to direct them to leave 
the Island, it was found that an Indian woman at the house, was en- 
gaged in washing the clothes of some of the passengers. 

This woman resided in the family of the Priest, in a neighboring vil- 
lage ; and in nine, or at farthest, eleven days after being at the boarding 
house, was taken with the disease, and died. The Indian Priest, and all 
his family were seized, and died ; as well as the greater part of the inha- 
bitants of the village ; and from this it spread over the whole Island, con- 
fining its ravages almost exclusively to the Indian families. The follow- 
ing extracts are copied from an original manuscript, made by one of the 
most respectable inhabitants of the Island. 

" A list of the Indian natives who died on the Island of Nantucket 
with a Yellow Fever, from JLst of 8th month, 1763, to the 20th of 2d 
month, 1764. 

" The number of Indians belonging to and inhabiting the Island of 
Nantucket, at the time this most grievous visitation began among them, 
was, . . . . . . . 301 

Of these had the distemper, . . . . 259 

Of which died, . . . . 228 

Out of 259 that had it, there survived, . . 36 

The number who lived among them, not infected, . 34 

The number who lived in a remote part of the Island and shunned 

going among them during the sickness, ... 8 

The whole number on the Island, that escaped, . . 42 

The same person thus writes, " Although their habitations were nigh 

to us, and they, during the sickness, daily passing among us, and some 

of us at times, (though not frequently in the latter part of the sickness) 

were among them, yet no white person was infected with it; even 

several of those who came short with it, were livers among the English, 



1853.] Stuart on Cholera Asphyxia. 109 

and were seized with the distemper in the houses they lived in, and were 
not removed before they died/' Another informant states, that the only 
white person affected with the disease, was the Irish woman who kept 
the boarding-house — and that the sick had no medical assistance, physi- 
cians refusing to go among them. He, himself, visited them frequently, 
and described the following symptoms; pain in the head, soon followed 
by a yellowness of the skin and eyes, the yellow changing to a livid hue 
just before death, and delirium in fatal cases. Some died in forty-eight 
hours from the time of seizure ; some who survived the eighth or ninth 
day, recovered entirely ; some had glandular swellings which suppurated; 
two of these recovered, and the ulcers healed kindly - y others appeared to 
die from suffocation, apparently produced by the tumefaction about the 
throat. " Hemorrhage from the nose also occurred ; the face and eyes 
particularly, of those who died of a short illness, were swelled in a shock- 
ing manner, and some who survived the first shock of the disease, died 
with lingering complaints/' The two patients who recovered under the 
care of the informer, took nothing but " Bohea tea and Cranberry por- 
ridge/' The two Indians who buried the dead, were in the habit of fill- 
ing their mouths with tobacco, and taking a dram of rum, before enter- 
tering any house to take out a corpse ; and both survived. 

Note. — Though this narrative was originally derived from an unpro- 
fessional source, it is nevertheless, to be relied on as true, being certified 
to by respectable citizens, and confirmed by official record. It is present- 
ed now, as a relic of nearly a century, not being devoid of professional 
and historical interest. 



Cholera Asphyxia. By J. H. S. 

Mr. Editor — We wish to relate a short story, mainly, for the moral to 
be derived from it. Let us premise by a brief exordium. The city of 
Erie has always been remarkably exempt from Cholera Asphyxia. Dur- 
ing the summer of 1850 there was not, we believe, a single case here. In 
1851, some three or four occurred on the dock — all brought, however, 
from other lake towns. During the season just past, we can recall but 
eight or nine distinctly marked cases, three of which it was our own mis- 
fortune to attend, and one died " unaided by leechcraft." Nearly all of 
these, except our own, were traceable to infection received elsewhere. On 
the morning of August 11th at 11 A. M., we were called to see J. W., 
and found him lying in a small hovel on the lake bank ; said hovel smell- 



110 Stuart on Cholera Asphyxia. [Jan. 

ing very disagreeably, from slops, &c, thrown about the door. He was 
aged about forty j of a robust build ; constitution evidently injured by 
hard drinking. All the preceding night he had been vomiting and purg- 
ing profusely, a clear transparent liquid, very slightly tinged with yellow, 
and containing numerous white floeculi. His extremities were cold. A 
burning pain in the epigastrium, and intense, unquenchable thirst. 
Tonic cramps were commencing in the calves and thighs. Countenance 
full and slightly flushed; mind clear and cheerful; no anxiety. Prescrib- 
ed a sinapism to epigastrum ; friction of extremities with mustard-water 
and 01. Terebinth ; very cold drinks, rarely repeated, and Hyd. Chlorid. 
Mit. grs. ij et opium gr. ss., every half hour. 

Fearing that his. attendants were too much intoxicated to administer 
the remedies properly, we returned quite early in the afternoon. Mean- 
while his kind and considerate, self-constituted nurse, a burly fellow, had 
made the most of his time, and in zeal for the patient's welfare, had 
knocked him down for trying to reach the water-pitcher, thereby driving 
one of his teeth down his throat. In reply to our remonstrances, that 
worthy declared, that ' cold drinks were bad after " chamomile.'" 9 . . . By 
this time the vomiting had nearly ceased, and the alvine evacuations 
were less frequent, though unchanged in their character. But the cramps 
still continued, and the countenance was becoming shrunken and anxious. 
Continued the Cal. et Op., and prescribed Ammon. Carb. gr. v, every 
half hour, Also, directed warm cloths, hot bricks, and continued fric- 
tion to extremities. At our next visit, in the evening, the patient was 
convalescent. The vomiting had entirely ceased \ the purging almost so, 
and was converted into the natural, healthy, bilious colored discharge. 
The face was again flushed ; the cramps had disappeared, and their place 
was taken by a tremor of the limbs. Moreover, the patient began to 
" see snakes." Delirium Tremens was supervening on the sudden ex- 
haustion and deprivation of liquor. Continued Opium and Ammon. 
Carb., and directed warm wrappings and quiet. We refrained from the 
use of liquor for the delirium, from a regard for the moral welfare of the 
nurses, and a desire not to " tempt them overmuch." Next morning the 
diarrhoea had ceased, and the delirium nearly so. In the afternoon, Mr. 
J. W. was quite well. So much for introduction. 

On the morning of Wednesday, October 13th, at 6? A. M., we were 
aroused by a Hibernian acquaintance with a request to go and see one of 
his friends who was very ill. While dressing, we endeavored to extract 
.the history of the case which was nearly as follows. 

The son of Mr. S. (the sick man ; ) a small boy had ; on the morning 



1853] Stuart on Cholera Asphyxia. Ill 

before, been seized suddenly with violent vomiting and purging of a 
colorless fluid. Cramps and abdominal pain, with great thirst supervened, 
and in the afternoon the child died, no medical aid having been sought. 
In the evening a " wake" was held, of course, and the carouse, lasted all 
night. About three o'clock in the morning, the father was seized with 
the same symptoms, and now nearly four hours had elapsed before we 
were notified. We proceeded at once to the scene of suffering. This 
was a small, wooden, two-roomed house, situated in the outskirts of the 
town, close to the canal, and immediately contiguous to a starch " fac- 
tory." Before entering, a glimpse of the cellar filled with green, slimy, 
putrid water, and a smell of the sickening, malarious odor arising from 
it, convinced us of the " fons et origo mali." Stepping* over the threshold 
and reaching the inner room, a scene appeared such as a novelist would 
revel in, but such alas ! too frequently witnessed by physicians to appear 
at all romantic to them, though custom never deprives it of its disagreea- 
ble impressions. In one corner of the bare, unfurnished, chilly room, 
lay stretched out upon a few boards, the stiffening form of the dead child, 
its little upturned face appearing calm and tranquil, though its features 
were pinched and emaciated. Around the corpse, traces of the past night's 
orgies were profusely scattered. Clay pipes, papers of tobacco, sweet 
cakes, candies, and a brandy bottle, gave evident token that the wants of 
the living had not been forgotten in mourning for the dead. But where 
were those living revellers now ? Alas ! when the strong man was smit- 
ten down in agony, his sympathizing friends had fled. And of all the 
number, none remained but a few women ) — the sex ever faithful "when 
pain and sorrow wring the brow." In another corner of the same room, 
in full view of the corpse, was extended on his couch the athletic father, 
his countenance convulsed with pain ; his limbs contracted with spasms. 
Seized at 3 A. M. with vomiting and purging, though without pain, of a 
colorless liquid with white flocculi, it had increased until the evacuations 
were already involuntary. Cramps had commenced in the flexor muscles 
of both legs and arms. At present there were tonic spasms of both flex- 
ors and extensors ; the fingers and toes were blue, curved, and arched ; 
cold and shrivelled as though long immersed in water. A burning pain 
oppressed the epigastrium, accompanied by an intolerable thirst ; the 
countenance was anxious and collapsing. 

It is not, however, now our object to speak of the characteristic symp- 
toms of Cholera. Mr. S. was duly dosed with Calomel and Opium, large 
doses of Tannin, and small ones of Zinc, Sulph. He was rubbed with 
divers liniments, wrapped in warm blankets, had hot bricks to his feet. 
14 



112 Stuart o?i Cholera Asphyxia. [Jan. 

&c., &c. It was attempted to allay his thirst by means of pounded ice, iced 
lemonade, &c. In short, everything was done which a few half frightened 
women could do, and which we could suggest in six long visits. But all 
was in vain. " Pallida mors aequo pede pulsat regumque turres, pauper- 
umque tabernas." His spiritual adviser was called, administered the 
last consolations, and by 3 P. M., John S/s soul had passed to Him who 
gave it. The hollow eyes and face, emaciated in a few hours, indicated 
the disease. Meanwhile, his two surviving children had been similarly 
attacked, and we had addressed similar measures to their treatment, and 
likewise ordered them to be immediately removed from the house. But 
the illness of the father, and the impossibility of getting sufficient nursing 
for him, paralyzepl all effort in regard to the children. They were 
allowed to lie unheeded on the floor like dogs, despite all our remon- 
strances, until a compassionate neighbor took the infant home with her 
and retained it for some hours, when on the appearance of vomiting, fear 
of " contagion" overcame considerations of humanity, and the baby was 
returned — munching a green a/pple. Matters now looked serious enough- 
Two persons had fallen victims in twenty-four hours to the horrible mala- 
ria of that house. Two more were sick. And, spite of every promise 
from the friends, it was manifest that the family, depressed as they were 
by grief and illness, would yet have to remain another night over that 
open grave ! The smell was most oppressive. We had ourself begun to 
feel a dullness and heaviness from our long stay in it, and urged the 
neighbors by everything they held dear, to remove the survivors. But the 
only reply was, " after Shane's wake, docther." Towards evening, the 
children seemed somewhat better, and after dark, we started again to see 
them. It was an awful night. There was some snow upon the ground, 
and on this had fallen a drenching shower, sufficient to convert it into 
the most chilling and penetrating " slush." The rain still poured down 
in steady streams, relieved occasionally by a piercing gust of cold north 
wind, that drove the icy drops through our clothing to the skin. The dark- 
ness was Egyptian, of course not even mitigated by a flash of lightning ; 
and having a characteristic aversion to carrying a lantern, or any other 
portable professional emblem, our situation was rather unpleasant. It 
became more so when we lost our way on a common, and went wander- 
ing about, over the soggy ground, the cold slush filling our shoes at 
every step. This inconvenience, however, was not of long duration. A 
reeking odor soon warned our olfactories of the proximity of the house, 
and scarcely could we catch a glimpse of its black bulk booming against 
the almost equally black sky, ere our ears were assailed with a howling, 



1853.] Stuart on Cholera Asphyxia. 113 

as of an entire menagerie of wild beasts. A moment's thought reminded 
us of the cause, and with some indignation we struck forward and opened 
the door. — "Vow ! Tarn saw an unco sight/' Slightly, to transpose Sir 
Walter ; " the tempest without having ceased its wild din, gave place to 
the tempest that thundered within/' In the outer room, our two little 
patients lay upon the floor, totally unnoticed and uncared for. The inner 
apartment, in which were the two corpses, was crowded with robust men 
and brawny women. Fear had prevented them from aiding their living 
friends, but could not deter from " waking" his dead body. There they 
were, smoking constantly, drinking more than occasionally ) now laugh- 
ing at something good, and anon howling the " keen" over the dead. 
Now flinging their hands wildly aloft , again clasping and wringing them 
in anguish as they interrogated the corpse. " Shane dear, and why did 
you die" ? Och, mavourneen, and are you gone "? " Oh, wirra, wirra," 
" an-an-an-an-oh-och hone, och hone." " Oh Shane achree." " Acushla 
machree" — &c, &c. Now, with every regard, for the sacredness of grief, 
and making every allowance for the impulsive temperament of our Hiber- 
nian friends, it was still difficult to perceive the propriety of neglecting the 
living, to howl over the dead, and accordingly our wrath was vastly ex- 
cited thereby. We at once demanded to see the mother ; and she very 
coolly sent word that she was too busy and too much overcome for the 
interview. We promptly replied, "very well, we are too busy to remain 
longer," and started for the door. This created an immediate excitement, 
and the whole assembly of burly, swarthy sons and daughters of Erin 
came crowding out, with the mother in their midst, and surrounded us ; 
their cries and lamentations being hushed as if by magic, we sternly 
asked, " what do you mean by neglecting your children thus ? Have 
you done half that I ordered ?" " Och, thin, docther dear, and to tell 
you the truth, it's little care I had for little Dan achree, when him that's 
in glory was alive — ochone. — It was his own four bones I cared for, and 
he's gone — and it's clean out of my mind I am." " That's no excuse. 
Your children are suffering and must be attended to." " Och, yis, doc- 
thor when I've seen the last of Shane dacently. }> " You'll see the last of 
your children indecently then," interrupted we, moved beyond all pa- 
tience, and sick to boot. " Let the dead alone. They are beyond help. 
Mind the living." And yet our heart bled for that poor ignorant wife 
and mother, whose "bread winner" was gone. We enquired, if "no one 
there had any sense left," but in the entire crowd could only find one 
girl fit to be entrusted with the administration of remedies. Leaving the 
house of death, with the comforting assurance that more of them would 



114 Stuart on Uliolera Asphyxia. [Jan. 

have the disease for that night's frolic, we started for home. The night 
still continued pitchy dark. " The wind blew as 'twad blawn its last/' 
and passing by a church yard, we could scarce help regretting that by 
our professional education we were deprived of those beautifully supersti- 
tious feelings, so romantic to most persons ; and that we' had learned to 
look upon death and decay with the eyes of a physician, and not of a 
poet. But all other thoughts were soon merged in the painful conside- 
ration of our own health. Things began to grow dim before our eyes : 
a strange dizziness, and chilly feeling oppressed us; and,, as we reached 
our bachelor oflice, about 10 P. M., we could no longer deny that we 
were decidedly unwell. We fought, and smoked against the conviction 
as long as possible, but the sickness of the stomach increased ; then came 
pain in the abdominal viscera, and a decided tendency to diarrhoea. We 
examined the matter closely, and its appearance was not pleasant. Long 
confinement in a malarious atmosphere, the loss of a meal, and then ex- 
posure to wet and cold, gave fair ground for uneasiness. But there was 
no thirst ; no burning pain ; no vomiting ; no rice water ; and no cramps 
of extremities. Which consideration seeming satisfactory at last, we took 
grs. xij. Hyd. Chlorid. Mit. and' retired un-nursed, thinking that a bache- 
lor was sometimes punished for the privileges ordinarily enjoyed by him. 
The next day, weak and uncomfortable from the disease — and the Ca- 
lomel, we renewed our duties towards the orphans ) and, in the course of 
the day, succeeded in getting them removed from the house of death, to 
a little " lean to" against another shanty in the vicinity. Nothing but 
imminent danger would have rendered such a removal desirable. Their 
present quarter was a little kennel literally about six feet square, sunk 
some three feet below the level of the marshy ground, and full of cracks 
and crevices. In this were the mother, two children, a bed, a cooking 
stove, cradle, chest and bench. But, despite the discomforts of such a 
residence, it wa3 far better than inhaling the deadly malaria, which had 
previously been their portion. In this home, we visited them regularly. 
The infant rapidly convalesced, but the elder child, though relieved of 
urgent symptoms, kept gradually sinking under the influence of continu- 
ous diarrhoea aggravated by the presence of worms. 

Thus matters went on until Sunday afternoon, when we received a 
a message that another man had been sick all day with a tremendous 
" cutting through him." Angry at the carelessness which permitted such 
a disease to exist so long unrelieved at such a time, particularly as we 
had been at the house in the morning, we were yet unable to see the 
aew patent until evening. And then our pilgrimage was renewed with a 



1853.] Stuart on Cholera Asphyxia. 115 

heavy heart. Arrived near the house of sickness, we were amazed at the 
appearance of a doleful procession from the new residence to the old charnel 
house. In reply to our indignant queries, we learned that the attack of 
this latter man had completed the panic. His disease was ascribed to 
contagion from the widow and orphans ; and all four were now being re- 
moved pell mell to the nearest vacant shelter, — the deserted shanty. 
This was too much for our patience, and we greatly fear that our language 
on the occasion to the perpetrators of this inhuman act, was more energetic 
than elegant. But indignation availed nothing. There lay the smitten 
one, writhing and cursing on the bare floor, with the dank odor of disease 
steaming up into his very nostrils. And there stood that deserted mo- 
ther, clasping her babe to her bosom, the other child stretched at her feet, 
and looking as though she prayed God to take her too. On our entrance 
she grasped our hand convulsively and exclaimed. " You're all the 
friend I've left. — My relations and neighbors have deserted me." We 
felt this appeal, and calling one of the relatives from a distance, who 
came in fear and trembling only to the door, said to him. " These peo- 
ple must be removed. Go to the Directors of the Poor and get a permit 
for the Hospital." The poor fellow, willing to do anything which would 
not bring him in contact with the sick, started at once, but soon returned 
saying that the Directors could not act under twenty-four hours. Stifling 
our rage at this new inhumanity, we told him to go and engage a room 
at the Hospital for three days himself, and engage to pay for it. This 
he succeeded in doing, and by 10 P. M., they were all there. 

This " Institution' ' is a county affair, and consists of a two story 
frame house of about four rooms, or possibly six, located more than half 
a mile outside of town. It is given, rent free, to the family who occupy 
it, and who are allowed a certain fixed sum per diem for every one placed 
there by the county authorities, and are permitted to get all they can 
from those whose friends place them there. Consequently it is an object 
to retain patients as long as possible, to consult cheapness in everything, 
and to go to as little trouble as they can. There are no regular nurses 
employed, and on the present occasion, a son of the tenant was lying in 
one of the lower rooms with an amputated leg, and the whole family 
were occupied in attending on him. When our proteges were once de- 
posited in an upper room, their friends disappeared as if by magic ; and, 
on our arrival we found the poor, exhausted mother lying asleep with her 
infant at her breast, and her sick child tossing at her feet on one bed ; 
and the man writhing on the other. Beside him stood his brother, him- 
self sick and terribly frightened. Of course this was no treatment for a 



116 Stuart on Cholera Asphpxia. [Jan, 

Cholera patient. We had at best, but little hope of his recovery. And 
all our efforts to procure nurses were unavailing. The panic had spread 
too widely. However, the woman of the house did what she could, and 
the brother exerted himself to the best of his limited abilities. We 
pushed the Calomel and Opium treatment as far as safe, and of course, 
used external remedies also; and subsequently employed Tannin, Cam- 
phor, Plumb. Acet., and, to sustain the strength, Peruvian Bark. 

Next morning our patient was better, but his brother had become 
alarmed, and deserted. We now acted both as physician and nurse. Pre- 
viously to this we had interested our friends, who clothed the unfortu- 
nates. The succeeding night, the man needed but little attention, and 
the child died. The subsequent morning, our man being convalescent, 
we did what we should have clone at the first, and " put him on the 
county;" when he was handed over to the county physician, and having 
his wants supplied at the public expense, soon recovered. 

From the foregoing narration we deduce the moral — 

1st. That a country doctor's life is no bed of roses, and does not 
"resemble one long day of light," and that any one who studies medi- 
cine is by no means a Solomon. 

2d. That Dr. G-ayley's theory, that Asiatic Cholera originates in con- 
gestion of the Liver, and is derived from Malaria, is correct. The latter 
proved by observation ; the former by the success of treatment predicated 
on that theory; as we saved two cases by Cal. et Op., and only lost one; 
■ — the children not being in the list ; they having had chronic Diarrhoea, 
as we subsequently ascertained. 

3d. That the erroneous idea of the " Contagion" of Cholera should be 
removed from the popular mind. 

4th. That every town should have efficient Hospital regulations, by 
which patients need not be detained twenty-four hours before being per- 
mitted to avail themselves thereof; — and may then be promptly nursed 
and cared for. 

5th. That the whole burthen of the charge of paupers ought not to be 
thrown upon the medical man, who may be unhappy enough to see them 
tot. 



1853.] Bibliographical Notices. 117 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



The Principles and Practice of Dental Surgery: By Chapin A. Har- 
ris, M. D., D.D. S., Professor of the Principles and Practice of Dental 
Surgery in the Baltimore College ; Member of the American Medical 
Association ; Author of Dictionary of Dental Science, and Medical 
Terminology, etc. etc. Fifth edition; Revised, Modified, and greatly 
Improved. With Two Hundred and Thirty-six Illustrations. Phila- 
delphia : Lindsay & Blakiston. 

This work will, undoubtedly, occupy a high rank in the surgical lite- 
rature of our day. Coming, as it does, from the pen of an experienced 
operator in Dental Surgery, it cannot do otherwise than embody the most 
reliable information connected with that important science. Throughout 
the entire work there are unmistakable evidences of its author's exact 
knowledge, mature judgment, and original and independent observation. 
To the Dental practitioner, it must prove invaluable; as it embraces a com- 
plete history of the mouth, its organs, and their various diseases, with all 
the latest discoveries and improvements relating to their origin, progress, 
and surgical treatment. The department of Mechanical Dentistry is full 
and entire, and contains the valuable additions that have recently been 
made to that particular branch of the science. The engravings are abun- 
dant, well executed, and of easy reference. We cheerfully recommend 
this volume, not only to the dental profession, but also to our medical 
friends, as one containing more useful information in regard to the sub- 
ject of which it treats, than any work within our knowledge. 

J. E. P. 



Practical Treatise on Dental Medicine ; being a Compendium of Medi- 
cal Science, as connected with the study of Dental Surgery : to which 
is appended an Inquiry into the use of Chloroform, and other anaesthe- 
tic agents. Second Edition, Revised, Corrected, and Enlarged. By 
Thomas E. Bond, A. M., M. D., Professor of Special Pathology and 
Therapeutics, in the Baltimore College of Dental Surgery. Philadel- 
phia : Lindsay & Blakiston. 

In explanation of the design and contents of this handsomely printed, 
and exceedingly well written volume, we need scarcely offer more than 
the title, as it is given above. Than its object, as therein stated, there 
can certainly be nothing more commendable. To make the Dentist ac- 
quainted with the practice of medicine, as it is connected with his own 
calling, must strongly tend to elevate that calling, and to render him, in- 
dividually, more worthy of public confidence. And, while such a result 
is attainable from a knowledge of the volume under notice, it will also 
be found not unworthy of the attention of the medical practitioner, since 
it may greatly increase his acquaintance with the many dental causes, 



118 Bibliographical Notices. [Jan. 

which operate upon diseases within his own peculiar sphere of observa- 
tion. Believing this of Dr. Bond's volume, we can but recommend it to 
the notice of our friends ; though, perhaps, such recommendation may 
appear superfluous, after the warm praises it has received from the most 
prominent Medical Journals of the country. J. E. P. 

The Physician s Pocket Dose and Symptom Book, containing the doses 
and cures of all the principal articles of the Materia Medica, and 
chief officinal preparations, &. &c. &c. By Joseph H. Wythes. M. D. 
Author of the Microscopist, Curiosities of the Microscope, &c. &c. 
Philadelphia — Lindsay & Blakiston, 1853. 

This is as good a Dose and Symptom book as we have seen; it embraces 
a good deal, and condenses it within a small compass. The preface re- 
commends it particularly to the " country practitioner/' as being small 
and readily carried. We do not see, however, that it is any more useful 
on this account, for the " country practitioner," or any other, who does 
not carry his knowledge of doses and symptoms in his head, instead of 
his pocket, will not be likely to succeed very well in the treatment of 
disease, even should he always have the " Dose and Symptom book" at 
his side. Its table of poisons and their antidotes, may be useful, as the 
physician, even of years of general experience, may meet with cases of 
this kind very rarely, and it is well to refresh his memory by a conveni- 
ent reference. The great objection to this class of books, is, that they 
engender a tendency to routine practice, which the compiler has endea- 
vored to avoid by presenting an outline of general Pathology and The- 
rapeutics, under a table of Symtomatology, but we fear these will not deter 
many from entering the way to which other portions of the book, may 
lead the ignorant or presumptuous. 



Materia Medica, or Pharmacology and Therapeutics. By WILLIAM 
Tully,M.D. Vol. 1., No. 1. November, 1852. Springfield, Mass. 

This is the title of a new work, the first number of which is before us. 
Its publishers propose to furnish a complete system of Materia Medica, 
to be sent to subscribers in the form of a periodical. 

They claim for the arrangement of the subject by the author, a novel- 
ty that will render it acceptable to the physician, and particularly useful 
to the medical student. The first number contains sixty-four pages, and 
consists of an introduction, and lectures on the " modus operandi medi- 
caminum," embracing the various effects of the remedies ) parts of sys- 
tem acted on by them; — "sympathy: — seats of primary manifestations 
of the operations of medicines," and non absorption of medicines into 
the system. 

It will be printed with good type on good paper, and in the best style. 
The Nos. will be issued monthly, commencing in November. If from the 
state of the author's health, he should be unable to revise his manuscripts 
with sufficient rapidity, it may be necessary to lengthen the intervals of 
publication, of which due notice will be given. 



1853.] Editorial 119 

Terms — Twenty-five cents each, or one dollar for every four numbers, 
payable in advance, or on the receipt of the first. No subscription re- 
ceived for less than four, and to be discontinued at the option of the sub- 
scriber. It will be sent to subscribers by mail, ffigf The postage to 
any part of the United States will be one cent a number. 

As to the size of the work, we have at present no means of judging. 
Probably it will extend to twenty numbers. 

Those who wish to become subscribers can do so by writing * * * to 
"J. Church, Springfield, Mass.," to whom all communications on the 
subject should be addressed, post paid. 



EDITORIAL. 



A word with Editors and Publishers. 

Apropos, to the subject of quackery, treated of on a preceding page, 
we would add a few words with regard to the connection of our medical 
periodicals with quackery. We have reason to fear, that medical Edi- 
tors and Publishers are at fault in this matter, though we know not to 
what extent. It is known to the profession, that there are several Jour- 
nals published in different sections of the country, devoted to the dis- 
semination of Thomsonian, Homoeopathic, and other delusions. How 
they are supported, it is not for us to inquire. 

The editors of these publications, representing as they do, the highest 
claim that the advocates of their dogmas have to a place among the truly 
scientific, seek by every means in their power, to commingle with those 
who have an undoubted claim to scientific knowledge, and we are very 
sorry to find that any respectable Editors or Publishers are willing so to 
compromise their standing and dignity, as to countenance such an effort. 
It is their delight to present to their readers, extracts from, and criti- 
cisms of, the writings of scientific practitioners, as a proof that they have 
not altogether lost their standing. In our opinion, they should be utter- 
ly cast out. 

Such has been our policy, toward them, when they have attempted to 
effect an exchange with us, for, as the Journals have arrived, we have 
re-mailed them in the same wrappers, and had to do so for several months 
before we could relieve ourselves of their filthy contact, — so determined 
were they to have us committed to a support of their course. A num- 
ber of them came with whole pages marked, of extracts from some of our 
15 



120 Editorial. [Jan. 

honored cotemporaries, and notices of books acknowledged from some of 
our first publishing houses, as an inducement, we suppose to u fall into 
line" with them. Now, we respectfully submit to our worthy ^tempo- 
raries, be they Editors or Publishers, whether this striking hands with 
quackery is consistent. We have seen, in at least one of our exchanges, 
frequent notices of these irregular publications, and, if we mistake not, 
extracts from them. 

We have been sorry too, to see that some Journals advertise for these 
quacks — one of them has actually contained advertisements of the open- 
ing Sessions of their Schools, and we regard it as a miserable subterfuge 
for an Editor to say that the advertising department of his Journal is 
under the control of the publisher. He ought not to allow it to be so. 

Some months since, we received an article from a certain J. X. Chabert 
(the quondam fire-king ?) containing the most abominable specimen of 
polypharmia, that has reached this century, and all to cure consumption ! 
Thinking the article smacked of quackery, we took no notice of it what- 
ever, and ere long it appeared in the Journal referred to, and was follow- 
ed by several others. The arrant quackery of the said Chabert, has re- 
cently beeome manifest by the publication af a pamphlet on the "Origin, 
treatment, and cure of Asiatic Cholera, Cholera Morbus, etc.," in which 
he offers to sell the secret of a preparation, which he proposes as an in- 
fallible remedy for Cholera. The author, probably, thinking that we did 
not on a former occasion, treat him with sufficient consideration, has not 
seen fit to give us an opportunity to purchase his invaluable receipt, but 
our friend of the Buffalo Journal, has received a copy of his work, and 
administered to him a merited rebuke. The Freeman's Journal also, a 
Roman Catholic paper, rebukes the spirit of the publication in merited 
terms. 

We are convinced that we cannot be too guarded in respect to our con- 
nection with, or notice of quackery. If noticed at all, it should be done 
with particular care that we be not ourselves contaminated. We prefer 
to have but little to do with it, but we think a caution is here appropri- 
ately administered to our brethren of the press. 



Another Year. 



This is the birth-day of another year, and with it come many good 
things to the profession. We are rising as a profession, in the scale of 
knowledge and attainment. New Jersey is doing more than she has ever 
done, to advance the cause of Medical Science. Her State organization 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 121 

is flourishing. Counties are being animated with new zeal, and an up- 
ward spirit is abroad among us. Lot our next Annual meeting, to be 
hold on the 25th of this month, give still more evidence of a determina- 
tion to excel, liemember the 25th of January at Trenton. 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



Among the pamphlets which lie upon our table, are the following : — 
Biographical Sketch of J. Kearny Rodgers, M. D., &c., &c, by Ed- 
ward Delaiield, M. D. Read before the N. York Academy of Medicine. 

As a detailed notice of the lamented deceased has already appeared in 
the columns of the Reporter, it will suffice to say that this sketch is a 
just tribute to the memory of one who was an ornament to his profession; 
as such, the sketch is well worthy the notice of our readers. Gr. A. C. 
Van Beuren, printer, 223 Bleecker street, N. Y. 

The present mental attitude and tendencies of the Medical Profession. 
— Such is the title of the Inaugural Address of Worthington Hooker, 
M. D., as Professor of the Theory and Practice of Medicine, in Yale Col- 
lege, and we can say unhesitatingly, that Dr. Hooker, in this address, 
fully maintains his high claim to the consideration and gratitude of the 
profession. His address is an able and earnest advocacy of the claims of 
scientific medicine, and a lucid exposition of the high qualifications and 
attainments, required by the medical man who would be an honor to his 
profession. # 



ECLECTIC AND SUMMARY DEPARTMENT. 



Injuries and Diseases of the Integuments and Celhdar Tissue. — Burns 
and Scalds. — A report on these injuries, founded on the accumulated 
evidence of several observers, has been published in the "Transactions of 
the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association," by Mr. Crompton, 
the value of which can be justly estimated by a due consideration of the 
difficulties which unfortunately attend any attempts to gain information 
from a large number of our profession. These difficulties are partly 
avowed by the author of the report, in these words : "The evidence which 
I have received is of a conflicting character, and it has been a task of 
great difficulty to arrange my materials in their present imperfect form. 
I find plans of treatment of the most opposite kind pronounced to be very 
successful ; and, what is still more perplexing, I find the same treatment 
commended by one person and condemned by another." 



122 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Jan. 

This imputation, so just and at the same time so disgraceful to the in- 
telligence of members of a learned profession, arises evidently from the 
want of discrimination as to the extent and degree of the injury. Until 
more precision is to be found in this respect, records of treatment will be 
comparatively useless. 

In his classification of burns, Mr. Crompton makes one or two grand 
divisions; the local, in which the injury is trifling, and not sufficient to 
disturb the general economy ; and the constitutional, in which more or 
less severe general disturbance is the result. 

These constitutional burns vary in the severity of the constitutional 
symptoms, which symptoms, and not the amount of local injury, except 
perhaps the superficial extent, give the importance to the case. These 
symptoms are enumerated as weakness and feebleness of pulse, and other 
symptoms of collapse ; irritable stomach and violent shivering is one of 
the most striking of these symptoms, and is looked upon by Mr. Cromp- 
ton as the best index of the constitutional complication. In proportion 
to the severity of the shivering and its frequency, are, according to Dr. 
Kentish, the severity of the case and its consequent danger. The impor- 
tance of attention to the constitutional symptoms is well shown in the 
statistics of the causes of death from burns, which the author gives. 

After some few remarks on the theory of the action of most external 
applications in burns — which is, that they act as mere non-conductors of 
heat, and not, as is commonly supposed, by excluding atmospheric air — 
Mr. Crompton proceeds to analyse the replies to his questions sent to the 
Association at large. 

The first is, whether stimulants, as turpentine, &c, are useful in burns 
and scalds, and, if so, in what cases, and used in what manner ? The 
evidence given in reply to this question is most conflicting. There ap- 
pears, however, says Mr. Crompton, a growing doubt whether it merits 
the eulogium bestowed upon it by Dr. Kentish. In St. Bartholomew's 
Hospital it is replaced by cotton ; in Manchester by flour. It is still, 
however, highly thought of by many. How is the discrepancy to be re- 
conciled ? Mr Crompton says, because it is not generally employed as 
was recommended by Kentish, which he proceeds to verify by quotations 
from that author and from Cooper's " Surgical Dictionary," a main part 
of his treatment, namely, the exhibition of opium in large doses, being 
omitted. On the whole, Mr. Crompton decides that the evidence 
given him preponderates on the side of stimulants, both in large and 
small burns. 

The next question is as to the value of cold applications. On this 
point, the universal opinion seems to be that they are improper in burns 
of large extent, and that they are of doubtful use even in small injuries. 

The application of nitrate of silver to burns is recommended by Mr. 
Higginbottom, but no other person affords evidence respecting it. 

The value of flour and cotton is next considered. Respecting the for- 
mer, the evidence is most conclusive as to its value, in burns of all de- 
grees of severity ; cotton is also highly lauded, but appears to be slightly 
inferior to flour. 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 123 

Treacle is recommended as an external application by Mr. Jesse Leach 
and Mr. Bulley. The latter informs us that its action is directly" seda- 
tive, and that it lulls the pains and moderates the inflammation. It also 
appears to act as a disinfectant. The treacle is also used by Mr. Robin- 
son and Mr. Snape, of Bolton. Mr. Crompton suggests that, after the 
application of treacle, flour should be dusted on. 

The application of lotions, of which water forms a large part, is the 
main treatment employed by the practitioners of St. Helens, where these 
accidents are frequent. 

On the prognosis of burns, some valuable information is afforded in 
Mr. Crompton's report. The fatality seems to be more dependent on ex- 
tent of injury than depth, especially when the trunk is involved. 

The internal treatment of burns, like the external, is the subject of 
considerable difference of opinion especially with respect to opium the 
balance of opinion, is, however, in its favour in large doses. 

This report contains much further important information, which our 
diminishing space obliges us to pass over : but we will not conclude 
without congratulating the Provincial Association on having been the 
means of eliciting so valuable a contribution to surgical science. — Ran- 
tng's Abstract. 

Physicians and Clergymen. A rare opportunity. — Yes, it was a 

rare opportunity which enabled our accomplished confrere, Edward H. 

Parker, M. D., of the iV. H. Journal of Medicine, to vindicate before a 

body of clergymen the claims of scientific medicine against the pretensions 

of its enemies. The address was delivered before the Methodist General 

Biblical Institute, and is all worthy of perusal, but we can make room for 

but a portion of it, which we would commend to the attention of our 

readers. * 

" You have perhaps observed that I use the word physician, and it is 
proper that I state the meaning that I attach to it. By no means do I 
conceive it to embrace that "magna caterva" who are styled doctors; and 
I would not be understood to make the statements I have, of the whole 
class who in common estimation are ranked as medical men. Hydro- 
paths, homoeopaths, kinesipaths and aeropaths ; botanies, eclectics and 
electrics; seventh sons, Indian doctors and cancer doctors; I exclude the 
whole multitude of them when I speak of physicians. 

The science of medicine, on which its practice as an art is founded, is 
the result of the study of several sciences, among which we may enume- 
rate anatomy, botany, chemistry, mineralogy, physiology, and pathology; 
and requires a knowledge of almost all the physical sciences; an accurate 
acquaintance with mental philosophy, and a clear insight into the inti- 
mate relations which exist between the mind and the body. In order to 
pursue it successfully it requires all of a man's abilities, and all of his 
powers, bodily and mental. It draws its facts from the observations of 
men distinguished for all that adorns our human nature, and recorded 
by them with every evidence of sincerity, and without any possible mo- 



124 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Jan. 

tive for deceit. By comparing the observations of many individuals it 
endeavors to correct incidental errors, and to perceive the good and the 
true. What circumstances can there be which would lead to greater ac- 
curacy in the pursuit of any science, or more effectually guard against 
public errors. Of great antiquity, century after century it has thus at- 
tempted to purify and correct. In the succeeding waves of darkness 
which have swept over the human mind it has sometimes been submerged, 
but it has ever risen with the first appearance of reviving knowledge, to 
shed its brilliant light upon humanity. Do you ask me where medicine 
stood in the middle ages ? Where was law when each proud Baron was 
to himself a law, and the swift executor of the decision of liis passions ? 
Where was theology when papal Rome ruled the minds of Europe with a 
rod of iron, and the clergy shut up in their monasteries all human lore — 
defaced the records of the wisdom of ancient Egypt, Greece and Rome, 
by their absurd and impotent discussions of bare formalities, denying to 
the human mind not only human wisdom, but the heavenly teachings of 
divine inspiration ? Do you blame medicine for its then low condition ? 
Beware ! You wield a Damascus blade which may glance and afflict a 
more terrible wound upon yourself. 

Is it probable then that this succession of intellect should have gone 
on, year after year and century after century, seeking only for truth, and 
have gone so far astray that men distinguished in no respect for ability, 
for diligence, for experience or information, should have suddenly disco- 
vered that all this is false? I ask is it probable. Yet such must be the 
fact, if we believe Hahnemann, Priessnitz, Thompson, " ct id omne 
genus." I appeal to you as reasonable men, men accustomed to consider 
and weigh evidence, is it possible that such a thing should have occurred, 
without the teaching of some Socratic daimon, or more probably some 
divine inspiration. If otherwise, it is contrary to all experience and all 
analogy. 

To what conclusion, then, cam we arrive except that the founders of 
the various systems of medicine acted either ignorantly or knavishly. In 
-one case their moral character would be uninjured, but in either they 
could not be safe guardians of the public health. To what other conclu- 
sion can we come as to their followers ? and if this is correct, most cer- 
tainly they should not be styled, like scientific men, physicians. 

But methinks I hear it murmured that by these systems as many or 
more are cured of diseases, both light and grave, as by medicine. At 
any rate, such statements are made every day. Let us consider the 
ground for such statements, and the correctness of the authority on which 
they rest. 

To judge of any scientific fact it is usually allowed that there must be 
a previous acquaintance with the science to which the fact refers. Thus, 
if it is stated that a discovery of a planet or comet, or other heavenly 
body, is made, the place of the supposed new body is accurately described, 
the elements of its supposed orbit are stated, and the whole is submitted 
to astronomers for their decision as to its accuracy, Upon that decision 
it stands or falls. So in mathematics, a supposed discovery, as of the 






1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 125 

quadrature of the circle, is submitted to mathematicians for their judg- 
ment upon its correctness. So any new combination to increase the 
strength of material, or to prevent friction, or of other use in mechanics, 
is submitted to engineers and mechanicians for decision. So in law, a 
question springing up which may seem to be of importance is referred to 
the principles laid down by Littleton, Coke, Mansfield, Story, and suc- 
cessively to the various benches which in the State or country are autho- 
rized, from their superior ability, to settle such doubts. In theology, 
too, gentlemen, do you not revert primarily to the book of books, and 
then to the writings of those departed fathers who by their distinction for 
piety and wisdom have gained the highest place in the estimation of the 
good and learned ? And is there any reason why the same should not 
be true in medicine ? Undoubtedly there is not. Yet a man who within 
six months only left the plough or the anvil, who can hardly read, and 
knows nothing of writers upon disease, of the symptoms which reveal it, 
or of the variations which establish its real character and precise location, 
will decide, with a positiveness which admits no denial, of the nature of 
a tumor ; whether or not it is malignant and cancerous, or fatty and 
comparatively harmless ) whether an internal inflammation is in the lungs, 
the liver, the stomach, or the bowels ; when in fact he cannot tell the 
precise situation and limits of either of these organs, and never heard of 
the peculiarities of each disease and the modes of distinguishing between 
them. But what is stranger still is, that he will be believed by many, 
and among them are always found some of the more intelligent classes. 
How is it that this happens ? 

To be able to discriminate disease, a person must be thoroughly versed 
in anatomy, so that he can tell what organs and tissues are located in a 
given region of the body ; what is the exact position of each vessel, nerve, 
muscle, and bone, and what are the relations of each to each. He must 
be acquainted with the natural history of diseases ) that is, with the or- 
dinary results of diseases proceeding in their natural way, unmodified by 
curative treatment ; and he must know what symptoms belong to each, 
in what respects they are similar, and in what respects they differ. In 
order to treat diseases he must understand the effects of various remedial 
agents upon the human frame, and he must select from them those which 
in the case he believes will have the most beneficial influence upon the 
disease under which the patient labors. To master each, years of study 
are necessary, and the ordinary avocations in life do not lead to any ac- 
quaintance with them. Thus the mass of men know nothing of them, and 
of course are not experts in them. Still, disease is almost constantly before 
every man's eyes, and from childhood we learn that such, and such ap- 
pearances indicate that a person has a cold, or a cough, or is lame ; and 
we hear people complain of head-ache, or back-ache, or tooth-ache, or' 
are told that some one has a fever or a consumption, or a rheumatism. — ■ 
These appearances lead us in time to apply for ourselves similar names 
to various diseases. Our good wives and mothers go farther, and are 
taught that this and that herb or tea, or dose, is good for this and that 
disorder. It frequently happens, too, that after their remedy has been 



126 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Jan. 

taken the patient recovers, and it is called a cure. Do you not see from 
this that every body, from familiarity with disease, supposes that he 
knows something of disease, when most know in fact nothing at all of it ? 
And with an undefined consciousness of our want of knowledge it does 
not seem strange, without reflection, that a neighbor should understand 
more, and credit is accordingly given to him, though unjustly. But 
there is another result of this state of things. There are many groups of 
diseases, which, though they differ entirely from each other in their ori- 
gin, their seat, their progress, and their result, still have some symptoms 
which are similar ; so that it happens that one having no more than the 
ordinary knowledge of disease cannot but confound them, giving one 
name to the whole. At the same time the difference is easily discerned 
by one skilled in disease. Thus, you have a severe head-ache, pains in 
your limbs, are cold and hot by turns, in short you are feverish ; you say 
you have a fever. Can you tell where the trouble is ? But now one who 
assumes to know tells you it is a brain fever, or a lung fever, or a typhoid 
fever, and can you or your friends say it is not so ? Still he may know 
nothing more, perhaps not so much, about it as you. But you have no 
knowledge of the differences of these diseases, and cannot contradict him. 
Conversely, too, he may know exactly with regard to it, and you or your 
friends, believing you do know better, cannot from want of knowledge of 
medical science appreciate the facts which he says are the basis of his 
opinion. You cannot perceive the force of his arguments, and any at- 
tempt on his part to explain the matter would be as futile as for an as- 
tronomer to attempt to convince one ignorant of the higher mathematics 
of the truth of a discovery or observation in his science, which required 
for its demonstration the use of the differential calculus. 

Do you not see that from these propositions it results that persons may 
yield to a positive statement concerning disease, in part from their ina- 
bility to dispute it ; in part from their own familiarity with the most ap- 
parent phenomena of disease, leading them to suppose it may not be a 
difficult thing to understand it, while they have no sort of comprehension 
of the grounds on which a correct opinion would be based ? And do you 
not, also, see that you may be easily led to believe that you have been 
cured of a disease which you never had, and may give credit for skill 
which was never shown ? 

Here then is one source of error in your judgment of the comparative 
success of systems of practice, and the science of medicine. There are 
two others. One from the fact that the great majority of diseases tend 
to recovery ; that is, of the whole number attacked with diseases of vari- 
ous kinds, most would get well without any treatment. If, now, it 
chances that before the disease terminates, a dose of medicine is given, 
that is supposed to have effected a cure, while in fact it did nothing to- 
wards it. The other source is from the fact that all must die, and it is 
absolutely impossible for any man to cure all patients. You may now 
attribute death to a remedy, which, in fact, has alone preserved life for 
hours, or days, or weeks. So that from your ignorance of disease and of 
remedies you cannot tell anything about it. 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 127 

With these principles established we can now come directly to the 
point which I wish to urge upon you, namely, that all reason and analo- 
gy point to medical science as developed by the diligent enquiries and 
earnest labors of physicians ; those who abandon themselves to no one idea, 
but seek only truth, as the only safe guide and reliance, under G-od, when 
sickness invades your family or prostrates your own strength. That, from 
the very circumstances of the case, you have no protection from fraud, in 
your own judgment, because it is impossible for you to be qualified to 
judge of the phenomena, and you do not know the effects of remedies. 
As to the numerous doctors who are followers of this system and that, I 
have said that I do not know on what grounds to place the adoption of 
their opinions except on those of ignorance or deceit. If on ignorance, 
no motive is required to explain their course, but motives abound why it 
may be followed deceitfully. Ill success as a physician, the fact of the 
popularity of any particular opathy, the passion which the public mani- 
fest for every new thing, and the natural inclination to turn from one 
source to another when laboring under chronic or incurable maladies, in 
the vague hope that something may give a transient ease or speedier 
cure, and the consequent larger flow of the res pecuniae, all afford forci- 
ble inducements to a niincl which does not hold the truth dearer than all 
things else, and does not consider riches as nothing in comparison with 
the inward serenity of the upright mind. I could recount to you instan- 
ces of frauds perpetrated in this way, but I have preferred to place the 
argument before you as cultivated men upon higher grounds, and I also 
desire to avoid every thing that can appear like personality. 

Does any one object to my testimony because I am an interested wit- 
ness, and my craft is in danger? Tell me what possible motive there 
can be for me to prefer to give full doses of medicine rather than to re- 
sort to Hahnemann's pillules. They are far easier to transport, every 
body can take them without making wry faces, and children absolutely 
cry for them. Or why should I sometimes use calomel and the other 
various forms of mercury, or any of the decried mineral medicines instead 
of vegetable preparations. Do you say it is from neglecting to give this 
or that system an investigation ? It is not so ! and it is just to physi- 
cians to say that there is no new mode of treatment proposed, however 
different it may be from the ordinary one, that is not earnestly scanned 
by them and investigated at once, and if it contains any one smallest ker- 
nel of truth it is carefully saved, while the great mass of chaff is thrown 
to the winds. 

G-entlemen, I have laid before you what I believe to be the just view 
of medicine as a science and an art, and have endeavored to place before 
you the true position which it should hold in comparison with the vari- 
ous pretences by which it is surrounded. In so doing I may have laid 
myself open to the suspicion that my motive has been gain. I ask and 
expect nothing of the sort. I have simply desired to make these state- 
ments, so that when you shall go forth to your various fields of labor and 
usefulness, you may not from ignorance and thoughtlessness become the 
dupes of any charlatan or empiric. That you may not lend your influ- 
16 



128 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Jan. 

ence to encourage falsehood, and to discountenance truth. You will be 
approached by these men, and case after case of success will be poured 
into your ear, while it will be insisted that some one else commits only 
blunders. Your influence will be solicited with the families of your con- 
gregations, or your certificate will be asked to the efficacy of some nos- 
trum. Gentlemen, beware, of all who so approach you, and beware lest 
you thus injure your influence in your more appropriate calling. 

Your ministrations will often call you to the bedside, and you will 
meet there all kinds of people, who profess to know how to treat the sick. 
It is unavoidable that your opinion should sometimes be asked as to the 
attendant and the treatment. If so, give your opinion candidly and as a 
man. But as you value your peace of mind, abstain from enquiring into 
the treatment, and especially from urging change, unless it be under the 
most peculiar circumstances. It is assuming too fearful a responsibility 
and one which does not belong to you. I do not ask you to go about 
praising physicians and abusing pretenders. But if I have succeeded in 
convincing you of the correctness of my positions your influence will be 
silent and quiet, and it will not be against the truth. I clo not fear for 
our science. It must stand; and certainly no assaults can be more se- 
vere than those which it has resisted. But for the sake of yourselves, 
and of those who may be influenced by you, I would not have you found 
opposing it. 

Our two professions should be united in spirit, as they are in position, 
in ministering to the suffering ones of earth. Set not your faces against 
us as prone to infidelity, and do not cause us to turn from you as inclined 
to support that which we know to be false. 

If I shall have succeeded in making the relations between any one of 
my professional brethren and any one of you pleasanter and more cordial; 
if I shall have opened the eyes of any one of you to the snares of char- 
latanry, I shall feel that my purpose has been fully accomplished. Ac- 
cept my thanks for your kind attention to me, and my earnest wishes 
that in life your high hopes of usefulness may all be realized. — N. H. 
Journal. 



Obstetrical Auscultation. Signs of Pregnancy. By M. M. RodgerSj 

M. D., Rochester, N. Y. 

It is not designed., in this brief article, to describe in detail, all the 
signs of pregnancy, or to consider them in the order of their relative 
value. We shall only notice briefly those signs which usually accompa- 
ny utero-gestation, and which in the aggregate furnish strong presump- 
tive evidence of this condition. As these signs, however, are all more or 
less equivocal) whether taken individually or collectively, we propose to 
consider the value of those results furnished by auscultation. If, by this 
mode, we are able to arrive at a sign, which, taken alone, and indepen- 
dently of all others, will at all times give unequivocal positive evidence, 
- — its importance in a medico-legal, moral, and scientific point of view, 
will be admitted by all. The signs upon which we have formerly been 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 129 

accustomed to rely for a diagnosis in suspected pregnancy, may be noticed, 
for the purpose of showing, not what they indicate, but what they do not 
indicate, for their evidence is entirely negative. 

1. The general condition of a woman enceinte, may lead to this suspi- 
cion, especially if she be primiparous. 2. The cessation of the menses, 
but there are so many exceptions to this, that it cannot be relied upon : 
menstruation may continue in cases of pregnancy, until nearly the close 
of the term, and may cease in women not pregnant. 8. The morning 
sickness, which occurs usually, between the sixth and twelfth week, is of- 
ten absent. 4. Salivation occurs in some cases, but may arise from 
other causes, and is not often present. 5. Enlargement of the mammae, 
is a pretty constant sign, but is occasionally absent, and may occur under 
other circumstances also. 6. The areola and enlargement of the follicles, 
are also nearly constant, but occur under other circumstances. 7. Secre- 
tion of milk usually takes place during the latter half of the term, but 
not always : it may occur also, in women not pregnant, and even in girls 
and men. 8. Increased size of the abdomen, when taken in connection 
with other signs, is of value, but it may be a consequence of disease also. 
9. Condition of the umbilicus, is a sign of little value. 10. Dullness on 
percussion, over the abdomen must occur in pregnancy, but may be found 
in other conditions. 11. Quickening, or the motions of the foetus, usual- 
ly occurs at the end of the fourth month, and is a very constant sign, but 
it may sometimes be produced by the voluntary or involuntary action of 
the abdominal muscles, and is sometimes never felt, in cases of real preg- 
nancy. 12. Ballottement, next to auscultation, furnishes the most une- 
quivocal evidence, and is considered by some authors, infallible. But, on 
the authority of Prof. Depaul, of Paris, it has led to the error of pro- 
nouncing a hydatid tumor a case of pregnancy. In cases of twins, and 
where there is a small quantity of amniotic fluid, it is sometimes impos- 
sible to obtain this result. 13. Violet color of the vagina, is very gene- 
rally present in pregnancy ; but the writer has seen this test made exten- 
sively in Paris, when it occasionally failed both ways. 14. Changes in 
the uterus, may occur similar to those of pregnancy, from disease. 15. 
Buffy coat on the blood, is considered by some authors a sign worthy of 
confidence, but this occurs in so many diseases of both sexes, that it 
must be of little value as a test. 16. The urine is said to contain an 
unusual quantity of uric acid in pregnancy, but this occurs also in dis- 
eases of both sexes. 17. Kiesteine is usually present in the urine of 
pregnant women, but is also found in the urine of men and children, as 
a result of peculiar diet and disease. 18. Palpation of the abdomen 
sometimes affords very strong evidence of the presence of a foetus, but is 
seldom reliable alone. 16. Besides these, there are several minor signs 
which are of some value, considered with the others : such are, variations 
of the pulse, the appetite, maculae on the face, vaginal secretions, vene- 
real desires, organic sympathies, mental conditions, temper, age, presence 
of the hymen, certain diseases, &c. 

Now we see that these signs, taken together or singly, yield equivocal 
evidence, — evidence which at best is only negative, We want a sign 



130 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Jan. 

which will, in all cases where it is present, give positive proof; and this 
sign is furnished by auscultation. 

The bruit placentaire, is an intermittent, whizzing sound, resembling 
the bruit de soufflet of the heart, and synchronous with the maternal 
pulse. It may usually be heard from the end of the second month of 
utero-gestation, until the last pains of labor. This sound is sometimes 
simulated by the ovarian vessels, the uterine sinuses, abdominal vessels, 
the vessels of fibrous tumors and aneurismal varix ; but it need not be 
confounded with any but the latter sound. This sound is now supposed 
to be in the uterus, and not, as formerly, in the placenta ; it does not, 
when present, indicate pregnancy positively, — nor when a foetus is pre- 
sent, does it indicate its life as it may continue for some time after death 
takes place. The funis soufflet, may sometimes be heard intermitting 
synchronously with the foetal pulsation, — but it cannot exist independ- 
ently of the action of the foetal heart, and when this can be detected it is 
of no use in diagnosis. The foetal tic tac, or pulsation of the foetal heart, 
consists of short, double, regular pulsation, resembling those of the new 
born infant, varying in velocity from 120 to 140 in a minute. This 
sound cannot be simulated by, nor confounded with any other ; so, when 
it can be distinctly heard, it is proof positive, and the only one, of the 
presence of a living foetus ; where there is the tic tac, there must be a 
heart to produce it, and where there is a heart, there must also be a 
foetus. Its absence proves only negatively, that there is no foetus, or if 
any, that it may be dead. 

There is no known sign by which we can determine that a woman is 
not pregnant. This fact makes this sign the more valuable, as in nearly 
all cases of actual pregnancy with a living foetus, we may at once verify 
it. The foetal tic tac, according to different authors, may be heard from 
three and a half to five months after conception. The location of the 
sound and the manner of obtaining it, we need not indicate. 

This sign alone furnishes the means of diagnosing twin pregnancy, de- 
termining any thing in relation to the foetal health, or the presentation 
to be expected when labor commences. If, then, this is a true test, as we 
assume, how do those physicians appreciate its value, who never auscult 
the abdomen at all ? What confidence ought to be placed in the testimo- 
ny of a medical witness in court, who should base his opinion of preg- 
nancy entirely upon those signs, every one of which he knows to be 
equivocal? No matter what may be said of ballottement, aggregate 
signs, age, experience, learning, they all vanish like vapor before the sun- 
beam, when compared with this. We may be pardoned then, if we ex- 
hort those who wish to be considered " read up," and who still entertain 
u peculiar views," to study obstetrical auscultation by the bedside, study 
it, wliere alone it can be learnt } on the abdomen of woman. — Buffalo 
Medical Journal. 



Interesting Anecdote of Hunter and Cullen. — From a London copy of 
a work entitled " Professional Anecdotes/' published about thirty years 
ago, we take the following : — 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 131 

HUNTER AND CULLEN. 

The celebrated Dr. William Hunter, and the no less distinguished Dr. 
Cullen, formed a co-partnership of as singular and laudable a kind, as is 
to be found in the annals of science. Being natives of the same part of 
the country, and neither of them in affluent circumstances, these two 
young men, stimulated by the impulse of genius, to prosecute their me- 
dical studies with ardor, but thwarted by the narrowness of their fortunes, 
entered into partnership as surgeons and apothecaries in the country. 
The chief object of their contract being to furnish each of the parties 
with the means of prosecuting their medical studies, which they could 
not separately so well enjoy : — it was stipulated, that one of them, alter- 
nately, should be allowed to study in which College he pleased, during 
the winter, while the other carried on the business in the country for 
their common advantage. In consequence of this agreement, Cullen was 
first allowed to study at the University of Edinburgh for one winter : but, 
when it came to Hunter's he, preferring London to Edinburgh, conse- 
quently, set out for the metropolis. Here, his singular neatness in dis- 
secting, and uncommon dexterity in making anatomical preparations, his 
assiduity in study, and amiable manners, soon recommended him to the 
notice of Dr. Douglass, who then read lectures on Anatomy, in London. 
Hunter was engaged as his assistant, and afterwards filled the chair him- 
self with honor. The scientific partnership was by this means premature- 
ly dissolved; for Cullen was not a man of that disposition to suffer any 
engagement with him to prove a bar to his partner's advancement in life. 
The articles of the treaty were freely given up, and Cullen and Hunter, 
ever after, maintained a very cordial and friendly intercourse : though it 
is nevertheless believed, from that time, they never had a personal in- 
terview. 

Cullen' s rise was equally remarkable. After his successful attendance 
upon the Duke of Hamilton, to whom he was accidentally called, if we 
trace him through his chemical teachings at Glasgow, witness his eleva- 
tion to the chair of " Professor of Medicine," and afterwards to the chair 
of Chemistry, at Edinburgh ; listen to his Chemical lectures at the Infirma- 
ry, and then follow him in the department of Materia Medica, after Dr. 
Alston, and read his great works, we can but admire his diversified ge- 
nius, his unconquerable energy, his kindness of heart, and his noble tri- 
umphs over adverse circumstances, by which he gained an imperishable 
name in the annals of science. He was six years older than Hunter*, 
and lived six years longer. 

Anecdote of Zimmerman. — This eminent physician went from Hanc - 
vei* to attend Frederick the Great, in his last illness. One day the King 
said to him, " You have, I presume sir, helped many a man into another 
world?" This was rather a bitter pill for the Doctor ; but the dose he 
gave the King in return, was a judicious mixture of truth and flattery — 
" not so many as your Majesty, nor with so much honor to myself." — 
Professional Anecdotes. 



Rain Water in Asiatic Cholera. — Twenty years since, Mr. John Lea ? 
when the cholera first raged in the West] was a close and intelligent ob* 



132 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Jan. 

server of its ravages. He found that the mortality from that scourge of 
our race, was limited to those who used limestone water, and that rain- 
water was a prophylactic of that disease. The theory originated here in 
the West, and since 1832 he has promulgated it in publications of his 
own, in medical journals, newspapers, in conversation, in every way pos- 
sible ) yet it is doubted whether one hundred persons in his own city 
here, of one hundred and thirty thousand inhabitants, have given cre- 
dence to his geological theory of cholera, or have practiced upon it. He 
has urged it upon our own G-overnment, but without success. He has 
communicated it to several of the European governments, and with better 
success, we judge, than with our own. We find the following paragraph 
in a communication from the correspondent of the New York Times, 
dated London, September 17th. 

" The report of the French commission says that it has been fully as- 
certaind both at Paris and elsewhere, that rain-water is a prophylactic of 
cholera, and that this disease has never proved an epidemic in any city 
where rain-water is exclusively used. 

Our only comment on the above is, let justice be done Mr. Lea. — Cin- 
cinnati Gazette. 



Sulphuric Acid in Diarrhoea. By John L. Yandervoort, M.D.— - 
Diarrhoea, as met with in young children, especially during the heat of 
summer, not unfrequently proves a troublesome and intractable disease, 
resisting the antacid and astringent treatment so commonly resorted to. 
During the past summer it was unusually prevalent throughout the city, 
the stools being frequent, and of a mucous or watery character, accom- 
panied by little pain, except when the intestines were distended with 
flatus. Failing with the remedies usually employed, I resorted to the 
use of sulphuric acid, as suggested by several London and provincial phy- 
sicians. It was first given in an obstinate case at Yorkville j the child 
was teething, and was naturally robust and healthy. For several weeks 
he had had more or less looseness of the bowels, with occasionally slight 
vomiting, and discharges of mucus, tinged with blood. Strict regimen 
and minute doses of blue mass and opium failing to exercise more than 
temporary effect upon the disease, and observing that his gums had be- 
come spongy and disposed to bleed upon the slightest touch, I changed 
his treatment, and gave him four drops of the acid in a wineglassfull of 
sweetened water several times a day. Seeing him again in a couple of 
days, I found him much improved ; his discharges were less frequent ; 
there had been no more vomiting or bleeding from the gums. The same 
treatment was continued for a week, when the child's health was quite 
restored. In several other cases of similar character, the acid was given, 
and with like happy results ; and within a few days an infant, which had 
been troubled with excessive looseness of the bowels for nearly a week, 
was cured by a few doses. 

One very great advantage which this remedy has over those in general 
use, is its agreeable taste, resembling in this respect lemonade ; hence it 
is well adapted to children whose aversion to medicine cannot readily be 
overcome. 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 133 

In a late number of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Journal, is a 
paper on this subject by Mr. Sheppard, in which he alludes to upwards 
of fifty cases of diarrhoea, many of them very severe, in which he had 
used the sulphuric acid ; in only one instance did it fail, and in that case 
the chalk and astringent treatment was also unsuccessful. His experi- 
ence led him to the following conclusions : — 

1st. It is more efficacious than alkalies, opiates, and astringents, in a 
proportion greatly exceeding ten to one. 

2nd. It is more rapid in its action (especially in children,) in a pro- 
portion greatly exceeding twenty to one. 

3rd. It seems to act in a more rational and (if I may so express my- 
self) scientific manner, by increasing the tone of the mucous membrane of 
the alimentary canal, rather than by simply astringing its pores. 

4th. The worse the case, the more rapid and marvelous seems to be 
the cure ; a most striking feature, as compared with the treatment by 
chalk and opium. — iV. Y. Medical Times. 

November 9, 1852. 

Resection of the head of the Ulna and total removal of both Radius 
and Ulna. Reported by A. Thibatjt, Student in Charity Hospital. — 
Thomas Harris, set. 15, admitted during the month of February, for a la- 
cerated wound of scalp and ear ; fracture of inferior maxillary and hume- 
rus ; compound comminuted fracture of radius and ulna. 

These injuries were received on board the English ship Manchester. It 
appears that the boy was sleeping on the anchor chain ; and that the an- 
chor was suddenly let down ; in its progress, the chain caught the arm 
and produced the injuries above mentioned. When the boy was admit- 
ted, the wounds had been dressed for several days, and from want of 
proper attendance and care, were in a very filthy condition. The arm es- 
pecially, was in a sloughing state, and both radius and ulna were actually 
shattered to pieces, and protruding several inches out of the mass of 
muscles. 

By the 18th of April, the boy being well of all other injuries, Dr. 
Compton determined to remove both the radius and the ulna. He made 
a straight incision the whole length of the inner side of the radius, and a 
counter-opening opposite the olecranon process. Having dissected out 
both bones carefully and disarticulated them at the elbow, he removed 
them entire, with the exception of a portion of the lower end of the radius. 
A great portion of the periosteum was detached from the bones, and left 
in the wound. The usual (reatment for such operations was then fol- 
lowed, and the patient improved rapidly, and the wound had nearly healed, 
when several abscesses formed in the fore-arm. These abscesses were, ac- 
cording to Dr. C.'s opinion, produced by pieces of bones which had been 
left in the arm. His opinion was well grounded, for several spicuke of 
bones came out of the wound, and the arm immediately assumed a heal- 
thy condition and is now well. The arm is about two or three inches 
shorter than the other and is perfectly firm. It remains at a right angle 
to the humerus and can be flexed and extended so that the hand moves 



134 Eclectic and Summary Department Jan. 1853, 

through 8 or 10 degrees of an arc of a circle. He has entire use of the 
hand, can both open and shut it, and he grasps objects quite firmly. 

The pulse in that arm can be felt as well as in the other. 

This patient can be seen in ward No. 8, and bedNo. 116, Charity Hos- 
pital. — JY. 0. Medical Register. 



Treatment of Obstinate Ulcers by the Internal use of Tincture of Can- 
iharides. By J. Tart, Esq. — In a case of extensive ulceration in a bro- 
ken constitution, after the failure of various plans of treatment, Mr. Tart 
gave ten drops of tincture of cantharides three times a day, with marked 
benefit. In three clays from the commencement the sores began to con- 
tract, healthy lymph appeared round the edges, and vivid granulations 
started up. In a fortnight, the ulcers were quite healed. On this case, 
the author remarks : — 

" Such was the progress and issue of a case that had baffled every pre- 
vious treatment employed. It affords one of many examples I could bring 
forward of the great utility of cantharides in indolent ulceration, depen- 
dent either upon atony of the engaged parts, or system generally. 

"In 1845, while resident in Burmah, my attention was directed to the 
treatment of the ulcers met with in that country, and which had long 
been found difficult to heal by different medical gentlemen stationed upon 
that coast. I drew up a paper, exhibiting the appearances presented by 
the different ulcers, and the states of constitutional derangement with 
which they were identified, and in which I had employed the tincture of 
cantharides with marked success. The paper alluded to, backed by seve- 
ral cases treated by different medical friends, was forwarded to the Mad- 
ras Medical Board, who ordered it to be circulated throughout the medi- 
cal service of the Madras army. 

"A few extracts from the paper here referred to will show the charac- 
ters of the ulcers where I found the tincture of cantharides useful : — 

" 1st. Where the granulations were exuberant, but pale, weak, and 
flabby. 

" 2d. Where there was deficiency, or total absence of granulations, 
the ulcers being deep and scooped out, with raised and indurated edges. 

"3d. Where the granulations were not defective, but cicatrizing irre- 
gularly, sometimes in the centre, at other times on one side, the lymph 
which was thrown out and organized one day being absorbed the next. — 
Prov. Med. and Surg. Journal. 



THE 

SEW JERSEY MEDICAL REPORTER. 

VOL. VI. SECOND MONTH (FEB.), 1853. No. 5. 

Uterine Anaesthesia. — Read before the District Medical Society for the 
County of Burlington, Jan. 11, 1853. By I. P. Coleman, M. D. 

President of the Society. 

Gentlemen — During that long period of darkness, in which the myste- 
rious union of our physical and psychological conditions impressed the 
popular mind with a superstitious and awful reverence for the inanimate 
organism, medical philosophers were driven into the field of comparative 
anatomy, for the facts, which shed light on the pathology of their times. 
Notwithstanding the facilities afforded by the present enlightened state of 
civilized society, for the investigation of the causes of abnormal phenom- 
ena in the human subject, yet the comparative researches are daily con- 
tributing facts of immense importance to the Biologist, whilst the almost 
creative microscope is portraying in bold relief the mechanism and move- 
ments of the heretofore imperceptible and unknown of our animalcular 
cotemporaries, illustrating the primordial movements of the more perfect 
organisms, the chemist is demonstrating the identity in composition of 
those substances, which enter into the tissues of both vegetable and ani- 
mal structures. So close indeed, is the relationship existing between the 
inferior animals and man, and so much do their movements depend on 
the same laws, that the analogical inferences of early observers were 
much sounder and of more practical importance than they were really 
supposed to have been. Therefore, by making proper allowance for the 
influence of the psychological element upon the movements of the human 
economy, the comparative facts occasionally met with, are of great value 
in the practical application of our science. It is true, the exaltation of 
cerebral development in man over the brute, must in some instances, im- 
pair the force of the analogy, but in many more, this influence is scarce- 
ly felt, and what is predicated of one, is equally true of the other. 

With these preliminaries, I proceed to the statement of a case which 
came under my observation; illustrative of the possibility of the arrest of 
17 



136 Coleman on Uterine Ancesthesia. [Feb. 

very important functions, and suspension of highly conservative forces^ 
without material injury to the general health. Or it may be, that the 
sympathies are more active when the physician is perplexed hy the ab- 
sence of those symptoms which he is taught to consider invariable. In 
the autumn of 1851, being present at the slaughtering of a cow, my at- 
tention was arrested by the large size of the uterus, and upon subsequent 
inquiry I obtained the following history of the case. 

In the Spring of 1850, she produced her second or third calf; early in 
the summer the usual manifestations of salacity were satisfied, but re- 
turned again during the following spring and summer several times ; be- 
ing indulged on each occasion with the desired intercourse. No depart- 
ure from good health was at any time observed by those having the care 
of her ; but lactation diminishing and fat accumulating through the sum- 
mer of 1851, she was turned off, and became excellent beef in the fall. 
The external outline of the uterus was irregular, presenting well marked 
elevations and depressions, instead of the globose form of the normally 
fecund organ. A long incision brought into view the form of a foetus, 
surrounded by the membranes, detached entirely from the uterine surface. 
The liquor amnii had been evacuated or absorbed, until the membranes 
resembled damp, dirty parchment. The placental mass was also detach- 
ed, and condensed into a similar appearance. The foetus was well formed, 
and apparently far advanced in the fourth month of gestation, present- 
ing some bristly buccal hairs. The skin was otherwise nudose. The 
flesh was solid, firm and dry, resembling jerked beef, or such as might 
Jiave been subjected to compression until all the fluids had been expelled. 
The viscera had undergone equal desiccation. 

In the entire absence of free fluid — in the hardness of the flesh — ma- 
hogany color, and membranous envelop, it presented a good specimen of 
mummy. No difference was perceived between the odor of this and the 
abdominal and thoracic cavities ; neither were there morbid appearances 
in any of the tissues of the uterus or its concomitant organs. A slight 
discoloration — a yellowish tinge, was observed on one quarter of the inte- 
rior uterine surface, but no approximation to structural degeneration. 

The vagina, tincae, and cervix uturi were healthy and fair. No apparent 
cause existed to prevent easy dilatation. There the foetus lay, quietly as 
the mummy in its cerements, and as little heeded by its sepulchre. What 
length of time it had been in this situation, and by what cause it was de- 
tained, are the questions naturally suggested. The dryness of the whole 
structure, the membranes, skin, flesh, and viscera, under the circum- 
stance of its being entombed in an organ constantly moist, would reason- 



1853.] Coleman on Uterine Ancesthesia. 137 

ably imply the lapse of considerable time. Perhaps, the idea that con- 
ception took place on the first sexual intercourse, is not untenable. The 
presence of an inanimate body in the uterus does not necessarily preclude 
the possibility of renewed desire, but it is adequate to the prevention of 
conception. While gestation, the peculiar function of the uterus, is in ac- 
tive operation, that of the ovaries is suspended ; consequently, as salacity 
in the brute depends on ovulation, it cannot happen during foetal vitality. 
But when development has ceased under circumstances which do not 
arouse morbid sympathies, the ovarian activity may be resumed with its 
appropriate physical manifestations. The casting off of new ova from the 
ovaries may therefore be attended by the evidence of sexual desire, but 
the existence of the foreign body in the uterus is effectual protection 
against conception. The inference from the above considerations is, that 
conception took place on the first occasion • that arrest of development oc- 
curred during the fourth month ; that morbid sympathies were not exci- 
ted ; that the congeneric organs being in healthy tone, their functions 
were resumed, ovulation was the result, and salacity the evidence. This 
result once effected, could be repeated upon the re-production of that 
amount of functional force, which had been exhausted by the preceding 
effort. Judging from appearances, that foetus might have remained in 
situ an indefinite length of time, surrounded by tissues enjoying the full 
vigor of nutrient and chemical vitality, but diminished sensibility, and 
itself claiming an immunity from the ordinary laws of chemical decom- 
position. It has been said that no mechanical obstacle prevented the ex- 
pulsion of the foetus ; we must therefore, look to the uterus for the cause 
of detention. This may have consisted in anaesthesia of its sentient or 
esodic nerves, either in their expansion on the internal surface of that 
organ, or in their course to the spinal axis, or it may have existed in pa- 
ralysis of the reflex, or motor nerves in their progress from that centre. 
Either of the conditions cited, is sufficient for the simple effect of reten- 
tion. It is therefore unnecessary to call into requisition the agency of 
the sympathetic, although it contributes to the plexus which supplies the 
uterus, and may somewhat assist in peristaltic movements, it is certainly 
inadequate to the production of those exquisitely tonic spasms by which 
the parturient effort is accomplished. The origin of such results can 
only be recognized in the spinal system, and implies a soundness and in- 
tegrity in its diastaltic circuit. Without the impulse of the excitors the 
motor force cannot be brought into activity, muscular contraction and 
consequent expulsion cannot take place. Were the excitors in normal 
condition, and the motors deranged, morbid sympathies must have been 



138 Post Mortem Examination. [Feb. 

aroused in distant organs, through its great splanchnic associations, in 
the attempt of the excitors to awaken the energies of the motor division 
of the circuit. Such tumult does not seem to have existed, as the good 
health of the animal gave assurance of general functional integrity. "We 
therefore infer the soundness of the latter portion of the circuit, as ner- 
vous influence once communicated to the spinal axis must be reflexed, 
and if not to its appropriate organ, it will be to the disturbance of others 
in its sympathetic connexion. Thus we arrive at the conclusion, that 
diminished sensibility in the excitors was the cause of this protracted 
and harmless probation. 

Such facts are of practical value, as they teach us not to attempt a 
treatment too perturbating or meddlesome, in those cases where the tissues 
tolerate the presence of abnormal productions, without calling into activ- 
ity the sympathies of important organs, for the very anaesthesia which 
permits their presence is opposed to their ready removal by absorption, 
or to their expulsion through the operation of medicinal agents. 

It is not presumed that all similar cases in the human subject will 
present examples of equal tolerance. In persons of nervous temperament, 
and highly cultivated sensibilities, the knowledge of the existence of such 
productions would cause a state of mental disquietude, sufficient to dis- 
turb the functions of the whole assemblage of sympathetic viscera. The 
vertical position of the human frame might also render it less tolerable, 
than the horizontal one of the animal, yet we know that gravid women 
in good health, and of active habits, do carry much greater weight with- 
out inconvenience. Would any of the reputed ecbolica have been capa- 
ble of casting off the encumberance, under the above circumstance of tor- 
pid sensibility ? I presume not. We know the impotency of such arti- 
cles in producing their specific effects, when unaided by a natural effort 
in that direction, and the potency of the most active of that class in pro- 
ducing unconsciousness and tetanoid spasm in the muscles of volition, 
through the panthodic property of the medulla spinalis. I therefore hold 
it to be good practice in many such cases, and those of tumors in the 
cellular structures, to quiet the apprehensions of the patient, to inspire 
a reasonable hope, and leave the heroic remedies on the shelf of the 
apothecary. 

Interesting Post Mortem Examination. By I. P. COLEMAN, M. D. 

Mrs. S. aged 40, has been, during the last eight years, subject to an 
aching distress in the right side, occasional attacks of severe pain, and 



1853.] Post Mortem Examination. 139 

uniform inability to lie on the left side without producing a dragging 
and tearing sensation in that of the right. For some months past the 
paroxysms of acute pain have been much more frequent, and, as descri- 
bed, seemed to indicate the passage of gall-stones, or severe cramp colic. 
Several physicians have attended her at different times. I first saw her 
on the 8 th of November, when laboring under a severe and most distress- 
ing attack. For 12 hours, the pain, nausea and vomiting had been al- 
most incessant. The pains were intermitting and paroxysmal, and refer- 
red to the epigastric and hypogastric regions. Almost immediately upon 
the accession of the pain, the vomiting would commence, and the quanti- 
ty was enormous, filling an ordinary wash-basin at three or four parox- 
ysms. The character of the ejected fluid was purulent stercor so exceed- 
ingly offensive as to expel the attendants from the apartment. In the 
early period of the attack, there had been a small alvine dejection. The 
general character of the bowels was tardiness, approximating to constipa- 
tion. Strong sinapisms were applied to the epigastrium, and opium in 2 
grain pills, immediately after each emesis which succeeded after the third 
dose in subduing both the pain and vomiting. On the following day 
she was sitting up, felt as well as could have been expected, but complain- 
ed of abdominal soreness, particularly in the right lumbar region. Left 
three or four doses comp. cath. pills, to be taken at intervals of one day, 
with instructions to inform me if worse, in a day or two. In three weeks 
I was again summoned to witness a similar scene in every apparent fea- 
ture. As she reported a great improvement in her health for the first 
ten or twelve days from the former treatment, the same course was again 
pursued with similar relief. In three weeks I was again called : the 
quantity ejected at this time was great, and the fetor intolerable. From 
this time until her demise she was under the attendance of Dr. El well, 
who states that the vomiting never ceased, nor were the bowels freely 
evacuated. The stomach would only retain farinaceous food for some 
months past, and latterly not any thing. 

The leading peculiarities in the physical signs of this case, independent 
of the constant soreness of the right epigastric and lumbar regions, were 
the localities of the pain in the acute paroxysm ; these were referred to 
the back, to the epigastrium, and the region of the uterus. In fact, the 
pains so much resembled violent parturient efforts, that had it not been 
for the stercoraceous vomiting, the disease might have .been considered 
uterine, and the emesis a sympathetic disturbance. I must here remark, 
that the cathartic medicine which I gave her was reported to have acted 
with tolerable freedom. The patient died on the night of the 9th inst., 



140 Post Mortem Examination. [Feb, 

and yesterday a post mortem was conducted by Dr. Elwell and myself. 
Upon exposing the abdominal cavity, one of the most extensive specta- 
cles of disease was presented, that I have ever seen. The omentum spread 
from side to side, and descending to the pubes was thick, engorged, car- 
neous, from the quantity of fibrin thrown upon, and adherent to it, re- 
sembling a bruised, mangled, stratum of flesh. Fibrin had been thrown 
out in all directions, on the right side, from the iliac fossa to the portal 
vessels, agglutinating the ascending and transverse colon, the duodenum, 
a portion of the small intestines, the pancreas and serous tunic of the 
stomach, and right parietal peritoneum, in one heterogeneous indescribable 
mass. The right lobe of the liver was shrunken, atrophied to one half 
the normal size, and melanotic in hue. 

The convex surface of the liver was occupied by a conglomerated mass 
of fatty tubercles, from the size of a pea to that of a filbert, in the aggre- 
gate having a base of three inches, and an elevation of one inch above 
the plane of the surface, with a depression in the centre, having a cica- 
trized appearance, as though it might have been the site of a former 
abscess. The lower point was also the subject of fatty induration, which, 
upon being cut into resembled fat, blended with thick turbid oil. The 
left lobe was free from induration, but rather dark for good health. The 
gall bladder was very small and collapsed, containing but f£ ij, of yellow 
bile, and two rough spherical stones, one of the size of a filbert, and free; 
the other the size of a pea, and adherent to the cyst at the orifice of the 
duct. For a long time the exploration was retarded by the rapid flow into 
the cavity of the abdomen, of a vast quantity of the purulent matter, such 
as had been vomited ; in it was found cranberries, persimmon seeds, and 
the doctor's pills. After two or three quarts of such fluid had been re- 
moved by the sponge, the extent of the disease was apparent. The whole 
visible surface of the intestines was engorged. The duodenum was gan- 
grenous throughout its whole extent, with two lesions of three inches in 
length, each. The agglutinated mass of intestines, with the enormous 
quantity of semi organized lymph, all adherent to the lumbar vertebrae 
and right side, formed a number of sinuses and cavities where large 
quantities of pus were formed, which found its way into the cavity of the 
abdomen, and through the lesions of the duodenum into the stomach. A 
thick, heavy adhesion, attached the lower convexity of the stomach to the 
transverse colon, at which point was a carcinomatous degeneration three 
inches in length and nearly two in thickness. The calibre of the colon 
nearly obliterated. The beautifully condensed fibrous strata running 
longitudinally through the mass, were very conspicuous. That the vomit- 



1853.] "God in Disease." 141 

ing should have been stercoraceous and purulent is by no means a matter 
of surprise. The symptoms of the passage of gall-stones are no longer a 
doubt. The adhesion of all the abdominal viscera to the vertebrae, affords 
a solution to the pain in the back. The cancer in the colon, to the epi- 
gastric pain. Can the hypogastric distress be as well accounted for ? 
The left ovarium was greatly enlarged, and but for its black venous ap- 
pearance, I should suppose it to be an incipient multilocular dropsy. In 
the cavity of the uterus was found a little pendulous, oblong body, six 
lines in length and four in diameter, attached to the orifice of the right 
fallopian tube. It contained a cavity which was lined with what appear- 
ed to be a mucous membrane. The uterine surface was spread over with 
a layer of dark blood, but no appearance of fibre. 
Pemberton, N. J. Jan. 1853. 



"God in Disease." By Ariel Hunton, M. D. 

[Note by the Editor. We are not willing that our pages should be 
open to the discussion of the subject embraced in the following essay, 
though we admit the article of Dr. Hunton, because we have an instinc- 
tive sense of regard for men of venerable years, particularly when they 
belong to our own profession, and as our correspondent has manifested a 
becoming interest in the prosperity of our work, as a journalist. He will 
however, not be unwilling for us to say, perhaps, which we do with great 
respect, that his article appears to disprove the position, which he desires 
to establish. 

If disease is the infliction of punishment for the violation of law, then 
the author of the law becomes the inflicter of the penalty. In the case 
of the mechanic, who is supposed to submit himself to the causes of dis- 
ease, and then suffers, and dies from its effects, he only exhibits his folly 
and presumption in the act of exposure; but if the law violated by him- 
self, Has a Divine Author, then the consequences of the violation must 
be traced to the same immutable Source. 

The hint to clergymen we do not object to, though we think our pro- 
fession, perhaps, would wince a little, if in the exercise of their high of- 
fice, our ministerial brethren were to assume "to teach the structure 
and functions of our bodies, and the laws that govern them." Yet, even 
this, we think with Dr. H. would be "more honorable," than to give 
their names, and influence, to the venders of patent medicines. 

Having said thus much, we leave the subject, with the essay, for the 
consideration of those of our readers who may be interested in it ; trust- 
ing that our friend, Dr. H. will pardon the youthful ardor, which per- 



142 u God in Disease." [Feb. 

haps, may betray itself in this prefatory note, in opposition to sentiments 
advancedjbyjme of riper years and maturer experience.] 

In the'twelfth number of the Keporter, 1852, page 433, under the 
head of Bibliographical Notices, a book,by James F. Duncan, the title of 
which is, " God in disease," is noticed. The bare title is all I know of it, 
but supposing it teaches what I frequently hear promulgated by indivi- 
duals, that God is the immediate cause of our maladies, and dissolution, 
I dissent from the opinion. Physicians are the last men who ought to 
be bigoted, or superstitious j and when I hear a man greeted Doctor, I 
ought to be assured he is a man of science, the etymology being Doceo ; 
he ought to be a teacher, or capable of teaching, he ought also to be a 
philosopher, for the whole of our science is philosophical. 

If any one is disposed to aver that the Great first cause has created 
our bodies frail, that we are susceptible of disease when we expose our- 
selves to the causes of disease, I will admit the fact. I have an objec- 
tion to the young or old being taught that God is directly the cause of 
our maladies. We are the authors of our sickness, by errors in diet, ex- 
ercise, ventilation, intemperance, &c. infringement of the physical laws of 
our frame ) any thing carried to excess is intemperance. If our disease is 
from hereditary predisposition, it implies a wrong in our ancestors, and 
these are the causes of all our ills, aside from accidents. It is averred 
with much truth, by late writers, that great exertions are in progress to 
improve our domestic animals, to the entire neglect of the human species. 
Let us examine our own habits, and try to improve them. 

If a mechanic in one of our cold winter days, with his shop at summer 
heat, steps out, minus hat and coat, while in a sensible perspiration, to see 
some passer by, and procrastinates his stay longer than he intended, he 
feels chilly, but cannot leave his friend as soon as he ought. When he re- 
turns to his shop he has a chill and fever, and finally a peripneumony which 
ends his days. Has God caused this man's disease or death ? It ds no- 
thing more or less than an infringement of one of the laws of the human 
frame ; the man violated this law, and suffered the penalty. Is a man 
in a state of intoxication at night, he will be sick the next morning j did 
God make him sick ? In the vicinity of my residence three men have 
lately died of delirium tremens, after a long course of tippling and drunk- 
enness ; did those men kill themselves by infringing on one of the physi- 
cal laws of their frames, or did God kill them ?. My wish is to be ra- 
tional and consistent, and not adopt any sentiments except such as will 
stand the test of scrutiny. I request others to do the same ; let us think, 



1853.] • « God in Disease." 143 

test, judge, have our minds open to conviction, even should it thwart 
some of our cherished theories ; " he who never alters his mind, never 
corrects any of his errors." Our world is progressing ; science is onward; 
investigation is the order of the day; let the medical profession re- 
port progress, and where evidence and reason point the way, follow, and 
you will seldom be in the wrong path ; let the profession occupy the first 
rank in science, morals, and integrity. 

After this great First Cause has made physical laws to govern our frames, 
which are immutable, and we implicitly obey them, we shall be afflicted 
with very few diseases, shall live to a good old age, and wear out like 
useful machines ; but if we disobey or infringe on those laws, sickness, 
pain, and anguish will follow as a punishment. G-od has prepared reme- 
dies to heal all our maladies, if they are judiciously applied; but should 
they be injudiciously applied, they must be inert, or do harm. And 
further, G-od has not informed us of the medical virtues of any ar- 
ticle in the materia medica, but left that for our investigation ; this 
ought to excite us to diligence, and to exert ourselves to the utmost, 
to fathom His law on this subject. It will be acknowledged by every 
medical man, that rhubarb was made for a cathartic ; but let an 
illiterate, ignorant pretender, prescribe rhubarb, as an emetic, saying to 
the patient, I think by the Divine blessing, this will cause you to vomit ; 
will he not be very liable to be disappointed ? He has not used it 
for the purpose Grod intended, and will He abrogate His laws, to 
conform to the caprice, or ignorance of any man ; if He does, He is not 
immutable ! Again, a patient is afflicted with diabetes; one of the facul- 
ty, without sufficient reflection, or investigation, prescribes nitrous aether, 
or nitrate of potash, to avert the flow of urine ; will not the prescriber be 
foiled? The medicine will not be blessed to the healing of the patient, 
because it was not intended to produce such an effect. A patient 
has a catarrh, or common cold, he does not expectorate, and he is direct- 
ed to take an infusion made of our most astringent vegetables; think you 
that blessings will be conferred on the prescription so as to produce an 
expectorant effect? This subject may be illustrated in a thousand ways, 
and all tend to the same result. I first seek to know the medical vir- 
tues of the article I use, and what effect it was intended to produce on 
the human frame ; and then investigate the nature of the disease. Then 
I think I can prescribe in a judicious manner, and if in season, I shall 
not often be disappointed. I intend to investigate the specific virtues of 
my prescriptions ; the location, and etiology of the disease I 'am prescrib- 
ing for, that I may be capable of giving a reason for my mode of prac= 
18 



144 Editorial. • [Feb, 

tice. While I am on this part of my subject, I may allude to the fact, 
that, clergymen are very prone, on funeral occasions, to aver to the 
bereft, that God has taken away their friend : whereas, it is the disease 
that kills the patient, in consequence of his disregarding, or violating the 
physical laws of our natures. I fear my ideas will disturb some tender 
mind, but I will endeavor to write nothing but truth, and where that 
points the way, there I shall travel, should I be alone ; but I feel confi- 
dent I shall have the thinking and reflecting for my associates. If our 
clergymen were to teach the structure, and functions of our bodies, 
and the laws that govern the human frame, and the impropriety of trans- 
gressing those laws, it would be of incalculable benefit to the human fa- 
mily; and more honorable than to see their names appended to patent 
medicines. These wholesome precepts are, however, usually disregarded. 
Hyde Park, Vt. ? Jan. 1853. 



EDITORIAL. 



New Jersey Medical Institute, located at Burlingto... 

Among our advertisements will be found an announcement of a course 
of lectures by the members of this new Association. A word or two only 
about it. It is not intended to confer degrees, or diplomas, but to offer 
familiar didactic, and clinical instruction to students in the summer sea- 
son. It is an experiment, the success of which is yet to be proved. 
Those who compose it have manifested an independent, and enterprising 
spirit in its projection, though we suppose there will be persons in com- 
munity, who will receive it with prejudice and distrust. We hope and 
believe however, that all highminded and honorable physicians, who are 
lovers of their profession, from other, than motives of gain or interest, 
will be glad to know that the spirit of medical improvement in New Jer- 
sey, is expanding its powers, and influence, in a direction so important. 



What may be expected. 

We have always desired to make the Reporter useful, and at the same 
time to furnish a variety of matter to our readers. In the next number 
we propose to introduce to their notice a portrait and short biographical 
sketch of Prof. George B. Wood, M. D., of Philadelphia, who is one of 
the bright stars of New Jersey, that has adorned the medical profession 



1853.] Editorial. 145 

of this country, with many contributions of learning, experience, and 
skill. The engraving will be prepared especially for our own use, and 
will belong to the New Jersey Journal; it will be the conimencenient of 
a series of portraits, particularly of distinguished physicians who are na- 
tives of, or who may belong to our own State j and though we shall not 
be able to present an engraving for each number, we hope to secure two 
or three for every succeeding volume. Our expenses will be increased, 
not a little, by this arrangement, and we look to our friends, to do some- 
thing in order to enlarge our subscription list. There is no other Medi- 
cal Journal in the United States, so far as we know, that possesses 
such a feature, and it is certainly desirable to preserve the likenesses and 
biography of men who have labored prominently, and faithfully to 
promote our noble science. Who will send us more subscribers, that we 
may pay for this useful and attractive embellishment ? We expect 
also to furnish, in our next issue, the proceedings of the annual meet- 
ing of our State Medical Society, held on the 25th of last month. 



Proceedings of Medical Societies. 

The Annual Meeting of the Burlington County District Medical Soci- 
ety, was held at the house of R. C Humphreys, Mount Holly, on the 
11th day of January, 1853 : the President in the Chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting were read, amended, and adopted. 
Members present, Drs. Coleman, (Pres't.) Stratton, A. Reid, Z. Read, 
Budd, Woolston, R. H. Page, Butler and Gauntt. Dr. Wm. L. Martin, 
of Rancocas village, having been proposed for membership at the last 
meeting, produced his credentials, which were examined and found en- 
tirely satisfactory. 

On motion, the candidate was balloted for, and unanimously elected a 
member of this Society. 

On motion of Dr. Stratton, Dr. Wm. H. Worthington, of Mount Holly, 
(the candidate being absent Dr. Stratton vouched for the correctness of 
his credentials,) who was proposed for membership at the last meeting, 
was balloted for, and unanimously elected a member of this Society. 

On motion of Dr. G-auntt, the President appointed Dr. Butler a com- 
mittee to report resolutions with reference to the decease of one of our mem- 
bers, Dr. E. A. Heintzelman, which had occurred since our last meeting, 

The Committee report the following preamble and resolutions : — 

Whereas, It pleased an all wise Providence, on the 11th of Nov. 1852, 
suddenly to remove by death, an active and honored member of the Dis- 
trict Medical Society of the county of Burlington : 

Resolved, That in the death of Dr. Edwin A. Heintzelman, late of Co- 
lumbus, this Society is called to mourn the loss of one of its most pro- 



146 Editor's Table. % [Feb. 

mising members — one whom we had learned to love and respect for his 
many social and professional virtues. 

Resolved, That in the casualty which summoned him without warning 
into the presence of the Judge of all the earth, we recognize the hand of 
the Almighty, and regard it as a warning to us to be also ready, as " at 
an hour when we think not," we also may be called from time into eter- 
nity. 

Resolved, That the sympathies of the members of this Society, in their 
individual and collective capacity, be, and are hereby extended to the 
family of the deceased, and that it be the duty of the Secretary to fur- 
nish a copy of these Resolutions to his widow and parents. 

Resolved, That these Resolutions be placed on the Minutes of the So- 
ciety, and published in the New Jersey Medical Reporter, and the news- 
papers of the county. 

Dr. Budd and Dr. Page, who were appointed a Committee to examine 
the Treasurer's accounts, report that they fmd a balance in his hands due 
the Society, of $26 20*. 

Dr. Bryan, of Beverly, and Dr. Wright, of Columbus, were proposed 
for membership. 

On motion Resolved, That the by-law relating to the amount (ten dol- 
lars) to defray the expense of representing this Society at the meetings 
of the State Medical Society, be expunged. 

On motion, Resolved, That the delegates appointed by this Society to 
represent it at the meetings of the State Medical Society, shall have their 
actual and necessary road fare paid on presenting bills for the same, to 
the Treasurer of this Society. 

The election of officers for the ensuing year was held, when 
Dr. S. W. Butler was elected President. 
Dr. R. H. Page " " Vice-President. 
Dr. B. H. Stratton " Treasurer. 
Dr. F. GrAUNTT " Secretary. 

Drs. S. Woolston, A. Reid, R. H. Page, and William L. Martin, were 
appointed delegates to represent this Society at the annual meeting of 
the State Medical Society, at Trenton, with power to fill vacancies. 

Dr. Coleman, the President, read a paper before the Society upon 
"Uterine Anaesthesia." 

On motion, Resolved, That the thanks of the Society be tendered to 
the President for his address, with the request of a copy for publication. 

R. C. Humphreys' bill for dinners, &c, amounting to $8 25, was or- 
dered to be paid. 

On motion, the Society adjourned to meet at the house of S. B. Cam- 
pion, in Mount Holly, on the second Tuesday in April, 1853. 

FRANKLIN OAUNTT, Secy 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 

There are several matters on our table this month, requiring a passing 
notice, among which arc the following : — 



1853.) Editor's Table. 147 

The American Journal of Pharmacy. This excellent Journal com- 
mences its 25th vol. with the present year, and with it a new series. 
The work will be enlarged considerably by being issued every other 
month, instead of Quarterly as heretofore, each number containing 96 
pages as formerly, the price of subscription also remaining the same, viz: 
$3.00 a year in advance. This work is well worthy the patronage of 
Pharmaceutists and Physicians. Edited by Wm. Proctor, Jr., Philada. 

The New York Medical Gazette has undergone another change of 
form, and will hereafter be issued monthly at $2,00 per annum. It is 
improved in its typography and arrangement, but it seems to us some of 
its divisions savor too much of the popular monthly catch-pennies, for a 
scientific journal. We would recommend our confrere to let Harper's 
and other magazines monopolize such departments as " Editor's Easy 
Chair" — and " Editor's Portfolio." We notice some references to co- 
temporaneous New York Journals, which we cannot but regard as un- 
called for, and calculated to injure rather than promote the circulation of 
the Gazette. Dr. Reese is an energetic man, and will undoubtedly com- 
mand a valuable range of contributions. 

The Southern Journal of the Medical and Physical Sciences. Surely, 
wonders will never cease. It seems but yesterday that we left Tennessee, 
our native State, a wilderness comparatively, and now it has, (we will 
not say supports), four medical periodicals, some of which we believe 
must die unless they consent to unite their fortunes. The Southern 
Journal appears well, and certainly has the elements of success, — good 
contributions, — good selections, and, we would fain believe, good editors. 
Success to the enterprize ; we will exchange with pleasure. 

Edited by Drs. John W. King and Wm. P. Jones in the Depart- 
ment of Practical Medicine and Surgery ; R. O. Curry, M. D., Chemis- 
try and Pharmacy ; and B. Wood, M. D., Dental Surgery, etc. Nash- 
ville, Tenn., Bi-monthly 72 pages, $2.00 a year always in advance. 

The Escidapian. This is the title of a medical newspaper intended 
for popular rather than professional reading. It is a quarto monthly of 
eight pages, edited by C. D. Griswold, M. D., and published at 108 
Nassau street, New York, at one dollar a year. 

The number on our table seems to be unexceptionable in character 
and matter, and we doubt not the work is calculated to do good, by dif- 
fusing correct notions of medicine among the people. We wish Dr. Gris- 
wold success in his enterprize. 

Chemistry ; its importance to the Physician, is the subject of an in- 
troductory lecture by J. J. Reese, M. D., Prof, of Medical Chemistry 
and Pharmacy in the Medical Department of Pennsylvania College. 
This is a clear and forcible argument in favor of the study of Chemistry 
by the medical man. It is well for the practicing physician to read such 
arguments occasionally, as they may serve to arouse his dormant ener- 
gies to the pursuit of some important branch, which otherwise might be 
neglected. 



148 Miscellany. [Feb. 

History of the University of Louisville, an Introductory Lecture by L. 
P. Yandell, M. D., Prof, of Physiology and Pathological Anatomy m 
that Institution. This school seems to have originated at Lexington, the 
preliminary steps having been taken by Dr. William Kichardson as early 
as 1816. A faculty was organized, in connection with the Transylvania 
University in 1817, and after several organizations and re-organizations, 
an attempt was made in 1833 to remove to Louisville as a more availa- 
ble location for the school. This project had the effect of dividing the 
faculty, and a portion of it, among whom was Dr. Yandell removed to 
Louisville where, from an indifferent beginning the Medical Department 
of the Louisville University has grown to be one of the most important 
medical institutions of the West. The late Dr. Daniel Drake, a native 
of this State, was for many years connected w ith the above School. 



Miscellany. 



M. Blandet in the Gomptes Rendus recommends the Chloride of Ba- 
rium, as superior to either the Hyposulphite of Soda or the Chloride of 
Zinc as an antiseptic injection, the former combining the peculiar anti- 
septic properties of both the others. "This salt (Chloride of Barium), 
maintains the blood liquid the same as the salt of Soda, and preserves it 
without odor the same as the salt of Zinc." 

Capital operations involving joints, although by no means a distin- 
guishing feature of modern surgery, are however, coming more and more 
into vogue. We recently published a case of excision of the knee joint. 
In the November number of the New York Journal of Medicine, Prof. 
W. Parker publishes a case of amputation at the knee joint, and follows 
it with a record of cases which have occurred in the practice of Ameri- 
can and European Surgeons. The following is the general summary. 
In American practice, 12 cases, 3 deaths, 9 recoveries. In Foreign 
practice 28 cases, 12 deaths, 16 recoveries. Malgaigne and Jaeger's col- 
lections 46 cases, 22 deaths, 24 recoveries. Total, 86 cases, 37 deaths, 
49 recoveries; per centage of deaths 43. 

Summer Schools of Medicine appear to be increasing. One has re- 
cently been established in Cincinnati. The Lecturers are Drs. Landon 
Rives, S. H. Smith, W. H. Cobb, J. F. Wright, P. J. Buckner, D. C. 
Tandy, W. Carson, Charles W. Wright, and James Graham. The lec- 
tures commence on the third Monday in March, and continue sixteen 
weeks, three or four lectures being delivered daily. 

The article on the " Treatment of Hooping Cough" in the January 
number of the Buffalo Medical Journal, has the appearance of having 
been condensed from an editorial on p. 436 of our last volume. It is 
credited to the Western J ournal of Medicine and Surgery, a work we 
never see. There is too much of this borrowing without credit. Of 
course we can attach no blame to the editor of the Buffalo Journal. 

A correspondent of the Toronto North American presents a sad picture 



1852.] Obituary Notices. 149 

of the state of affairs in the Canada Provincial Lunatic Asylum. It 
seems to us, that in this enlightened day, such wealthy and populous 
states as the two Canadas, ought to have each an Asylum where unfortu- 
nate lunatics can have proper care and attention. We have seen lunatic 
wanderers in the streets of some of their principal cities, the very recol- 
lection of whom is painful to us. Humanity calls for reform in this re- 
spect among our northern neighbors. 

Dr. GJ-eorge Mendenhall has withdrawn his name as assistant editor of 
the Western Lancet, on account of other pressing and imperative duties 
of a professional character. 

Dr. W. P. Jones recommends in the Southern Journal of the Medical 
and Physical Sciences, a rather novel method of treating Infantile As- 
phyxia. After using the ordinary means for half an hour or more, with- 
out success, he resorted to the following extraordinary one. Observing 
the father enter the room <c bearing upon his breath the odor of alcohol" 
the idea struck him that by using him for an inflator, the stimulus of the 
alcohol might accomplish what he had begun to despair of accomplishing 
in any other way. The experiment proved successful, which induces the 
doctor to suggest that, " in the absence of a drunken husband, the ac- 
coucheur inhale the vapor of alcohol, or spirits of camphor, immediately 
previous to inflating the lungs of the child." 

A new Medical Journal is to be started in Richmond Va., in April, by 
Drs. G-eo. A. Otis and H. L. Thomas. Each number is to contain 
eighty large octavo pages embracing the various topics usually treated of 
in medical periodicals. Terms, Five Dollars a year. It must be an ex- 
cellent journal to compete with the Stethoscope unless that is going to be 
"absorbed," and surely Yirginia will not allow that ! It really makes 
us feel old to see these ups and downs among medical periodicals. 

People in this vicinity who pass for sober, staid citizens, are all agog 
on the subject of moving tables and other furniture, by means of a mys- 
terious influence variously denominated electricity and animal magnetism, 
which is brought to bear by several persons placing their hands upon said 
.articles. Those whose powers of observation we cannot call in question, 
except on the score of delusion, aver that these things are facts, though 
after several attempts, neither we, or any company with which we have 
;been associated, have as yet been able to accomplish the feat. One of 
two things is certain, either this is a grand humbug, or a grand discovery. 
If any of our readers have investigated the matter we would be much 
-obliged for an intelligent and philosophical explanation of the phenomenon. 



MATHS OF PHYSICIANS. 

- We propose hereafter to publish as complete a list of deaths of physi- 
cians in all sections of the country, as we can obtain from contempora- 
neous journals and other sources. The record will, we believe be accep- 
table and useful to our increasing list of subscribers. 



150 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Feb. 

Died, In New York, Jan. 7, John W. Hubbell, M. D. set 28. 

Jan 3d, Dr. Richard JBeall, Surveyor of Prince George Co., Md. 

Recently in Paris, Dr. Julian Taylor of Alexandria, Va. 

In Hoboken, N. J., recently, Dr. Charles C. Sheppard, a young 

practitioner. His death was caused by inoculation with poisonous mat- 
ter from the vaginal secretions of a parturient patient. — Boston Journal. 

At Bridgeton, N. J., on the 10th instant, of Pulmonary Con- 
sumption, Edward 31. Porter 31. D., in the 28th year of his age. 

Pew men, numbering so few years, have passed away from us, who 
have made so favorable an impression, upon the community as did Dr. 
Porter. He had many and warm friends, such as it is not only a plea- 
sure but an honour to possess, whose appreciation of his many excellent 
qualities gives additional poignancy to their grief, at his early removal. 
He commenced the practice of medicine at Greenwich in the spring of 
1849, where his naturally superior qualities of mind, his attainments in 
medical science, high sense of moral rectitude, good address, courteous 
and kind manners, and untiring devotion to his profession, gained for 
him in an unusually short time, that confidence and esteem as a Physi- 
cian, which is ordinarily attained only by years of unremitted attention. 
In but a little more than two years after he had entered upon the duties 
of his profession, he was stricken down by the disease, which in a few 
months terminated his short, but useful and honorable career. It will be 
consolatory to those of his friends who could not be near him in his last 
sickness, to learn, that during these weary and painful months, he was 
sustained by that religion, of which, before God, Angels and men, he 
made a public profession at his baptism in the Presbyterian Church at 
Greenwich. He had that trust in God and confidence in his mercy, 
which can legitimately result only from hearty repentance, and true faith, 
and was expressed in his dying words " I shall soon be with the Angels," 
and calmly fell asleep in Jesus. — West Jersey Pioneer. 



ECLECTIC AND SUMMAKY DEPARTMENT. 



Adhesion of the Placenta — The topical use of Kreosote in effecting its 
detachment. By W. L. Felder, $1. D., Sumpter Dist., S. C. — Messrs. 
Editors : — Having seen, in the last number of the Charleston Medical 
Journal and Review, an article on the adhesion of the placenta with the 
uterus, accompanied by fatal hemorrhage, by Dr. Mayes, of Sumpter, (a 
gentleman with whom I am not personally acquainted, but for whom I 
entertain the highest professional regard,) with an inquiry as to the best 
mode of managing such cases, I shall deem it no intrusion to point out 
the course, as pursued by myself, in two parallel cases, and if the mode I 
recommend shall afford any information, and contribute in the slightest 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 151 

degree to the well-being of suffering humanity, I will be amply compen- 
sated for the few moments consumed in addressing you upon the subject. 

Mrs. was taken in labor on Tuesday night, the 19th November, 

1839, with her third child, and was managed by an ordinary old mid- 
wife, until the morning of the 21st, at which time I was sent for. I 
found her in " hard labor," and apparently much exhausted, during the 
intervals of pain — indeed, such was the exhaustion, that before the pains 
had entirely left she would fall into profound sleep, from which she 
would presently be roused by their recurrence. There was some slight 
hemorrhage, and her breathing hurried and short. I determined to lose 
no time in her delivery, so I accordingly introduced the forceps and ter- 
minated the case. The child was alive, rather larger than ordinary, and 
did well. After I had terminated the labor she fell asleep, in which 
state I permitted her to indulge for an hour or more, when I was sudden- 
ly called to the bedside, in consequence of a severe uterine hemorrhage 
making its appearance. I used some frictions over the uterus, upon the 
abdomen, and attempted to remove the placenta, by drawing at the cord. 
Finding this course ineffectual, I introduced the hand into the vagina, 
and carried it up into the uterus, directly to the part where the after- 
birth was situated. This manipulation resulted in the discovery of its 
firm adhesion to the upper and right side of the uterus. I attempted to 
insinuate the fingers between the uterus and placenta, and tear or peel it 
away. I failed in the attempt, and finding that the hemorrhage contin- 
ued to increase, and became alarming, I gave her opium combined with 
acet. lead, hoping to arrest the flooding and relax the system. In this I 
also failed. The hemorrhage now became very alarming, and I enter- 
tained serious apprehensions for her safety. 

I next ordered 20 grains of ergot, to be given in two doses, with an 
interval of 30 or 40 minutes between the two. Not as yet successful in 
removing the placenta or arresting the hemorrhage, I again introduced 
the hand, and an effort was made to get it away any how, provided I 
could do so without injury. This was attended with no better success. 
Black despair seemed to fasten itself upon every countenance, and while 
in this labyrinthian quandary, and with strong misgivings for the safety 
of the patient, the flooding became very profuse. 

Not satisfied to be thus defeated, I determined at once to introduce a 
sponge, well soaked in a watery solution of kreosote, carry it to the ad- 
herent placenta, pass it around and wet the parts freely with it. It was 
not many moments before I felt assured, from the diminished quantity of 
blood that trickled down the arm, that the hemorrhage was about to be 
controlled, and in a short time more it was entirely arrested. With the 
other hand I applied force to the funis umbilicalis, and the placenta 
came away very readily. I wetted the surface over which the placenta 
had been adhering, and withdrew the hand, and next used frictions upon 
the abdomen, over the uterus, thereby securing the perfect contraction of 
the same. The hemorrhage never again returned, and the patient reco- 
vered speedily. 

The other case, a colored woman, occurred on the 8th of Marck, 1848. 
19 



152 Eclectic and Summary Department. (Feb° 

I saw her three or four hours after the delivery of the child, and was re- 
quested to remove the placenta, in consequence of severe hemorrhage and 
the exhaustion under which she labored. I attempted, in the usual way, 
to do so, but finding the hemorrhage would not yield, and that the cord 
would not bear much traction, I made an examination, and found the 
after-birth attached firmly to the fundus of the uterus. The parietes (if 
you will allow the expession) of the uterus, around the placenta, seemed 
protruded and contracted upon the placenta, as though an aperture or 
fistula had been made into the uterus, and the placenta shoved into it. 

The sponge, prepared as in the other case, was passed to the spot, and 
the same happy results followed, without any traction exerted upon the 
funis, and no inconvenience experienced by the patient, other than a sen- 
sation of warmth and slight uneasiness about the uterus, which soon sub- 
sided. 

A dose of oil was ordered for the patient — rest and an unirritating diet- 
enjoined for several days, completed the cure in a short time. 

Since then I have not had any other opportunity of testing the utility 
of the remedy. I, however, feel assured that the same good effects would 
in every instance result. 

If ever an opportunity should again offer, with the means at hand, I 
would try the introduction of the kreosote by injecting the blood-vessels 
of the cord. The modus operandi of the kreosote is for the consideration 
of the distinguished Professor referred to, of the Medical College of this 
State, and of which the gentleman making the inquiry has the honor 
himself to be an alumnus. 

I have my own peculiar notions upon the subject; but shall refrain 
for the present, from expressing them, hoping another opportunity may 
offer, when I shall feel myself bound to make a full exposition of the mi- 
nutiae of the past and future cases. — Charleston Medical Journal. 

Professional Acquirements.— We extract the following pertinent re- 
marks on this subject, from an able address by P. W. Leland, M. D. 
on Empiricism and its causes. The address was delivered before the 
Southern District Medical Society of Bristol Co., Mass., and was pub- 
lished in the Boston Medical and Surgical Journal. We have marked 
several passages, which we propose to transfer from time to time to our 
pages. * 

ie I do not propose to constitute myself a judge in Israel, but I presume 
you will agree with me when I say, there is a fatal tendency among 
members or our profession, no matter where found, to rest satisfied, on 
entering practice, with their elementary acquirements. In the absence of 
that salutary collision which exists among members of the legal profes- 
sion, an isolated practitioner of medicine, unless gifted with a happy 
command over his intellectual necessities, is apt to fall into a narrow, 
lifeless routine in the discharge of his professional duties. His library, 
perhaps, is not large, and access to books generally difficult. What he 
may have read, though not well digested, now lacks the requisite fresh- 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 153 

ness and novelty to entice him to a re-perusal. He is busy, and too often 
acquires the habit of hunting up particular information, and this only at 
the moment when it may be wanted. Great principles, and little details, 
escape his recollection, and his mind becomes professionally narrow. He 
finds himself generally able to meet all ordinary demands, and perhaps 
finally comes to believe that what he cannot do, cannot be done. True, 
there is a seeming excuse for indulgence in this mental laxity. One 
whose circle of practice embraces a large extent of territory, must neces- 
sarily be much of the time absent from home. His exposure, too, is 
great ; which, added to the want of regular sleep and wholesome relaxa- 
tion, often renders intellectual application irksome. Under such a condi- 
tion of life, he too often falls into the bad habit of snatching at books as 
he does at his dinner, and forgets the next day alike what he has read 
and what he has eaten. Perhaps, too, from education and standing, his 
services are required in the discharge of municipal and other public du- 
ties. These form an agreeable variety, and undoubtedly contribute some- 
thing to his social happiness. Nor is he called upon to forego them en- 
tirely. The fault is not, on the whole, that he has too much occupation, 
but really that he lives on without method. He is busy without system. 
His arrangements are without order; and for lack of these, the seeming 
excuse is no excuse at all. In the intervals of professional engagement, 
there is ordinarily full and ample time for all necessary study and for the 
performance of all other necessary duties. What is wanted is a judicious 
appropriation of a portion of this time to the great purpose of profession- 
al improvement. To the neglect of this, is owing, in instances quite too 
numerous, the failure of those who otherwise might have acquired, if not 
eminence, at least great respectability. One thing is certain, the practi- 
tioner who does not equal the wants of those among whom his lot is cast, 
must, sooner or later, divide with another what should have been all his 
own ) and when dissatisfaction comes, he should not be surprised if a 
bevy of quacks come along with it — quacks who, though by no means 
his equal in skill, are vastly his superiors in energy and activity. 

Now if the evil in such cases were to fall only on delinquents, there 
would be little or no ground for complaint. But this is far from being 
the case. The dissatisfied measure, perhaps, with here and there an ex- 
ception, the whole profession by those of our brethren who, from negli- 
gence, have failed in their duty to the public. The number of delin- 
quents may, therefore, be few, while the consequences of supineness in 
these few are every where felt. Unless a physician is able to exhibit a 
marked superiority when compared with the quack, he must expect to 
find the quack a troublesome competitor. It is folly for any man, in this, 
the middle of the nineteenth century, to suppose that a diploma will 
protect him. He must do more than claim the honors of a Medical Col- 
lege ; he must work, and that continually." 

Method of Remedying Accidents caused by Chloroform. — A letter from 
M. Ricord was published in the Journal de Chimie in January, 1850, in 
which he describes a simple method practised by him in cases of serious 



154 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Feb. 

effects from the use of chloroform. He gives the particulars of two cases 
in which the method Was successful. These we copy from the London 
Lancet. 

"Case 1. — The patient who furnished the subject of my first case, 
was a woman of about twenty-six, from whom I was about to remove 
some growths of no great size. She was previously chloroformed, to 
which she only submitted after repeated entreaties, for she appeared to 
be excessively timid. 

" The anaesthetic effect of the chloroform was very rapid, for after a 
few respirations she appeared asleep ; the sponge was removed, and I com- 
menced excising the growths, but had scarcely given two or three cuts, 
when one of my assistant surgeons told me that the pulse appeared to be 
failing. I now saw, in fact, that the beating of the heart was suspend- 
ed, that all respiratory movements had ceased, and that the lips were livid, 
and hung down. The limbs were completely relaxed, and the paleness 
of the face showed that the patient was in that state of syncope which is 
the herald of death. All the remedies indicated in such a case were 
forthwith employed, as cold currents of air, sprinkling cold water on the 
face, tickling the nostrils, &c. Artificial respiration, by pressure on the 
walls of the chest, was tried. 

" The syncope continued, and death seemed close at hand. I began to 
be uneasy, and determined to try direct insufflation. I applied my mouth 
to that of the patient. After some inspirations the dying woman gave a 
sigh, her chest heaved, the face resumed its normal color, the heart and 
pulse commenced beating in an appreciable manner, and the eyes opened; 
respiration had again brought into play all the functions of life, and the 
return of sensation was evidenced by a smile. The patient was saved, 
and we escaped with the fright. 

" Case 2. — The second time that I experienced the dangers of chloro- 
form was with a patient under my care in the Southern Hospital (Hopital 
du Midi.) He was a young man whose case recjuired circumcision. As 
this operation is generally painful enough, he asked me to send him to 
sleep with the chloroform. A sponge impregnated with it was given him 
to respire from : the action was very rapid, without any appearance of 
preceding excitement, and the patient was soon plunged in total insensi- 
bility. I performed the operation, but when it was concluded, the pa- 
tient did not recover his consciousness, and remained in a state of alarm- 
ing stillness. The pulse gradually sank ; the heart ceased to beat ; all 
the sphincters were relaxed, and his cadaverous face seemed to testify 
that death was near. 

"All the means I have indicated in the preceding case were tried, but 
without avail, and it became necessary to have recourse to insufflation, 
which had already so well succeeded in one case. Success crowned my 
efforts, and the patient recovered/' — Boston Journal. 

Veratrum Yiride, or American Hellebore. By W. C. Norwood, 
M. D., of Cokesbury, S. C. — As an arterial sedative in pneumonia, Ty- 
phus, and other fevers and inflammations, the Tinct. of American Helle- 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 155 

bore, is eliciting at present considerable remark and attention on the part 
of the profession. One of the peculiar properties of this article is, its 
power to control the morbid action of the heart, causing a consequent 
diminution of pulse, without producing necessary emesis, or even nausea, 
when it is administered at first in small doses. Two interesting cases of 
pneumonia are cited by the author of this paper, both of which were se- 
vere, but yielded kindly, under the effects of this remedy— 

" In 1846, we were called to see Mr. E., in consultation with Dr. J. 
A. Stewart. Mr. E. had been laboring under a severe attack of pneu- 
monia for several days. The remedies prescribed were entirely approved 
of and continued for a time, but failed to relieve. The threatening as- 
pect of the case was such, that it was thought prudent to inform his pa- 
rents at a distance, of his perilous condition. At this critical juncture, 
we observed to Dr. S. that we had been using an article in a number of 
cases of pneumonia, with a success and peculiarity of effect we had never 
been able to obtain from any other remedy, and proposed to use it in the 
present case. We immediately put Mr. E. on the use of the veratrum 
viride, to be given every three hours — the quantity to be increased one 
drop at each dose until nausea or vomiting occurred. At 8 o'clock, A. M., 
commenced with seven drops. The third portion excited severe nausea 
and free vomiting, with great paleness, coolness and moisture of the sur- 
face. During the occurrence of these interesting and striking effects, we 
were notified that Mr. E. was vomiting freely, was much worse and was 
thought to be dying. We found, however, that what had caused so 
much alarm to the patient and his friends, was to us a source of gratifi- 
cation ; for, after the effort of vomiting was over and nausea relieved, the 
pulse was reduced to 63 beats and the pain relieved." 

The pulse of this patient, previously to taking the Tincture, was 120 
to 130 beats ; and was reduced in twelve hours to 63, while the febrile 
and inflammatory symptoms subsided; after which the portion was di- 
minished one half, and continued for several days, without any renewal 
of the attack. 

"Called, in February, 1847, to see a son of Mrs. T., laboring under a 
violent attack of pneumonia, we put him on the use of veratrum viride 
every three hours. Although 12 years of age, his general slender health 
and deformed chest, having been severely afflicted with asthma, induced 
us to commence with a very small dose, that we might avoid any drastic 
effect of the remedy. The first portion given was two drops, to be in- 
creased one drop every portion until the slightest nausea was experienced, 
then to lessen or discontinue the remedy, as the case might require. On 
taking the third or fourth portion, Mrs. T. discovered that he was getting 
very pale, that the skin was cool and moist, and pain scarcely felt only 
on taking a full inspiration. The slowness of the pulse, and the pallor 
and coolness of the surface alarmed her, and she sent for us. We found 
him pale, cool, moist, and with a pulse beating 35, full and distinct. 



156 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Feb. 

When put on the tincture, in the morning, his pulse was 120 to 125, 
skin hot and dry, frequent and labored breathing, pain severe, great thirst. 
In the short space of twelve or fifteen hours the symptoms were subdued, 
and by continuing the tincture in doses of from two to three and four 
drops, there was no renewal of the symptoms. 

" In nearly all, if not in every acute disease, especially of a febrile and 
inflammatory character, we find the frequency of the pulse and the de- 
rangement of the vascular system in proportion to the force and severi- 
ty of the case. There is scarcely an exception to the rule. Why this is 
so we do not know. The fact cannot be denied ; and in order to restore 
health, we must, of necessity, control the circulation, directly or indirect- 
ly. Now, veratrum viride will almost invariably effect this, whatever 
may have been the disturbing cause. The how and the why, we do not 
understand. We look upon the universality of its application to be ex- 
actly defined by the universality of the occurrence of increased cardiac 
action. In testing its powers, we did not confine our experiments to fe- 
brile and inflammatory diseases of an idiopathic character, but extended 
them to traumatic lesions in which fever and inflammation had super- 
vened, and our labors were crowned with a success that we little dreamed 
of realizing. Its power of controlling arterial action, in febrile and in- 
flammatory diseases and in truamatic lesions, we consider established be- 
yond doubt. We gave the statement of a case of convulsions, treated 
with the veratrum viride, in the January No. (1851) of this Journal; 
since which time we have treated a number of others, with great 
success. We have not used it in epileptic convulsions sufficiently 
to enable us to speak with confidence and certainty in that disease. In 
the case of a Mr. S., whom we commenced treating in January last, and 
still have under treatment, there has been no return of the paroxysms 
since then, which is a much longer interval than he has enjoyed for years, 
and his general health is much improved. It stands unrivalled in palpi- 
tations of the heart, for promptness and certainty of relief. It is a spe- 
cific in the painful affection of the testicle Consequent upon the mumps. 
We have not failed, in a single case to obtain relief from the pain and 
fever in twelve hours, and prevented a return of the symptoms, by per- 
fect rest and a continuance of the tincture for three or four days. How 
far it will succeed in orchitis, from other causes, we are not prepared to 
say. It affords us no ordinary pleasure, to record its value in the treat- 
ment of the inflamed mamma of lying-in females. If taken in time, in 
these cases, it may be relied on to control the fever, pain and inflamma- 
tion of the brain. In hooping-cough, accompanied with high febrile ex- 
citement, it has no equal. In convulsions generally, it is highly valua- 
ble. In asthma and rheumatism its effects are peculiarly stinking, espe- 
cially in the acute forms. In chronic rheumatism we have not used it. 
In puerperal fever our experience is limited, but the few cases in which 
it was used, stamps it a reliable agent in that disease. We have found 
it of great value in the treatment of typhoid dysentery, and would feel 
unable to combat that disease without it or some other remedy of equal 
power. Its effects on the system are in perfect antagonism to those of 



1852.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 157 

scarlet fever. Combined with the diuretic treatment, we do not believe 
it can be equalled by any other plan of treatment that has ever been 
adopted in scarlet fever. We know it to be valuable of itself, but its 
powers are greatly increased by the above combination. 

" When we reflect upon the power of veratrum viride to allay pain, ir- 
ritability and irritation, and more especially irritative mobility, in con- 
nection with its influence over the heart's action and deranged secretions, 
it is truly difficult properly to appreciate its value. We know of no un- 
tried agent that we would venture to rely on with more certainty in the 
treatment of yellow fever, and we look with interest for the results of its 
trial in this disease. From its direct influence over the vascular system, 
we believe it will prove valuable in the treatment of small-pox, and by 
keeping the excitement down and the surface cool and pale, it will per- 
haps prevent the unsightly pitting which often takes place in that dis- 



ease/' 



The author next speaks of its efficiency in the treatment and cure of 
Typhoid Fever. 

" The treatment of typhoid fever is a matter in which every individual 
is deeply interested. Might we not ask with emphasis, what country, 
what community, has not felt and heard of the destructive mortality fol- 
lowing in its wake ? and has not the cry been echoed back by every 
tongue and breeze — a remedy to stay the fell destroyer's progress ! When 
we have presented as much of facts and evidence as we deem sufficient 
on the occasion, you will be able to judge and others can determine whe- 
ther a cure has been discovered and the destroyer stayed or merely 
checked ; when the value of veratrum viride in pneumonia typhoides and 
other malignant and fatal diseases, is embraced in the subject, it becomes 
doubly interesting and important. In 1850 we first entered on atrial of 
the tincture of veratrum viride in the treatment of typhoid fever. It was 
due to our patients and to justice that we should proceed with caution. 
We accordingly, at first, gave it in mild and moderately severe cases, 
avoiding its use at first in all cases of unusual severity and malignancy. 
We first used it in the case of a negro boy of Mrs. W., which was un- 
complicated and yielded readily. When called, on the third day of the 
disease, the bowels had been moved sufficiently by a cathartic of calomel, 
followed by repeated portions of camphorated Dovers powder, without 
abatement of the symptoms. The skin was hot and dry, great thirst, 
severe pain in the forehead ; the eyes dull, heavy and ecchymosed ; 
tongue covered in the centre with a dark, thin fur, tip and edges very 
red and dry ; pulse 127, small, soft and with quickness in the stroke, 
that indicated greater frequency than really existed. The patient was 
ordered a six drop dose, to be increased till nausea or vomiting occurred. 
By mistake the dose was not increased. After continuing the treatment 
twelve hours, there being no abatement in the symptoms, we were noti- 
fied of the fact and wrote to increase until an impression was made and 
that we would see the patient in twelve hours. During the absence 
of the messenger, Mrs. W. discovered that the dose was to be increased; 
and did so, and when this reached eight drops there was free vomiting . 



158 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Feb. 

with a subsidence of all febrile symptoms, the severe pain in the head 
excepted. At the expiration of twelve hours, we found the boy with a 
skin cool and moist, thirst materially abated, and the pulse reduced to 
fifty-six beats. A blister was applied to relieve the unmitigated pain in 
the head, and the veratrum viride was continued four days without any 
return of the symptoms. " 

Several other cases are noticed ; one a negro woman — pulse 116 — skin 
hot and dry, — with considerable nervous excitement — sickness of the sto- 
mach and spinal tenderness, which had resisted the use of blister to the 
parts affected, as well as cupping, and an alterative treatment of calomel. 
Tinct. of veratrum viride was presented — seven drops at 12 M., eight or 
nine in the succeeding six hours. In one half hour after the third dose 
was administered nausea and vomiting were excited moderately — pulse 80 
r — skin cool and moist, and nervous derangement much relieved — after 
which four drop doses were given every three hours, to establish the cure. 

" On the 19th July, 1852, we were called into an adjoining district, 
to see a negro woman of Mrs. Gr.'s, in consultation with Drs. T. and 
McD. We saw her at 8, A. M., on the 20th, the twelfth day of the dis- 
ease. She had been treated with all the remedies usually resorted to, 
without relief. She was slightly mercurialized ; supposed to be three 
months advanced in pregnancy ; pulse 130, extremely quick and weak, 
so much so that it was difficult to count ) tongue dry and red on the tip 
and edges, with a thick dark fur in the centre. The papillae were not 
covered with fur, were elevated, enlarged and flattened at the top ; thirst 
extreme; great heat in the region of the stomach, and complaining of in- 
ternal heat and burning ; extremities cold, with general coolness of the 
surface, except over the region of the stomach; answered questions in a 
quick and hurried manner — would invariably change some part of the 
body before giving an answer. Discharges from the bowels dark and 
muddy, mixed with slime ; more or less tenderness and gurgling on pres- 
sure in the right iliac region ; tendency to diarrhea slight. On the ninth 
day from the attack, there was a sudden and decided change for the 
worse, and brandy and quinine were freely given to sustain the action of 
the heart and arteries, and the surface was thoroughly rubbed to keep up 
external warmth. 

"We have given sueh a description of the treatment and condition of the 
patient, at the time of our first visit, as will be fully endorsed by the phy- 
sicians in attendance. Two cases had just terminated fatally in the same 
family, and two others in a family not more that six hundred yards dis- 
tant. We could not complain of the reputation that had preceded us ) 
but the standing of the medicine was anything but favorable in that re- 
gion of country. The previous and threatening mortality, the severity 
of the case, the new remedy, the unfavorable prognosis of the physicians 
in attendance, naturally excited the deepest interest, and curiosity was 
wrought up to the highest point as to what course would be pursued. 
By consent, every remedy was discontinued, both internal and external^ 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 159 

and the tincture of veratrum viride ordered "every three hours, to be in- 
creased pro re nata, which we superintended in person from 9 A. M. till 
5 P. M. Three drops were given at 9, which nauseated and vomited 
pretty freely before 12. The first matter thrown up was a large quanti- 
ty of mucous slime, followed by a quantity of dark, thick bile, or bitter- 
ish fluid, on the ejection of which she expressed considerable relief from 
the unusual burning or heat in the region of the stomach. Four drops 
were given at 12, which excited free emesis in from thirty to fifty min- 
utes, bringing up an abundance of thick, yellow bile. After this parox- 
ysm of vomiting had subsided, the extremities and surface generally be- 
came warm, or, in other words, there was a general diffusion and equal 
distribution of heat. She expressed perfect relief from internal heat or 
burning, followed by a general feeling of agreeable coolness ; but three 
drops were given at 3 o'clock, which excited slight nausea, and perhaps 
a slight but single paroxysm of vomiting. What we had achieved when 
we left (at 5, P. M.) was the relief from unusual heat in the stomach, 
severe thirst, general restlessness, an equable diffusion of heat, and great- 
er fulness and distinctness of the pulse. Instructions were left to con- 
tinue the veratrum viride in three or four drop doses, as she might be 
able to bear it, avoiding too much nausea and vomiting, if possible. Af- 
ter leaving, we sent a message back to give twenty or thirty drops of 
laudanum, one hour before the next portion, to prevent nausea or vomit- 
ing, if possible. 

That night, as a matter of course, was passed by us with more or less 
anxiety and interest. On reaching the patient the next morning, the 
viride was exciting very little nausea, the pulse was reduced to 120, more 
full and distinct, and all the other symptoms were slightly improved. 
We were not satisfied with the small quantity of the veratrum viride we 
were using ; we therefore ordered an enema of four ounces of cold water 
and six drops of the tinct. of veratrum viride every six hours, and the 
three drop doses, every three hours, to be continued, thus making, in all, 
forty-eight drops in the twenty-four hours. The enemata were ordered 
to be given between the portions by mouth. The nausea and vomiting 
were kept up for a time after each enema, but not to an extent that re- 
quired them to be suspended, and which subsided after a few repetitions 
of the enema. 

The morning following, which was the fourteenth day of the disease, 
the pulse was down to 100, and with a like improvement in all the symp- 
toms. The morning following, the pulse was reduced to 85, and all the 
other symptoms were greatly mitigated, so much so that we were not to 
see her for the next forty-eight hours. On Sunday morning, at 9, A. M., 
(the seventeenth day of the disease,) we were at our post, with our pleas- 
ing anticipations disappointed, blasted, and for the time, scattered to the 
winds,— but to fight the battle at far greater hazard. Found her flood- 
ing ; pains severe and frequent. Requested Dr. T. to examine the ute- 
rus ; found the os tincse soft and dilated, so that he could discover a sub- 
stance or body presenting ; gave her a portion of ergot ; the foetus was 
thrown off within half an hour, and flooding ceased. By this time the 
20 



160 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Feb. 

pulse had reached 135 beats per minute, was peculiarly quick and feeble; 
number of respirations 63 per minute ; skin hot and dry, the heat of that 
peculiar acrid kind called " calor mordax ;" thirst greatly aggravated. 
The veratrum viride was increased to five drops every three hours ; spi- 
rits of turpentine to be given every six hours, in fifteen drop doses, in a 
little warm sweet milk to cover the taste, which excels any vehicle we 
ever tried. The enema of cold water to be continued every six hours, 
and the viride increased to eight drops. When we left, at 4 in the af- 
ternoon, there was slight moisture on the surface ; the pulse was 130, 
more full and distinct ; breathing a little less frequent and hurried. On 
the day following it was reduced to 95 beats per minute ; on the follow- 
ing day it was reduced as low as 85, with a like improvement of all the 
symptoms. The remedies were continued, and she rapidly and perfectly 
convalesced. It did appear that Providence brought us safely through 
the most critical of all the cases we have met. It also appeared, that so 
soon as the foetus was thrown off, she was much less susceptible to the 
impression of the veratrum viride. 

There are many points of interest in the above case, which are well 
worthy of particular notice. In the first place, it had been treated by 
two skillful physicians, with all the ordinary remedies. On the ninth 
day, the stage of collapse or exhaustion set in so rapidly and to such an 
extent, as to render brandy, quinine and rubefacent frictions necessary, 
to keep up the actions of the heart and arteries as well as the external 
warmth. After the free use of the above, from Saturday till Tuesday, 
we find there was no relief, but rather a continuance and aggravation of 
the symptoms. On Tuesday there was a withdrawal of all the remedial 
agents in use — was put on a few drops of the tincture of veratrum viride, 
at no time for the first 24 hours exceeded four drops. This was attend- 
ed with relief from internal heat and burning, a general distribution of 
heat on the surface, and the pulse rendered slower, fuller, and more dis- 
tinct, &c. The only change made which seemed to add to the good ef- 
fects, were enemata of cold water, containing six drops of the tinct. of 
veratrum viride. In the mean time she aborts with a renewal and ag- 
gravation of all the symptoms ; to meet which, there is added to the treat- 
ment 15 drops of spts. turpentine ; the dose of veratrum viride increased, 
by mouth, to five drops, and by enemata to 8 drops. Again, the lessened 
susceptibility after the abortion, whereas, under ordinary circumstances, 
bleeding increases this susceptibility : true, the loss of blood was com- 
paratively small, yet, taking into account the length of time she had been 
sick, it might be said to have been relatively large. These are facts and 
circumstances for reflection and investigation. 

Veratrum viride, green hellebore, American hellebore, is not our com- 
mon Poke-root or Phytolacca Decandra, but is the poke weed, veratrum 
viride, and is entirely different in its appearance and properties. Again 
— it is called white hellebore, by the shakers, and those ordering the ve- 
ratrum viride often get the white hellebore proper, or European, for it, 
by not being specific in the correction of the error in name. The pro- 
perties and powers of veratrum viride are the following : 1st, acrid — This 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 161 

property is very limited and confined to the fauces. 2d. It is adanagic, 
deobstruent or alterative : this property it possesses in a marked and very 
high degreee ; not equalled by calomel or iodine in this particular, which 
will adapt it to the relief and cure of many diseases hitherto beyond the 
reach of any remedy. Of this class of diseases, those which we think 
will be much benefitted by it, are, cancer and consumption. 3d. It is ac- 
tively and decidedly expectorant, so much so that we rarely add any 
other article. 4th. It is one of the most certain diaphoretics belonging 
to the materia medica : it often excites great coolness or coldness of the 
surface ; in some cases the skin is rendered merely soft and moist; in 
other instances, the perspiration is free, and at other times it is most 
abundant ) but, notwithstanding its profuseness, it does not reduce or ex- 
haust the system, as many diaphoretics do when in excess, and therefore 
need not excite alarm nor be suspended on that account. 5th. It is ner- 
vine, not narcotic, under any circumstances ; as since our first article, we 
have taken it more than twenty times to test its varied powers, and we 
have taken it in all quantities, from the production of free emesis down 
to the minimum dose. This property renders it of great value in the 
\ treatment of painful diseases, and such as are accompanied with convul- 
sions, morbid irritability and irritative mobility. For example — pneu- 
monia, -rheumatism, puerperal fever, convulsions generally, and palpita- 
tion of the heart, &c. 6th. It is one of the most certain and efficient 
emetics known, and is peculiarly adapted to meet that indication in 
hooping cough, asthma, croup, scarlet fever, and in all cases where there 
is much febrile and inflammatory action. It often excites severe nausea 
and frequent vomiting, which, taken in connection with great paleness, 
often alarms the patient and by-standers ) but these effects, when in ex- 
cess, are readily relieved by one or two full portions of morphine and 
tinct. of ginger, or of laudanum and brandy. One grand and leading fea- 
ture is, that the exhaustion which follows it, is not excessive and perma- 
nent, but confined merely to the effort. Again, the matter, first ejected, 
is a large quantity of thick, slimy mucus, and soon after, the liver is 
called on to pour forth its own fluid in abundance. 7th. The seventh 
property is its most valuable and interesting, and for which it stands un- 
paralleled as a therapeutic agent. So much has already been written on 
what we call the sedative — arterial sedative — properties of the agent, or 
the power it possesses of controlling and regulating arterial action, that 
we shall not again run over the amount of evidence on this part of the 
subject. By virtue of this and other powers, the treatment of disease 
has been much simplified, and when the effects, recorded in the case of 
Mr. Gr's negro woman, shall have been fully considered, we may bid 
adieu to much of the supposed necessity for stimulants in the treatment 
of atonic or asthenic cases. We challenge the medical world to produce 
its equal, as a therapeutic agent, for certainty of effect, for extent of ef- 
fect, or for peculiarity of effect, and the ease and safety with which it 
may be administered to small and great. In small portions, we have 
found nothing to equal it in exciting and promoting appetite, 
The formula we use is the following:— 



162 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Feb. 

R . Root of veratrum viride, dried, . . oz. 8 
Alcohol, of the shops, undiluted, ... " 16 
Let it stand from ten days to two weeks. Medium dose for an adult 
male, eight drops, to be increased one or two drops every portion, until 
nausea or vomiting, or a reduction in the frequency of the pulse takes 
place ; then reduce one-half in all cases. Females, and persons from 14 
to 18 years of age, should commence with six drops, and increase as 
above. Children, from one to two years of age, to commence with one 
drop ; from two to five years of age, two drops, and increase one drop. 
The usual interval with us is three hours between the portions. In ordi- 
nary cases of pneumonia, we usually continue it three days after the 
symptoms are subsided. In typhoid fever, and many other diseases, it 
requires to be continued much longer. For the satisfaction and infor- 
mation of the profession, we would state that it may be continued indefi- 
nitely, or any length of time, in moderate doses, or short of nausea, with- 
out the least inconvenience.. The only objection that could be urged, is 
the increase of appetite, or desire for food. It is not cathartic — it is like 
all other remedial agents, subject to the same rules and regulations, ma- 
king it out of the question for a person to lay down any but general di- 
rections for regulating the dose. We are better pleased with the method 
adopted for getting its first impression by Dr. Welburn, of Farmville, 
Alabama, than with our own. We allude to the short interval between 
the first three portions he administers : He gives u six drops, in ten mi- 
nutes seven drops, in ten minutes more eight or- ten drops ; and then sus- 
pends the dose till vomiting occurs," which will be sure to take place in 
a large majority of cases. In the outset of many cases, we would recom- 
mend Dr. Welburn's manner of using it. In a male, twenty-five drops 
is the largest quantity we have known to be required to excite emesis, 
and sixteen drops in the female, when given in the manner and at the 
intervals we have directed. There need be no danger apprehended of its 
exciting inflammation of the stomach- — we have given special attention to 
that particular. It is peculiar and at the same time interesting in its ef- 
fects. The fact of its acting as a sedative on almost every other portion 
of the system, diminishing the vascular and muscular action and motion 
of every other part, and increasing that of the stomach. We have seen 
it produce emesis in very susceptible persons, and the contractions of the 
stomach were so rapid as to be almost continuous and uninterrupted; but 
a strong alcoholic tincture of ginger and morphine would afford more 
prompt and immediate relief than any other articles that we have ever 
used. We have never seen a case that failed to be relieved by the above 
remedies in thirty minutes. The great advantage of the remedy is that 
it does not exhaust longer than the effort to vomit is concerned. A great 
many remedies leave the patient in an exhausted and enfeebled condi- 
tion, aside from the effort or immediate action — not so with the veratrum 
viride. Again, tartar emetic should never be given with it, in any form 
or manner. The only cases in which we have seen the tincture of vera- 
trum viride purge, were when given ip combination with tartar emetic, or 
with Coxe's hive syrup. In most of these cases it excited a violent 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. - 163 

cholera-morbus. We would not think of giving the tincture of veratrum 
viride where tartar emetic had been used, without preceding it with a full 
dose of morphine or laudanum at least one hour. We have known many 
fall out with the veratrum viride when it was not at fault. Again, vene- 
section, when a large quantity of blood is drawn, increases materially its 
effects, whereas opium and morphine lessens or diminishes them. If a 
patient had been bled freely, preceded or followed by a liberal use of tar- 
tar emetic, and then followed up with medium portions of the tincture of 
veratrum viride, we should anticipate and prepare for drastic, if not haz- 
ardous effects/' 



Obstruction of the Bowels. Two Cases reported by E. D. Fenner, 
M. D. — Case 1. A few weeks since I was requested by Dr. Moss, of this 
city, to assist him ip. the post mortem examination of a mulatto man 
aged about 35 years, who, after suffering repeated attacks of obstruction^ 
the bowels, accompanied by great pain and stercoraceous vomiting, final- 
ly sunk and died. He had suffered three attacks within the month pre- 
vious to death. Dr. M. had attended him in several of them, and only 
succeeded in relieving him with great difficulty by means of free cup- 
ping, the warm bath, and Croton Oil. These means succeeded in open- 
ing his bowels in his last attack, but he did not recuperate afterwards. 
On examination after death, we found a small piece of bone lodged in the 
lower portion of the ileum. It had excited inflammation and thickening 
of the intestinal walls to such extent as to cause an almost impermeable 
stricture of the canal. Here was the cause of death. The piece of bone 
was only three-fourths of an inch in length, and rather flat. The ends 
were not sharp, and the only wonder is, that it had not passed without 
difficulty. 

Now let us see how much larger an amount of foreign substance did 
pass the entire extent of the alimentary canal, till it reached the anus, 
where it was impeded by the sphincter, and had to be removed mecha- 
nically. . 

Case 2. On the 11th September, 1852, I was called to see a white 
female child, aged about two and a half years. I was told that she had 
diarrhoea with prolapsus of the rectum. No assignable cause was men- 
tioned at the time. About three months previously, I had attended this 
child for an obstinate attack of diarrhoea, and relieved her entirely. 

On this morning, the child did not appear to be much sick. I advised 
a little Hydrarg. C. Creta, to be followed by a dose of Castor Oil. A 
few hours afterwards I was sent for, and informed that a piece of cork 
had been discovered in the child's anus. Upon reaching the patient, I 
found this to be the case ; a large piece of cork was plainly visible. I 
readily succeeded in removing it with my finger ; but this was not all. I 
continued to take away piece after piece, until I removed nearly a hand- 
ful. The operation gave considerable pain, and caused slight hemorr- 
hage, but I removed all I could reach. I then prescribed a dose of Cas- 
tor Oil, which produced a copious operation, and gave complete relief A 
considerable quantity of cork came away some days afterwards. We were 



164 • Eclectic and Summary Department. [Feb. 

•then informed by a larger sister of this child, that she had often observed 
her with cork in her mouth, but did not know that she had swallowed it. 
Thus it is evident that this large amount of cork, some of the pieces as 
big as the end of my thumb, had been swallowed, and traversed the ali- 
mentary canal as low as the anus. There were perhaps a dozen of pieces, 
twice as large as the piece of bone that caused the death of the man first 
mentioned. The quantity of cork passed completely filled a common 
match box. — N. 0. Medical Register. 

Intussusception of the Bowels. By Daniel Barber, M. D. — Gentle- 
men : — Believing that the following plan of treating intussusception of 
the bowels is not familiar to the minds of many of the profession, I sub- 
mit to you a case in which it was successfully applied. 

The subject was a young man aged twenty years. He had two at- 
tacks within ten days. Constipation followed immediately upon the last. 
He was treated for four days with purgatives — warm water injections — 
bleeding, &c, without any effect. At the end of this time (Nov. 13) I 
was called in consultation with Dr. Bennett, of Withamsville, the at- 
tending physician. I found the case as follows : Pulse 120, abdomen 
tympanitic, and tender to the touch, extremely severe paroxysmal pain 
of the bowels, frequent vomiting of highly offensive matter, obstinate 
constipation. 

To subdue the tendency to peritoneal inflammation, we repeated the 
bleeding and administered the sulphate of morphine, in half grain doses 
every two hours until he was brought fully under its influence. When 
I returned on the evening of the 14th, the pulse had fallen to 96 — the 
tenderness and pain of the bowels were materially diminished — the vo- 
miting less frequent and distressing — constipation continued. Frequent 
and large quantities of warm water has been continued to be injected. 
At my suggestion the following plan of treatment was adopted. 

We procured a small quantity of brewer's yeast, from which was pre- 
pared in the usual way a quantity sufficient for our purposes. At about 
midnight, we gave a tumbler half full, and ordered the same quantity to 
be repeated once or twice every hour. 

On the afternoon of the 15th, when it was obvious from the quantity 
taken and retained, that the intestines above the obstruction, were dis- 
tended with carbonic acid gas, the colon was likewise inflated with atmos- 
phere by means of a pair of fire bellows. 

By these means combined, the intestinal canal throughout its whole 
course was inflated, and the obstruction reduced. 

At nine o'clock in the evening, a copious evacuation of the bowels en- 
sued, followed by several others during the night. At the same time 
the explosions of gas were so violent as to be heard at some distance 
from the house — it was literally keeping up a regular fire. The patient 
was at once relieved, and speedily recovered his former health. Besides 
the distending force of the gas, it is very probable that it exercises a be- 
neficial influence by its sedative and antisceptic properties. 

I believe this practice originated with the French, but to what extent 
it has been applied T know not. Drs. Johnston and Rogers of this place, 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department 165 

have given yeast in two or three cases of this disease during the course 
of their practice here, with success. In one case relief was afforded on 
on the fourteenth day of the attack, every other means had been tried 
and failed. 

From the above facts I should feel disposed to give this plan a trial in 
every case, where the ordinary means fail. Should relief not be obtained 
in a reasonable length of time, and the case be protracted,- and as it were 
hopeless, a moderate exhibition of the yeast, by its antisceptic properties 
and by gently exciting the peristaltic action, would afford perhaps the 
best prospects of success. 

New Richmond, Ohio, Nov. 30th, 1852. 

On page 358 of our last volume may be found an article by Br. B. E 
Washington on Dry Cupping, and below we copy another paper of his 
on the same topic. This seems to be something of a hobby with the 
doctor, but as we believe he makes out a good case, we present the mat- 
ter for the consideration of our readers, as worthy their attention. * 

A Valuable Substitute for Ergot. By B. H. Washington, of Wood- 
burn, Ky. — I lately attended a midwifery case and deem it advisable to 
report the treatment for further investigation. The pains commenced 
at 4 A. M. and continued at intervals of 15 to 20 minutes until 6 
P. M. j were slight and produced but little effect ; upon examination 
found os uteri dilated, head presenting, but high up ; scarcely any effect 
perceptible during the pain. Not willing to leave the management of 
the case any longer to nature, I concluded to dry-cup her ; applied a cup 
as low down on the sacrum as possible so as to cover the origin of the 
nerves to the os uteri and produce relaxation ; previous experiments had 
shown me the uterus would not contract unless applied higher up ; my 
design was to produce relaxation of the os uteri and then dry-cup higher 
up, so as to cause the uterus to contract. The result was most satisfac- 
tory to all interested ; for complete relaxation ensued, at the next pain 
the head descended to the outlet, and at the second pain she was safely 
delivered, and that boo in less than ten minutes from the application of 
the cup. No hemorrhage resulted, the placenta came away with scarce- 
ly any inconvenience in about three quarters of an hour, and everything 
went on well. 

This is the second case in which the above plan has been tried, in the 
first, the patient was safely delivered in about 15 minutes, and with three 
pains. She had been suffering upwards of 12 hours without effect ; was 
induced to try the plan from two facts, first, the partial paralysis of the 
arms while the cup was over the origin of the bronchial nerves, and the 
successful application of dry-cupping in a case of dislocated shoulder 
joint, as mentioned in my first article on dry-cupping; secondly, the 
cups had been applied on a patient after delivery, to relieve the disagree- 
able feelings resulting therefrom, and the patient told me that she could 
feel the uterus contracting very strongly. Putting these facts together, 
it occurred to me that as contraction was the legitimate function of the 
uterus, while expansion was the legitimate function of the os uteri, by 



166 Eclectic and Biimmary Department. [Feb. 1853. J 

the application of the cups over the origin of the nerves to the defective 
parts, the appropriate results would follow ; the plan has been followed 
with the most complete success, as manifested by the cases above men- 
tioned. I would therefore recommend a trial of it in all tedious cases. — 
Apply first a cup as low down on the sacrum as possible, and if in the 
course of ten or fifteen minutes the patient was not delivered I would re- 
commend the application of another cup higher up, so as to cause the 
uterus to contract, the lower one should always he on when the upper one 
is applied, so as to insure relaxation of the os uteri when the pains come 
on. 

In cases of retained placenta, I would recommend a contrary course ; 
apply the cups higher up so as to cause the uterus to contract at once ; 
the placenta can always follow the child. 

The great advantage of this method of causing the os uteri to relax 
and the uterus to contract, over the plan of giving ergot, needs no other 
recommendation I presume than a simple statement of facts : When ergot 
is administered the woman is delivered by main force and in opposition 
to the usual proceeding of nature, without any relaxation except that pro- 
duced by the most fearful and agonizing pains ; — by dry-cupping, such a 
complete relaxation is produced, that two or three pains are sufficient and 
the amount of suffering is not more than ordinary. Indeed, the amount 
of suffering is much lessened, one would feel tempted to try it in ordinary 
cases where every thing was going on well, merely to shorten the period 
of suffering. Another advantage is, that as soon as the delivery is over, 
the pains are over too, the placenta comes away with scarcely any incon- 
venience. Whether it would be justifiable to apply it in an early stage 
of labor merely to lessen the duration of suffering, I leave to be decided 
by future experience. I certainly should not recommend it in that stage 
without further trial. In my first article on dry-cupping, I omitted two- 
important items ; first, that it breaks up the chain of nervous sympathy 
during pregnancy, and regularly applied, keeps it broken ; the patient 
suffers very little, and that little more from imprudence than from nervous 
sympathy. Let the patient be dry-cupped every third or fourth night 
(her husband can easily do it with a tumbler) and sponge herself two or 
three times a week with water, cold or warm, according to fancy, and my 
word for it she will suffer as little as the heartiest Indian female, unless 
broken down by some organic disease. The other item is, that if there 
is a scant secretion of milk, or none at all, apply three or four cups to the 
spine, especially over the origin of the mammary nerves, and there wilt 
soon be a plentiful supply. These items are not theoretical assumptions, 
but the result of actual practice, and I sometimes censure myself for not 
making them public sooner, as an immense amount of sympathetic suf- 
fering can be easily prevented. As mentioned in my first article, when 
it is desirable to produce an effect on a given part, the cups should be 
more strongly applied over the origin of the nerves distributed to that 
part; and they should be larger than those in common use; a common 
tumbler with a thick rim will answer very well, except in female cases ; 
in those I use the pump to produce a vacuum, as they can be applied 
under the covering without offending the most fastidious.^ —Nashville 
Journal. 




WMA nASUEKREOTZFE BY M c GLEES & GEIL k 



©^©JMlE [B.WiiDplol. 













THE 

If JERSEY MEDICAL REPORTER, 

VOL. VI f THIRD MONTH (MARCH.), 1853. No, 6, 

Biographical Memoir of Prof : George B. Wood, M. D., of 

Philadelphia, 

In presenting to our readers the promised portrait of Prof : George B. 
Wood, M. D., of Philadelphia, we are glad of the opportunity to furnish 
the following brief notice of his life and public services. 

Dr. Wood is descended from a family of Friends, who were among the 
early settlers of the city of Philadelphia. They came from England, 
and continued residents there till early in the last century, when they re- 
moved to Greenwich, then of Salem, now of Cumberland county, in this 
State. The family name has been honorably known in that region of 
New Jersey for several generations; and Richard Wood, the great grand- 
father of the Doctor, served as one of the Judges of the first court of the 
county, as far back as 1748.* 

Dr. Wood was early sent to school in New York city, where he remain- 
ed about three years, chiefly employed in the study of the Latin and 
Greek languages. After this, he went to Philadelphia and entered the 
collegiate department of the University of Pennsylvania, where he gra- 
duated in January, 1815, taking the first honors. Immediately after this, 
he entered the ofiice of the late Dr. Joseph Parrish, of Philadelphia, as a 
private pupil, and remained with him till he graduated in medicine in 
the spring of 1818. Shortly afterwards, he commenced the practice of 
medicine, rose rapidly in public estimation, and succeeded beyond ex^ 
pectations. 

Soon after receiving the Doctorate, he was engaged by his preceptor 
as an assistant in the education of his ofiice pupils ; and continued to per^ 
form the duties of this position for eleven or twelve years. His first re- 
gular course of lectures was delivered to a class of medical students, and £ 
few gentlemen not engaged in the study of medicine, in 1820, They 
were on the subject of chemistry. Here we may digress a moment to 
observe that a certain writer for the Boston Medical Journal, in VoL 

* See Historical Collections of New Jersey, by Barber and Howe, page 143. 



168 Memoir of Professor Wood. [Makgh. 

XLI. p. 236, is incorrect in the statement that Dr. W. "was invited "by 
the ladies of Dr. P's family to deliver lectures (popular) on chemistry/' 
and that " from this he was transplanted to the chair of chemistry in the 
young and humble College of Pharmacy." 

Dr. W. never lectured to a class of ladies, nor did he ever deliver a 
strictly popular course on any subject. In the summer of 1822, he was 
chosen Professor of chemistry in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy i 
lecturing at the College during the winter, and to a class of medical stu- 
dents, on materia medica, in the summer. 

In January 1830, he united with his former preceptor, and several 
medical friends, in forming the Philadelphia Association for medical in- 
struction, in which he also lectured on materia medica. 

In 1831, he was transferred from the chair of chemistry to that of 
materia medica, in the College of Pharmacy, and has not lectured on 
chemistry since. 

In October, 1835, he was elected Professor of Materia Medica and 
Pharmacy, in the University of Pennsylvania, when he resigned from 
the two institutions with which he had been previously connected. This 
chair in the University was occupied with great success, till he was call- 
ed by the Trustees to fill the place of the venerable Chapman, as Profess- 
or of the Theory and Practice of medicine; which distinguished position 
he now holds. 

We have thus far spoken of Dr. Wood as a student, and a lecturer. 
It becomes us now, to glance briefly at his career as an author. In 
earlier life, he contributed freely to various journals, medical, pharma- 
ceutical, and literary, and was for several years one of the Editors of 
the North American Medical and Surgical Journal. One of his first ef- 
forts was in the preparation of the History of the University of Penn- 
sylvania in 1827, which was published in a separate form, and in 
the Memoirs of the Historical Society of Pennsylvania, Yol. Ill, pt. 1. 
But Dr. Wood's labors in the revision of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, for 
1830, 1840, and 1850, are among his most useful contributions to sci- 
ence. In these labors he was first associated with Dr. Franklin Bache, 
and the late Dr. T. T. Hewson, under appointment by the College of 
Physicians, of Philadelphia; and subsequently he acted as a member of 
the committee of revision, appointed by the National Convention at Wash- 
ington. While engaged in this laborious duty, he first conceived the 
idea of preparing the U. S. Dispensatory, which he did in conjunction 
with his distinguished associate, Dr. Bachc, now Professor of Chemistry 
in the Jefferson Medical College. This work, of which Dr. Wood wrote the 



1853.] Occlusion of the Vagina. 169 

parts connected with the vegetable materia medica, and Dr. Bache those 
of the mineral department, was first published in the year 1833 ; since 
which time it has passed through nine editions. It is the standard work 
of physicians and druggists all over our land, to he found in almost every 
office, and on the counter of every careful apothecary. In 1847, Dr. 
Wood first issued his Systematic Treatise on the Practice of Medicine, in 
two volumes, which has been received at home and abroad, with almost 
unexampled favor, by the medical public, and in the short term of less 
than six years, has gone through three large editions. 

Early in his career as a practitioner, Dr. Wood served as a physician 
to several public charities, among which was the Philadelphia Dispensa- 
ry, with which he was connected for five years. 

In 1835 he was chosen as one of the physicians of the Pennsylvania 
Hospital, which place he now holds, availing himself of the opportunity 
thus afforded, to impart many practical lessons as a clinical instructor to 
the inquiring student, and at the same time to cheer the unfortunate 
victim of disease by the smile of kindness, and the hand of science. 

Omitting to notice the more ordinary incidents of Dr. Wood's life, and 
the many honorary appointments that have been held by him, we may 
be permitted to name one which affords us peculiar pleasure. We refer 
to the fact, that he was received by a unanimous vote of the New 
Jersey Medical Society, at its eighty-seventh annual meeting, as an honora- 
ry member. Thus has the profession of his native State, by offering 
him their highest gift, exhibited their exalted appreciation of his talents, 
and well deserved reputation. Ed. 



A Case of Occlusion of the Vagina. By Alex. Elwell, M. D. 

February 21st, 1851, I was called to Mrs. , aged 38, found her 

flooding very considerably, — but by the usual means, such as Acet. 
Plumbi. with opium, frictions over the abdomen, &c, the hemorrhage 
was arrested without much difficulty — ordered light diet, and rest in the 
horizontal position. 22d, Found her doing as well as we could expect 
under the circumstances. 23d, much the same — the night of the 23d 
was called again, and found her much worse than before ; I now used 
ergot and the tampon, by which the flooding was again arrested j from 
this time she seemed to be doing well, until March 12th, when (in my 
absence), Dr. Woolston was called in, and found her flooding again. 
Upon examination he removed, (what the patient assures me, was her 
womb,) but what the Dr. says was a retained placenta, her youngest 



170 Occlusion of the Vagina. [March. 

child being then three years old, In a very short time after this body 
(whatever it may have been) was taken away, our patient began to con- 
valesce rapidly. May 3d, was again requested to see her; found her 
sitting up and sewing- — looking quite as well as I had ever seen her. 
Upon inquiry, she told me that she was not sick, but " since the removal 
of her womb/' (she still insisting that it is gone,) the vagina had 
entirely closed, which upon examination I found to be really so, though 
I confess I had some misgivings as to the truthfulness of it, until I had 
satisfied myself. The union of the walls of the vagina is so complete, as 
to give the impression that it was never otherwise. As regards her 
health at this time, she assured me that she had not felt better for two or 
three years, upon which, I thought it best " to let well enough alone," 
and did not prescribe. Since her illness there has been no effort to 
menstruate, (nor any detriment to her health on account of the absence 
of the catemenia, though, she previously had been quite regular,) until 
September 14th, 1852, at which time Dr. W. was called again, and 
found her complaining of pain in her head, loins, and lower extremities : 
believing the trouble to depend on the absence of the catemenia, he took 
from the arm giv. blood, and ordered a brisk cathartic, which relieved 
her ; just twenty-eight days from Dr. Woolston's visit, I was called, and 
found her much the same, as stated above. The same treatment repeat- 
ed, and I have heard nothing from her since. 

So much for the synopsis of the case. As regards the absence of the 
catemenia and occlusion of the vagina, I am unable to assign any very 
satisfactory reason. Dr. Woolston, in conversation with myself, not long 
since, said he thought the absence of the menstrual discharge, and the 
coalition of the walls of the vagina to be depending upon the following 
circumstances; namely — The presence of the retained placenta, occa- 
sioned much infiamation, and when removed, a large portion of the mu- 
cous membrane adhered, and was also removed, upon which the inflam- 
ed walls of the uterus and vagina came together and united — hence there 
being little or no mucous membrane left, there of course could be no se- 
cretion of menstrual fluid. Now the Dr's. reasons for the non-appearance 
of the menses and occlusion of the vagina seem to me quite plausible, but 
1 cannot help expressing a doubt as to whether a placenta could be 
retained three years, and occasion no more trouble than this did. Being 
out of town at the time this body was removed, I cannot say it was not 
a retained placenta, but I have thought there was a probability of its 
having been j a pu trifled foetus— I do not give this as anything but a sup- 
position. 



1853.] Fracture of the 0& Coccyx. 171 

The above case was written for publication, because I thought it might 
be interesting to others of our profession, as it has been to me. 
Vincentqwn, January 27th, 1853. 



Fracture of the Os Coccyx, during difficult Labor. 

By C. H. Cleaveland, M. D. 

On the 28th of January, 1848, I was called upon to attend Mrs. A. 
in labor, if I recollect correctly, with her fifth child. On my arrival, I 
was told that at her two previous confinements she had suffered very se- 
verely from obstructed labor, and that after delaying in each case, as 
long as it was thought the safety of the mother would allow, the child 
had been destroyed and separated in parts, before it could be removed. 
As the mother had previously borne at least two living children, with- 
out any very unusual difficulty, I made special inquiries to learn if possi- 
ble, what obstructions her former attendants, (at the two last confine- 
ments she had been assisted by different physicians), had discovered, as 
the cause of her misfortune, and I could not learn that any reason had 
been mentioned why she had suffered more than at her previous confine- 
ments. 

As labor had been in progress for some time previous to my being 
summoned, I at once made an examination, and found the head of the 
child presenting in the natural position, and pressing firmly at the outlet 
of the pelvis. The head was so far advanced that I could not learn the 
capacity of the pelvic cavity, or the condition of the upper part of it ; but 
at once I discovered a prolonged depression from nearly at the top of the 
head, downward almost to the top of the nose, and following that de- 
pression with my finger, I discovered that the os-coccyx was bent forward, 
and the lower extremity had made the depression in the head which had 
attracted my attention. Supposing it possible that I had discovered the 
cause of the difficulty in her former labors, (during the latter of which 
the head had remained impacted in the pelvis for several days before it 
was removed,) I explained the nature of the obstruction, and then 
learned, that some years previously she had slipped upon the ice, and had 
fallen in a sitting position, when she so injured her spine, that it was 
several weeks before she could walk without severe distress. 

After explaining my intentions, and obtaining the consent of the pa- 
tient, I returned the head of the child, sufficiently to allow me to put 
both thumbs above the dislocated bone, and making a very strong effort, 



172 Fracture of the Os Coccyx. [March. 

I broke it near the angle, when the lower portion readily yielded to the 
advance of the child's head, and soon a full-sized healthy boy was born, 
without farther difficulty, or severe pain. The mother was told to be 
very cautious and not allow the bone to become displaced, and in the 
usual period she had resumed her household duties. 

On the 14th of April, 1851, I was again called to attend on Mrs. A., 
when I found the bone projecting forward somewhat more than usual, 
and obstructing the canal, so that I applied the forceps, and again 
relieved her of a large sized and healthy child, after which the recovery 
was rapid and satisfactory. Within a few weeks I have attended on her 
for premature labor, and find the bone in nearly its normal position, and 
not tender or painful. 

During my pupilage, my preceptor, Dr. S. H. Smith, related to me a 
similar case, that -occurred in his practice; but whether the child was 
saved, or the bone replaced, I do not now recollect, but I have an im- 
pression that the child was destroyed. 

Dr. Summers reported a somewhat similar case in the American Jour- 
nal of Medical Science, for October, 1850, of a woman who had previ- 
ously lost three children, in the last of which the cranium presented a 
deep gash, as if it had been cut with a sharp instrument. In this case, 
the os coccygis was not only bent forward, but the point of it was turned 
up so as to form a hook. As the Doctor recollected what had occured 
at the former confinements, he tried to straighten this hook, when he 
fractured the bone, and it was bent backward out of the way, so that a 
living child was born. At two subsequent labours, he was obliged to re- 
fracture the coccyx, and each time the operation was successful in saving 
the child. 

As Dr. Summers says nothing about the pain from the fracture being 
severe, we may conclude it was not greatly so. In my case, the patient 
said it was not to be compared with the suffering she endured from the 
pains of labor, after the child's head had become fixed. 

My experience in this, and some other cases where the former labors 
had been very severe or protracted, have led me to insist on being sum- 
moned as early as possible after the commencement of labor, that I may 
have an opportunity of carefully examining the pelvic canal, before the 
child's head has descended, so as to obstruct the examination. 

Waterbuby, Vermont, February, 1853. 



1853.] Case of Stricture of (Esophagus. 17$ 

Case of Stricture of (Esophagus. By William Johnson, M. D. 

Among the many ills to which flesh is heir, strictures of those canals 
which are lined by the mucous membrane, are far from being the least 
interesting, whether considered with respect to the sufferings both men- 
tal and physical, which they produce ; or the imminent danger to which 
they often subject the unfortunate individuals, who are the victims of. 
their visitation. Memory recalls many cases illustrative of these truths, 
particularly two fatal cases of stricture of the oesophagus, which occurred 
in this region of country, since my settlement here. The first case, I did 
not myself see, but had the relation from his widow. He died a few 
weeks after my settlement. He was young, but absolutely starved to 
death, after protracted sufferings, in full consciousness of his dreadful 
condition. The other case, I saw but once, and that a short period previ- 
ous to her death. She too died from inanition. Professor Dorsey in his 
Surgery, relates a case of stricture of the oesophagus, where the post mor- 
tem examination revealed an almost entire obliteration of the canal; a 
probe could scarcely pass through the strictured part. Velpeau and other 
writers, cite cases of complete obliteration of the passage. 

It is not my purpose to enter into speculation, as to the causes of these 
affections, whether they be owing to ulceration in some portions of these 
canals, producing narrowing by the contractions of their cicatrices in 
healing, or congestion and infiltration in the adjacent tissues whilst the 
ulcerative process is still going on, or whether simple spasmodic action 
be prominent in their production. But any light which can be thrown 
upon this subject by the record of individual cases, is due to the medical 
public, and it is under an imperative sense of duty, that I am induced to 
present the following case of stricture of the oesophagus. 

I was consulted, the 23d of last July, by M C , aged about 

22 years, on account of stricture of the oesophagus. Her attention was 
called to it, about two years since. She was eating a piece of pickled 
cucumber, and was choked, and still more so very shortly afterwards, in 
eating a pear. Since then, the disease has been gradually increasing. 
Early in her disease, she could swallow nothing but liquid articles, or 
solid food very thoroughly masticated, and swallowed in very minute 
portions at a time. In fact, for some considerable time back, she has 
avoided taking any solid food ; particularly animal, it chokes her even 
when well masticated, and swallowed in minute portions — liquid food 
sometimes does the same. She became very much alarmed, in conse- 
quence of the arrest of a very small cherry stone in her oesophagus, about 
the 30th of June last. She was eating a cherry, and the stone accidentally 



174 Case of Stricture of (Esophagus. [MAJtCft. 

slipped into the oesophagus, and produced the greatest distress by being 
arrested there. She resides about two miles from me. In my absence, 
my son speedily saw her. He directed a solution of tartarized antimony 
to be held in her mouth ; it produced great nausea, and in an effort to 
vomit the stone was ejected. This patient is anaemic, probably from in- 
sufficient nutrition. Her appetite for food is good, but she is unable to 
take sufficient nourishment. The catamenia are regular. Occular in- 
spection of the fauces elicited nothing abnormal. 

As tentative measures, I put her for a short time on tinct. ferri. chlor., 
iodid. potas., and applied an epispastic to the throat. The difficulty of 
deglutition was not in any degree relieved by these means. I now re- 
sorted to the bougie. My bougies were prepared, by saturating strips of 
muslin in melted bees wax, and when cold, cutting those pieces in such 
shape, as when rolled up tight they would be gently tapering. They 
were made of various sizes, firom f of an inch to l{- of an inch in cir- 
cumference. I commenced, by introducing the smaller sized, and found 
difficulty in passing these, but the difficulty rapidly gave way, and in a 
few weeks I passed the larger sized with ease. The size that I used for 
the greatest length of time, was If inches in circumference. I finally 
passed very readily li of an inch in circumference. 

The stricture, I found to be situated some inches below the termination 
of the pharynx. I passed the bougie some inches below the stricture, 
which did not appear to occupy a very large extent of surface. A 
sense of resistance at the stricture in passing the instrument through it, 
was experienced. After passing it a few times, most decided relief 
was obtained by the patient. She visited my office, nearly every alter- 
nate day, for three months, and the bougie was introduced at every visit, 
either by myself, or my son. 

The sense of suffocation, produced by the presence of the bougie in 
the oesophagus, was very distressing to the patient, and she could bear it 
but a short time at each introduction. I generally passed it twice or 
three times every visit which she paid me, which was much facilitated 
by covering it well with glycerine. 

In using the instrument, I departed from the the directions given 
by Velpeau. He advises depressing the tongue with a spoon-han- 
dle or other instrument. This I did not find necessary, and he says 
nothing about throwing the patient's head far back, which I found very 
important. My method of introducing the instrument was, to have the 
patient supported by an assistant standing behind her. The assistant 
was directed to bring the patient's head far back, so as to render the 



1853.] Case of Stricture of the (Esophagus. 175 

passage from the mouth into the throat as straight as possible, the in- 
strument would then, by a very slight curve in it, readily pass down into 
the oesophagus. Its introduction was rendered easier by the patient pro- 
truding her tongue (which she could do with ease) from her mouth. The 
patient experienced no pain from the operation ; nothing but the stran- 
gulation above spoken of. 

The improvement in this case, was decided, from almost the first intro- 
duction of the bougie, until I pronounced her cured. I suggested, how- 
ever, at parting with her, that it would be advisable to have the instru- 
ment passed occasionally into the oesophagus, but she found herself so 
completely relieved that she did not return, and I learn that she remains 
well, and has married since. Her mother stated, but two or three days 
since, that she swallows her food with perfect ease ; the bougie has not 
been introduced since October last — nearly four months. 

Remarks. — The chief point of interest in this case is, the rapidity with 
which it yielded to treatment. The case I would contrast with one rela- 
ted by Dr. Jameson, of Baltimore, in the 29th No. vol. viii., of the Medi- 
cal Recorder, Jan. 1825 ; edited by Samuel Calhoun, M. D., of Philadel- 
phia. The Doctor's case is a very interesting one, and will pay well for 
the perusal. Dr. Jameson passed ivory balls of different sizes, attached 
to a stem, upon which they were secured, nearly every day for ten 
months, before he considered his patient cured. My patient was cured 
by the bougie passed every alternate day for three months. Whether 
this result was owing to the different kinds of instruments employed, or 
in my case being a less serious one, I do not pretend to decide. Dr. 
Jameson's patient too, was a female, but more advanced in life than mine; 
his being about 40 years of age, and his case, too, was of two years stand- 
ing. For more than a fortnight he did not succeed in obtaining any ad- 
vantages: but by indomitable perseverance, obtained complete success. 
His patient was one year under treatment. These two cases, in addition 
to others, give ground for encouragement in persevering attempts to di- 
late strictures, and it may yet be found, that well directed manipulation 
may obviate the necessity for resorting to the caustic, in the manage- 
ment of these cases. 

White House Village, Feb. 14, 1853. 
22 



176 Bibliographical Notices. [March. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



The Transactions of the American Medical Association. Instituted 

1847— vol. v. pp. 935. 

After a good deal of delay, this long expected volume has reached our 
table. Why it should have been more than half a year in getting dress- 
ed by the printer, we cannot tell, and we will not now stop to inquire. 
It is mainly composed of the reports on epidemics, from the various 
States of the union, and this feature of the work gives to it a practical 
interest which neither of the preceding volumes has offered. It brings 
together a large amount of fact, and maintains the current history of dis- 
ease in all parts of our country, which must, we think, increase the de- 
mand for the Transactions, and add materially to the general interest of 
the Association in every State.* The three reports on amendments to 
the Constitution, are the only ones that can be noticed otherwise than by 
a passing reference. These, claiming a large share of professional atten- 
tion at the present time, and so soon to come up for discussion, and deci- 
sion, will be remarked upon in our Editorial Department. 

Manual of Physiology : By William Senhouse Kirkes, M. D., Li- 
centiate of the Koyal College of Physicians; Registrar and Demonstra- 
tor of morbid Anatomy, at St. Bartholomew's Hospital; assisted by 
James Paget, F. B. S., Lecturer on General Anatomy and Physiolo- 
gy, at St. Bartholomew's Hospital. Second American, from the se- 
cond London edition, with one hundred and sixty-five illustrations; 
pp. 568 Philadelphia : Blanchard and Lea, 1853. 

This valuable work on Physiology, having rapidly run through the 
first American edition, again presents itself to the physician and student. 
No essential changes being necessary, the American editor issues the 
volume in nearly the same form as the last English edition, with the ad- 
dition of a larger number of illustrations. The reputation which this 
Manual has attained, is sufficient proof of its merits; and as it has been 
reprinted from the second English edition, which was carefully revised, 
and all the recent improvements in physiological science added, it is 
still deserving of full confidence. 



What to observe at the Bedside and after death, in Medical Cases. 
Published under the authority of the London Medical Society of Ob- 
servation. Philadelphia : Blanchard and Lea. 1853, pp. 205. 

This is the title of a book that is alike curious and valuable. The 
members of the Society named in the title page, determining to analyze, 
and arrange their clinical observations, with a, view of arriving at great- 

* Dr. Flint's Prize Essay forms a prominent part of the work, and the several re- 
ports on special scientific subjects are inserted in full. 



1853.] Editorial 177 

er precision in their bed-side experience, have furnished a table by which 
there may be a critical comparison as well as a clear exhibition of all the 
symptomatic appearances in disease : believing that errors in diagnosis are 
more frequently the result of deficient examination of, and searching for, 
all possible evidences of disease, than to misrepresentations in regard to 
the more prominent expression of morbid phenomena. It may be a good 
remembrancer to such as may use it ; serving to direct their attention to 
certain appearances, particularly in obscure cases, which might escape 
the notice of an ordinary observer, its object being, to give instruction 
in a systematic clinical examination of patients. 

Quarterly Summary of the Transactions of the College of Physicians 
of Philadelphia, from Nov. 3, 1852, to Jan. 5, 1853, inclusive. 

This welcome quarterly is again on our table. We love to study its 
pages, not because of its merit only, but because it is the medium through 
which many well known friends express their sentiments on a variety of 
medical questions. The present issue is embellished with a good steel 
engraving of the late Dr. S. Gr. Morton, of Philadelphia, accompanied 
by a biographical memoir of his life, read before the College, by Prof. 
Wood. Several interesting articles are presented, among which are (by 
Dr. Hays,) an account of a splint, with a wood cut, for the treatment of 
fractures of the lower end of the radius, somewhat similar to Dr. Bond's 
splint, but preferred by Dr. Hays ; and a record of successful treatment 
of a case of tape worm, by recent pumpkin seeds, at Wills' s Hospital — by 
Dr. Wood, the history of a case of diabetes, treated with yeast, in which 
the quantity of urine is diminished one half, and its specific gravity is 
considerably less." Dr. Wood is inclined to the opinion that the elimi- 
nation of sugar with the urine is prevented by the use of the remedy — 
and thinks that it has claims to notice, and ought to be tried by the pro- 
fession. 

Remarks on the bites of venomous serpents, and reptiles with cases, 
are offered by Dr. Edward Hallowell, and Dr. Samuel Jackson ; and the 
history of a fatal case of gall-stone, read by Dr. Thomas H. Yardley. 
Other papers of interest, with discussions, might be referred to 7 but time 
and room fail us. 



Amendments to the Constitution of the American Medical Association. 

As the most prominent question in medical politics among us, at this 
time, is that having reference to the adoption of one of the three plans 
proposed in the several reports upon the subject of amending the Consti- 
tution of the American Medical Association, which were presented at its 
last meeting, it is proper that we should consider them. The first report 



178 Editorial. [March. 

signed by Drs. Hays and Storey proposes a modification of the present 
Constitution, so as to confine the representation to members of State and 
County Medical Societies, and to the Faculties of chartered Medical Col- 
leges, under certain conditions prescribed in the report. These condi- 
tions, not measuring up to the standard hitherto established and still 
maintained by the Association, we respectfully enquire whether, if this 
modification should be agreed to, the great Medical Congress of the na- 
tion will not involve itself in an inconsistency, which will at once cripple 
its influence with the profession, and impair their confidence in its use- 
fulness. This inconsistency may be rendered apparent by a slight exam- 
ination. It is proposed that "no State or County Society shall have the 
privilege of representation, which does not require of its members an 
observance of the code of ethics of this Association ;" and yet it is not in- 
tended that no Medical College shall have the privilege of representation, 
which does not require of its Faculty, and its pupils, an observance of the 
standard which has been adopted for the regulation of medical teaching, 
and the admission of students. True, if such a rule should be adopted, 
it would exclude most of our medical schools ; but it would not exclude 
the professors who would be delegated by their State and County Socie- 
ties ; neither would it contribute to the promotion of unkind feeling, be- 
cause, professors, in common with others, have agreed upon the standard 
of medical education, admit its propriety, and have manifested no wish 
to withdraw, or lessen it, and therefore ought not to claim the privilege 
of violating it, any more than a lay member (if we must use the term) 
should claim the privilege of violating the code of ethics, under certain 
circumstances, though he should acknowledge his fealty thereto. This 
it seems to us is unjust, and we submit, if it will not be better to lower 
the standard to a point that will meet the objectionable system of me- 
dical education that is so much complained of, and to improve which, the 
Association was formed, than to adopt the proposition contained in this 
report : for if adopted, it will of course be considered as a retrograde 
movement, though Dr. H. says it "should not be," and the usefulness of 
the organization be materially impaired. 

The minority report is signed by Dr. Yardley. With reference to the 
question of delegation, it assumes, that State and County Societies shall 
be the only legitimate sources of representation; and that professors 
should find their way to the Association by the same path that others do. 
It also adopts the view, that the present system gives a preponderance of 
influence and power to physicians from the large cities, to the disadvan- 
tage of country practitioners ; and that by the restriction proposed, 



1853.] Editorial ' 179 

not only will county organizations be increased in number, but in influ- 
ence and usefulness. If it be, as none will deny, that professors add 
weight and dignity to the Association, and that upon the question of me- 
dical teaching particularly, their experience and aid are greatly needed ; 
how much good they would do to the smaller societies in States and Dis- 
tricts, and how they would improve the general tone of medical opinion, 
and the strength and stability of local organizations, by uniting with them. 

The third committee was appointed at Richmond, to report " in defi- 
nite and proper form such amendments as will embrace the views set 
forth" in the other two reports, " and such other views as may appear to 
them advisable." This committee have certainly availed themselves of 
the latitude derived from the latter clause, in a manner quite unexpected. 
It was supposed to have been their province to condense and arrange for 
comparison the opposing views presented in the previously noticed re- 
ports, having the liberty of course, to make what suggestions might 
occur to them. In the exercise of this, they propose to continue the 
representation from all Medical Societies, chartered or voluntary, in 
the proportion of ten per cent, restricting the representation from Colleges 
and Hospitals, to one delegate from each Faculty, and to one from each 
of the Hospitals "comprising accommodation for not less than one hun- 
dred patients/' 

This proposition strikes directly at the purpose, and intention, of both 
the other reports. It adds, what they both cut off, and hence, is 
more objectionable than either. It opens the door at once, for all volun- 
tary Medical Associations, whether Eclectic, Botanic, Homoeopathic, or 
any other, that may take the form of a Medical Society for the 
purpose of introducing its members to the great fraternity of medicine in 
our country, and of gaining for them an eagerly sought fellowship there- 
with. We hope, certainly, it will not pass. 

We must not omit to mention another proposed alteration, indepen- 
dent of all the rest. It was offered by Dr. Wilson, of Virginia, who 
gave notice that it would be called up at the next meeting, as an amend- 
ment. It is as follows : 

" The Faculty of every chartered Medical College, acknowledging its 
fealty to the code of ethics, and conforming to the requisitions of this 
Association on the subject of medical education, as adopted at the session 
of 1846, and reiterated at the subsequent sessions, shall have the privi- 
lege of sending one delegate to represent it in the Association : Provided, 
that the Medical Faculty of the University of Virginia shall be entitled 
to representation in this Association, in consequence of its peculiar or» 



180 Editorial [March. 

ganization, but only so long as its peculiar system of instruction and ex- 
amination shall continue in force." 

At the ensuing meeting to he held in New York, this vexed question 
will probably be decided. It is important that it should be properly de- 
cided. If it has been fairly stated in this hastily written article, and if 
the statement will contribute to a right judgment in the minds of our 
delegates, we shall feel abundantly compensated for the little effort it has 
cost us, and shall rejoice if the voice of New Jersey may be heard, 
in favor of the State and County representation only. 



" Jeshurun waxed fat and kicked." 
In an editorial, in the January number of the Charleston Medical 
Journal, an appeal is made to publishers of medical Periodicals, strictly 
to adhere to their published rules concerning payment in advance. It 
is there more than intimated, that some physicians retaliate on editors 
and publishers, the treatment they themselves receive from many, of their 
patients, who, after running up a bill with one doctor, get " out" with 
him and^call in another; so these "patrons" of Medical Periodicals, when 
one publisher becomes importunate for his dues, forthwith stop their jour- 
nals and subscribe to another ! The Charleston Journal is right, and we 
are glad to see this evidence of the prosperity of the work; for no one 
can afford to be very independent, without material to go upon. By re- 
ference to the last page of cover, it will be seen that we have adopted 
the principle suggested by our cotemporary, and we also intend that it 
shall be like the laws of the Medes and Persians, which change not. A 
reference to past numbers of the Eeporter will show that we have for 
some time been preparing for this step, and every new name added to our 
list, has brought us nearer to it. We trust this movement will be a 
general one among publishers, for there is nothing that will do more to 
add to the dignity and efficiency of our periodical medical literature. 



Banking's Half-yearly Abstract. 

We have received from the American publishers of this valuable ab- 
stract of the progress of Medical Science, the number for January, being 
a retrospect of the last half of the year 1852. 

The work is enlarged and improved, and Dr. Ranking has associated 
with him in his labors, Dr. C. B. Radcliffe. We are pleased to see that 
the Editors avail themselves of the labors and observations of American 



1853.] Editorial 181 

practitioners. We shall probably have occasion to draw from the pages 
of the work hereafter. In the mean time, we would recommend our read- 
ers to supply themselves from the publishers, Lindsay and Blakiston, 
Philadelphia. — Terms, $2 per annum. Postage free, when paid for in 
advance. * 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 

Registration of Births, Marriages and Deaths, in Massachusetts, for 
the year ending Dec. 31, 1851. We are under obligations to the author, 
Josiah Curtis, M. D., for a copy of this valuable report, which has come 
too late for extended notice in our present number. We shall endeavor 
to notice it more in detail hereafter. 

New York Journal of Pharmacy. The first number of the second 
volume of this valuable monthly lies before us. The contents are of a 
character to interest both the physician and the apothecary. The work 
is published by authority of the College of Pharmacy, of the city of New 
York. Edited by Benjamin W. McCready, M. D., assisted by a commit- 
tee of five apothecaries. Thirty-two pages a month : three dollars a 
year in advance. 

The Dublin Medical Press. We heartily respond aye to our trans- 
atlantic cotemporary in his desire to exchange, and shall be very glad to 
receive his weekly visits, and promise ourselves and our readers much 
pleasure and profit therefrom. We would say to Dr. Jacob, that though 
we are humble and unpretending in appearance, we nevertheless, repre- 
sent one of the oldest medical Societies in America, and that our con- 
tributors, being mostly country practitioners, are among the most 
practical physicians and writers on this side the water. Herein we 
pride ourselves. As in the present number we give a fine portrait of one 
of our most distinguished physicians, we shall hope, particularly after the 
commencement of the next volume, to introduce to our foreign readers, 
the features of many a living American worthy, with whose n^mes they 
are familiar. The Press is a weekly journal of sixteen pages, large 8vo., 
filled with matter of great interest to the medical man, bearing evidence 
of much care and labor. Price, per number, sixpence, stamped. Arthur 
Jacob, M. D., editor and proprietor, Dublin, Ireland. 

One of the most important results of the formation of our National 
Medical Association, has been the investigation by competent individu- 



182 Miscellany. [March. 

als, of special subjects, requiring too extended notice to be admitted into 
the pages of even our largest class of medical periodicals. These mono- 
graphs are extensively circulated among the members of the profession, 
both through the voluminous transactions of the Association, and by 
means of extra copies of special reports struck off for their various au- 
thors, for private distribution. We have before us the Prize Essay for 
1852, " On variations of pitch in percussion and respiratory sounds, 
and their application to physical diagnosis." By Austin Flint, M. D., 
of Buffalo, N. Y. To the author of this Essay was awarded a prize of 
fifty dollars, by a committee of the Association. We have received also, 
from the author, a report "On the action of water on lead pipes, and 
the diseases proceeding from it." By Horatio Adams, M. D., of Wal- 
tham, Mass. The Transactions of the Association are noticed elsewhere 
in this number. We may have occasion to refer to these reports again. 



MISCELLANY. 



Dr. Marshall Hall, the well known author of several works on physi- 
ology and medicine proper, expects to visit this country. He was to 
leave London on the first of February. 

The degree of Doctor of Medicine was conferred on fifteen gentlemen 
on the 26th of January, by President Woolsey, of Yale College. The 
Faculty of the medical department of that College has lost the services of 
Prof. Silliman, Sen'r., who has for forty years discharged the duties of 
Professor of Chemistry. His resignation was accepted with regret, and 
complimentary resolutions passed. 

The New York State Medical Society met at Albany, on the 1st of 
Feb., continuing in session three days. The principal subjects of discus- 
sion seem to have been the treatment of croup, and the use of chloro- 
form. Dr. Burwell had used chloroform in 180 obstetrical cases, all of 
which, but three, were benefitted by its use. There was no unpleasant 
result in any case. Dr. Barker, Dr. Shipman, and others, confirmed Dr. 
Bur well's observations. The operation of tracheotomy in croup, was up- 
held only in cases where performed in the early stages of the dis- 
ease. Tracheal croup would, no doubt, be benefitted by such an opera- 
tion, but ctmld it be of any possible advantage where the bronchial tubes 
are involved ? We think not. 

" An exchange paper states that sixty students in the medical depart- 
ment of the University of Louisville, Ky., are to be seen every Sabbath 
morning in the Sabbath School of the Chestnut St. Presbyterian Church, 
diligently engaged in the study of the Holy Scriptures, under the instruc- 
tion of Drs. Yandell and Silliman, two of the University Professors." 

To our mind, the above simple announcement speaks volumes in favor 



J$53.] Miscellany. 183 

of the young gentlemen referred to. We shall fear nothing for the sci- 
ence of medicine when it is in the hands of competent men, of establish- 
ed christian principles. As a rule, it is not they who are " carried about 
by every wind" of medical doctrine. 

It appears by the U. S. Census, that the consumption of spirituous 
and malt liquors, reaches the enormous quantity of eighty-six millions of 
gallons annually, equal to six gallons for every adult person ! 

Congress has appropriated $100,000 for the purpose of erecting a Go- 
vernment Asylum, for the insane in the District of Columbia, and ap- 
pointed to the superintendence of it, Dr. Charles H. Nichols, formerly 
Dr. Brigham's assistant at Utica, N. Y., and more recently superinten- 
dent of Bloomingdale Asylum, near New York. 

Dr. A. K. Gardner recently read an interesting and highly useful re- 
port before the New York Academy of Medicine, on the varieties and 
conditions of the meats used in the city of New York. The quality of 
the meat he considers, in the main, unexceptionable,but finds occasion to 
offer the following resolutions : 

Resolved, That in the opinion of the New York Academy of Medicine, 
humanity requires that the transportation and conveyance of neat-cattle, 
calves, sheep, and swine, to this city, and from one part of it to another, 
their proper care and sustenance before being killed, and the prevention 
of unnecessary cruelty, should be made the subject of penal enactment. 

Resolved, That the attention of the proper authorities is particularly 
called to the more stringent enforcement of the laws respecting the kill- 
ing of diseased animals, and to the vending of unhealthy and immature 
meats. * 



DEATHS. 

Died — In London, Jan. 20, Jonathan Pereira, M. D., F. R. S., in 
the 49th year of his age. In Dr. Pereira, whose work on Materia Medi- 
ca and Therapeutics is a lasting monument to his genius and assiduity, 
science is called to mourn the loss of one of her most distinguished vota- 
taries. 

In Cincinnati, Jan. 30, Prof. Sears C. Walker, in the 48th 

year of his age. Prof. Walker was a distinguished mathematician, and 
was at the time of his death connected with the U. S. Coast Survey. 

In New Orleans, Dec. 31st, Dr. William B. Shelden, formerly 

of Beverly, Mass. 

At New Lebanon, Ohio, Dr. John Thompson, set 74. 

At Darien, Genesee County, N. Y., Dr. David Long, set 91. 

In Dover, Vt., Otis Howe, M. D., set 22. 

At Astoria, N. Y., Dr. Junius Smith, the first to introduce the 

growing of tea in America. 

At Andover, Vt., Dr. Charles Chandler, aet 81. 

At Charleston, S. C, of yellow fever, Dr. John A. Cleveland. 

23 * 



184 Eclectic and Summary Department. [March. 



ECLECTIC AND SUMMARY DEPARTMENT. 



Wry Neck Cured Without Cutting. By GrURDON Buck, M. D., Sur- 
geon to New York Hospital. — The success obtained in the following cases 
of Distortion of the Head, commonly known as Wry Neck, induces the 
undersigned to make them known to the profession, in order that the 
treatment employed, which it is believed has not hitherto been applied in 
such cases, may be fully subjected to the test of experience. 

Case First. Hester Higgins, a native of Ireland, aged 25 years, un- 
married, was admitted into the New York Hospital on the 6th of Nov. 
1848, at which time she had suffered from rheumatism already about 
seven months ; all the larger joints of the body having been successively 
affected. About four months prior to her admission, she suffered a re- 
lapse, after having nearly recovered, and since then she has experienced 
but little alleviation of her ailments. Her neck, as well as most of her 
larger joints are painful, though not much swollen. Her tongue is slight- 
ly furred, her pulse is 85, and soft ; her skin moist, and bowels regular. 

On the 19th of January following, she had nearly recovered from her 
rheumatism, under treatment, except rigidity and contraction of the mus- 
cles of the right side of the neck, by which the head was drawn down- 
wards and towards the right shoulder. To relieve this distortion, fric- 
tions, with stimulating and oleaginous liniments were diligently employ- 
ed, and, subsequently, sulphuric ether was applied to the neck. Some 
slight improvement resulted from the use of these means. On the 18th 
of April, however, the condition of the neck had for some time been sta- 
tionary, and all hope of further benefit was abandoned. The motions of 
the head were very much restricted, and any attempt to overcome the re- 
sistance of the rigid muscles by stretching them, occasioned severe pain. 
The rigidity did not appear to reside in the sterno-mastoid muscle, inas- 
much as this muscle did not grow hard and stiff when efforts were made 
to elevate the head; the resistance was evidently seated in the deeper 
muscular and tendinous parts. 

At the request of my colleague, Dr. Swett, of the Medical Division, 
I saw this patient, and proposed to make cautious attempts to overcome 
the resistance by force, the patient being first subjected to the influence 
of sulphuric ether. Considering the resistance to depend on contracted 
muscular and tendinous fibres, my object was either to stretch or rupture 
them, and in doing this, no danger was apprehended to the important 
nerves and blood-vessels of the neck ; since the forced movement necessa- 
ry to accomplish this object, would fall far short of the extensive motions 
in every direction to which these parts are accustomed naturally to ac- 
«jomni< Kiate themsel v es . 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department, 185 

Dr. Swett assenting to my proposal, the patient was laid upon her 
back in bed, with her head resting high up on a pillow, so as to be easily 
got at from the head of the bed. Taking the head between my 
hands, placed one on either side, I cautiously stretched it with a very 
moderate degree of force, in the direction opposite to that in which it was 
distorted, that is, upwards and to the left side. Almost immediately 
every one standing round the bed (of whom there were at least eight or 
ten pupils and medical men,) was startled by a loud snapping sound of 
something rupturing, and at the same time I perceived that the head 
yielded, and could be brought almost to its natural position. It was 
thought prudent to proceed no further at this operation. The patient 
on recovering her consciousness was not sensible of any new soreness in 
the parts, and could bear the head to be moved much easier than before 
the operation. She was directed to lie as much as possible on her left 
side. On the following day there was considerable soreness on the right 
side of the neck. On the 25th of April, one week after the first opera- 
tion, the soreness of the neck having very much diminished, the operation 
was repeated a second time. 

The proceedings were the same as in the first operation, only the 
stretching was carried to a much greater extent, and with a much less 
timid hand. Several times resisting fibres were felt to yield with a rup- 
turing sensation, till, at length, no further resistance was encountered, 
and the head could be carried to the full extent in every direction. After 
the effects of the ether had passed off, the head was bandaged down 
towards the left shoulder. On the 1st of May, the bandage being dis- 
pensed with, the head showed no disposition to resume its distorted atti- 
tude. On the 10th of May (1849,) the head could maintain, unaided, 
its erect natural position, though rotation and flexion were still limited 
in extent, and performed awkwardly ; the patient however, was sensible 
of progressive improvement in these respects. She took her discharge 
from the Hospital for the purpose of returning to her friends in Ireland. 
About one year afterwards she was heard from as continuing well, and 
free from any distortion or rigidity of the neck. 

Case Second. In January, 1852, Maria P , of G-uilford, Connecti- 
cut, aged 12 years, and of a healthy constitution, came under my care, 
with the head very much distorted from being drawn down towards the 
chest, with the face turned to the left side. The motions of the head 
were also very much restricted. In the month of July preceding, she 
had been attacked with sore throat and stiff neck, that left her ever since 
in the condition just described. She had never suffered from rheuma- 
tism in any other part of her body, and had generally enjoyed good health. 
I at once decided to employ the treatment which had been so successful 
in the preceding case ; and on the 15th of January, having first etherized 
my patient, I performed the first operation. In order to carry the extern 
sion of the head to the requisite degree, it became necessary to have her 
supported in the sitting posture in a chair, and to place myself in front 
of her. Grasping the head between my hands, I acted on it in the vari- 
ous directions in which resistance was encountered, but felt no sensation 



186 Eclectic and Summary Department. [March. 

of rupturing fibres, in this or in any of the subsequent operations. The 
resisting parts, however, yielded in some measure, and allowed the head 
to be brought more nearly into its natural position. No pain was expe- 
rienced from the operation on recovering her consciousness. 

On the 19 th, no effect was observable from the first operation ; it was 
therefore repeated a second time, with the aid of ether. On the 24th, 
26th and 30th of January, and on the 4th and 7th of February, it was 
also repeated, each time with the aid of ether. Though a gradual im- 
provement was perceptible from these repeated operations, it became 
evident that a complete cure could only be achieved by a patient and 
persevering repetition of them for a long time ; it was therefore judged 
most prudent to continue the operations without the aid of ether. The 
patient's courage and endurance, though put to a very severe test, proved 
adequate to the trial. Once every day she submitted with the most 
admirable fortitude to the stretching process, for about ten minutes each 
time. This was continued up to the 1st of March, after which it was 
repeated twice every day. The manner of manipulating was as follows : 
The patient was seated in a chair, and her body steadied by an assistant 
standing behind her and holding her shoulders firmly with both hands. 
Placing myself in front of her, I grasped her head with my hands, in suck 
a way as to perform most efficiently the different movements I wished to 
execute. These movements were varied in every direction in which re- 
sistance was encountered, my object being to stretch to the utmost the 
contracted muscles, and to maintain them on a stretch for a certain length 
of time. The process was painful only during its actual performance, 
and ceased to be so the moment it was discontinued. On the 24th of 
March, the operations were suspended, while the patient made a visit to 
her family, and were resumed again on the 8 th of April. During this 
interval, no relapse took place. The same course of treatment was con- 
tinued till the 10th of May, when she returned to her home, highly gra- 
tified at being able to maintain her head by her own efforts, in its natural 
erect position, and to turn it in different directions almost as well as ever 
she could. She was advised to continue for a long time, the daily prac- 
tice of performing the various motions of the head as extensively as pos- 
sible. On the 13th of January, 1853, I conversed with an aunt of my 
patient, who had recently visited her, and who reports that she holds her 
head in a very natural manner, and can move it at pleasure, freely in 
every direction. In a word, she considers herself quite well again, and 
without any disposition to relapse. — JST. Y. Med. Times, 

121 Tenth st. January 20, 1853. 

An Efficacious Expectorant and Sudorific. — A practitioner in Ver- 
mont transmits the following recipe, which claims the consideration of 
physicians at this particular season. 

Thinking it the duty of every physician, when he has come across 
a remedy of superior efficacy, to inform the profession of it, I take 
this opportunity to forward a recipe for your disposal. R. Tinct. 
lobeliae, f 3 ss.; tinct. sanguinarise, f % ij.j ol. menthse viridis, f 3 ss.; syr- 



1853] Eclectic and Summary Department. 187 

upus empyreumaticus, f 5 v. (5) M. Give half a tea-spoonful at bed- 
time, or one in two hours, until it relieves. The above is of magical ef- 
ficacy; I have known it used for some eight years ; have used it much to 
my own benefit, given it liberally to my patients, and some of my fellow 
physicians have used it at my suggestion, much to the advantage of their 
patients. I use it in catarrhal affections, spasmodic croup, pertussis, 
asthma, &c; in fact, in all cases where an expectorant and sudorific are 
indicated. And it always meets my fullest expectations. I also find it 
very efficacious in subduing mucous inflammations about the throat and 
air passages. I ask of those who have not tried a similar preparation, to 
try this; and I think they will no more use hive-syrup for children. * 

9fC 2jC 5j£ 'i' 2j( 

The properties of these articles (lobelia and sanguinaria) being so com- 
bined, the relaxing properties of the one with the stimulating of the oth- 
er, makes them much more efficacious and innocent in all complaints 
where either the one or the other has been found advantageous, especial- 
ly for children. — Boston Med. and Surg. Journal. 

Solvent for Disulphate of Quinia. — Tartaric acid has been recom- 
mended as a better solvent for the disulphate of quinine, than diluted 
sulphuric acid, the agent usually employed for this purpose. One-third 
of the weight of the quina salt is a sufficient proportion of the tartaric 
acid to effect complete solution, which is by no means unpleasant to the 
taste, — a great improvement on the intense bitterness of the ordinary so- 
lution of this salt, made with diluted sulphuric acid. — London Journal 
Med., from Med. Times. 

New Mode of Administering Iodine. — M. Hannon says, that by 
placing five to twenty grains of iodine in a fold of cotton wadding, and 
sewing it in a piece of linen, and applying it to the part affected, the 
iodine acts very rapidly. It must be covered with oiled silk or gutta 
percha, to prevent it from turning the clothes blue. — London Journal 
Med. from L' Union Med. 

Hemorrhage from the Extraction of Teeth. By William R. Web- 
ster. I see an article of some length in the July No., page 854, Dental 
News Letter, from A. Berry, D. D. S., referring to Fox, B. B. Brown, 
Bell, and others, on the best plan of stopping hemorrhage from the ex- 
traction of teeth by pressure, which is all right. But permit me to call 
the attention of ours as well as the medical profession, (as I have never 
yet found it suggested in any of the popular journals of the day,) to the 
use of sulph. magnesia in sufficient quantity to operate mildly on the bow- 
els, say 1 § . As singular as it may at first appear, it is nevertheless a 
remedy that has never yet failed in my hands, and one that I universal- 
ly use in all cases of an endemic or hemorrhagic diathesis, as well from 
the extraction of teeth as from any other cause, for which it will be found 
a sufficient styptic, without the use of pressure, as recommended, in from 
fifteen minutes to half an hour. I believe if it had been used in the 



188 Eclectic and Summary Department. [MARCH. 

case referred to by Henry Whitworth, M. D„ as reported on page 400 of 
the July No. of the Dental News Letter, taken from the London Lancet, 
it might have proved sufficient. This is why I feel it my duty to make 
it public, and request for it a trial. — Dental News Letter. 
Richmond, la., 11 Mo. 8th 1852. 

Pills of Iodide of Iron. By John Loines. The intensely styptic 
taste of the solution of iodide of iron, as well as the unpleasant stain it 
imparts to the teeth and lips, is often felt to be a serious inconvenience 
in the use of this valuable remedy, and has given rise to considerable in- 
quiry by the medical practitioner for some more palatable mode of ad- 
ministering the iodide. Such, however, is the nature of this compound, 
that it is scarcely to be expected that any form of preparation will super- 
sede the salt with gum or the combination of saccharine matter in vari- 
ous proportions. Meantime it has been proposed, in order to conceal 
the taste of the officinal solution, to enclose it in capsules, or, by the ad- 
dition of suitable substances, to make it a mass capable of being formed 
into pills. It has even been thought advisable to evaporate the solution 
till it should acquire a suitable consistence for this purpose. To the cap- 
sules the expense will probably be urged as an objection by some, while 
their liability to leak, unless made with more than ordinary care, will b? 
found a constant source of complaint. On the other hand, although it is 
easy enough, by the addition of gum, to make a mass that can be rolled 
into pills, the bulk of this adjuvant, in connection with that of the sugar 
already employed, renders the dose inconveniently large. It was in view 
of these objections that the writer, about a year ago, devised the plan of 
making a very concentrated syrup of the iodide of iron, which may be 
readily made into pills, two or three of which contain the ordinary dose 
of that medicine, and having made use of them in his own case, for a 
considerable time, with advantage, he would respectfully recommend 
them to the favorable notice of physicians and pharmaceutists. The for- 
mula he employs is the following, viz : 

Take of iodine (dry) - - - - ^ j . 

fine iron wire, cut in pieces - - giij. 

Sugar, in powder - - - - ^ij. jij. 

Water f. Jiss. 

Measure 2£ fluid ounces of water into a three or four ounce phial, and 
mark upon it the height at which the liquid stands, then pour out the 
water and introduce the sugar in its stead. Proceed, with the other in- 
gredients, to make the solution of iodide of iron, in the same manner as 
in the formula of the U. S. P., taking care to use a flask or matruss of 
the capacity of only 3 or 4 ounces, in order to avoid waste of the materi- 
als. The filter employed should also be very small, (from one to two 
inches in depth) and its apex must be protected by a small cap of mus- 
lin, without which, a rent is almost certain to occur • or, a small piece of 
fine linen or muslin might be substituted for the double filter thus form- 
ed. Having filtered the liquid into the sugar, shake the phial contain- 
ing them, and suspend it in a vessel of hot water until perfect solution 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 189 

takes place. If the product measures less than 2 J fluid ounces, add sim- 
ple syrup to make up the deficiency. 

This concentrated syrup is four times the strength of the officinal solu- 
tion, and should contain, by calculation, twenty-nine grains of the dry 
oxide in every fluid drachm. As some loss is, however, unavoidable, the 
proportion is actually rather less. 

To prepare the pills, two fluid drachms of the concentrated syrup are 
to be triturated in a mortar, with 3 drachms of powdered gum arabic, 
and the mixture set aside for several hours, during which time it acquires 
the consistence of very stiff paste, but needs the addition of a little more 
gum, which should be worked in the hand, to make it into pills. When 
brought to the proper consistence, it is to be divided into 60 pills, each 
of which may be assumed to contain the equivalent of 8 minims of the 
officinal solution of iodide of iron. They do not become hard by keep- 
ing; some have been kept a year, and then beaten anew, into a mass, 
and made again into pills. Neither does any perceptible alteration ap- 
pear in their color, taste or smell. — JSf. Y. Journal of Pharmacy. 

New York, 12 mo. 21, 1852. 

On the Hereditariness of Phthisis. By Dr. Heryietjx. Dr. Her- 
vieux's object is to contribute some facts towards the solution of the 
question, as to the mode in which tubercles are propagated from parent 
to child, and at what period these become developed. He quotes the re- 
sults of 711 autopsies made at the Hospital des Enfans Trouvees. Of 
this number, about 400 were less, and 300 more than 15 days old. Of 
the 711, tubercles were only found in 32 ; a fact sufficiently remarkable 
for those who know the frequency with which tubercles occur in young 
children. But it is to be observed, that these 32 cases are not equally 
distributed among the 711 children ; and the chief value of the present 
communication lies in its insisting upon this distinction. Thus, among 
the 400 children who had not passed their 15th day, tubercles were only 
found in 2; one 11, the other 13 days old. In the other 300 children, 
they were found 30 times — viz : 8 times in children from 15 days to one 
year; 8 times in from 1 to 2 years; 10 times in from 2 to 3 years; and 
4 times in from 3 to 5 years (very few children above 3 years, being, 
however, received into the infirmary.) Examining the distribution of 
the cases which occur between 15 days and 1 year, we find none prior to 
the 4th month; 1 at the 4th, 1 at the 6th, 2 at the 9th, 2 at the 11th, 
and 3 at the 12th. Thus the rarity of tubercles in infants extends not 
only to the first fortnight, but the first four months — the parent evident- 
ly only transmitting the predisposition to disease. In private practice, 
it may be expected to be still stronger. — Med. Chir., vol. xi. p. 331. — 
from Boston Med. Journal. 



Autopsy of the Hon. Daniel Webster. — [From an article in the Ame- 
rican Journal of Medical Sciences, we extract the following description of 
the post-mortem appearances, &c, by his physician, Dr. John Jeffries.] 



190 Eclectic and Summary Department. [Mab,ch. 

The autopsy was made by Dr. J. B. S. Jackson, who furnished the 

following report : — 

Autopsy thirty-two hours after death ; present Drs. Jeffries, Porter, J. 
Mason Warren, Wyman, Parknian and Jackson. 

The emaciation was very marked, as shown by the state of the integu- 
ments and muscles ; the latter being wasted, pale, and flabby. 

Abdomen. — The peritoneal cavity contained eleven pints of serum. 
There were also old and strong adhesions about the spleen, the gall-blad- 
der, the caecum, and to a small extent between the left extremities of the 
arch of the colon and the parietes of the abdomen. 

The stomach was distended, and contained half a pint of very dark 
blood, about one half of which was in a state of a soft coagulum; 
and this was the only appearance that was found of coagulum in any 
part of the body. The mucous membrane was deeply stained by these 
contents, generally rather soft, and in the pyloric portion somewhat ma- 
mellonated. The intestines were opened throughout, washed, and fully 
examined with reference to the diarrhsea that had so long existed. Blood 
was found throughout in very considerable quantity as far as the descend- 
ing colon, below which there was no trace of it ; in the large intestine it 
was altered as usual in color. Mucous membrane stained by the con- 
tents so far as blood extended. In the large intestines were numerous 
hernias of the mucous membrane, so common in this situation ; from 
many of these small masses of feces or of mucus could be forced 
,out, and these were the only traces of feces that were found. Otherwise 
the mucous membrane of the intestines appeared quite healthy ; there 
being nowhere any ulceration to explain the diarrhsea, nor ecchymosis 
connected with the hemorrhage. 

The liver was, throughout, very markedly granulated ; dense, and con- 
tracted in size ; the color externally was greenish or bronzed, but internally 
of a pale red ; showing, as we may not very unfrequently observe, the 
inappropriateness of the term " cirrhosis," which would generally have 
been applied to the present case. Weight of the organ, three pounds 
and one-third, avoirdupois. Bile in the gall-bladder nearly black, and of 
a tarry consistence. 

Spleen small, pale, and shrivelled. Investing membrane to some ex- 
tent opaque, white, thickened, and condensed; the change being proba- 
bly due to the old peritoneal affection. 

Kidneys and pelvic organs healthy. 

Thorax. — Old pleural adhesions over nearly the whole of the right side; 
none on the left. Lower lobe of the left lung and the two lower lobes 
of the right much congested, and very dark ; a change that undoubtedly 
occurred towards the close of his life, being simply passive. 

Heart flaccid ; very little blood in cavities, and this was quite liquid. 
Slight disease of aortal valves, but organ otherwise healthy. Foramen 
ovale ; a small valvular opening existed. Aorta not ossified, except to a 
small extent in the abdomen. 

Head. — The membranes of the brain were most remarkably diseased. 
In the cavity of the arachnoid was a layer of fibrine which covered al- 



i853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 191 

most entirely, and about equally, the convexity of both hemispheres ; it 
did not extend, however, beneath or between them, nor about the cere- 
bellum. In the recent state, it had a rather dull, yellowish, infiltrated, 
cedematous appearance ; being one-fourth of an inch in thickness over the 
upper surface, but becoming gradually more thin on the sides, where it 
terminated in a thin edge. The adhesion to the dura mater was in some 
parts quite close ; but it was generally very readily stripped off, and left 
the arachnoid with its usual polish. It was more adherent to the subja- 
cent membrane ; this last being irregular, and having generally a cloud- 
ed and slightly opaque appearance, with many milk-white spots, but 
without any appreciable thickening. The quantity of serous effusion into 
the membranes was altogether large. The subarachnoid tissue corres- 
ponding to the layer of fibrine above described was infiltrated with a 
straw-colored serum in some places, separating the convolutions from each 
other ; this separation was quite remarkable at the posterior part of the 
right cerebral hemisphere on its upper surface and near the median line, 
there being also a slight depression at this part. The dura mater ad- 
hered firmly to the calvaria, but was healthy in structure, as were the 
membranes otherwise j there was, however, a serous infiltration into each 
plexus choroides ; though no more, if not less than usual, into the libe- 
ral ventricles. No appearance of recent meningitis ; and no effused blood 
or cysts in or about the false membrane. The brain itself was perfectly 
healthy ; and the arteries at the base very nearly so. Cranium healthy. 
Over the right frontal region a scar existed, the result of the injury that 
occurred last May ; integuments not otherwise remarkable, 

A portion of the fibrine from the arachnoid cavity having been removed 
for microscopical examination, it was found, some hours afterwards, and 
when the serum with which it had been infiltrated was absorbed, to have 
almost the consistence of one of the natural tissues of the body; being 
strong enough to bear considerable traction ; it also appeared then to 
have somewhat of a laminated structure, and bloodvessels were distinctly 
seen in it even with the naked eye. Dr. Wyman found it " organized, 
and, in some places vascular. Under the microscope, the lymph was re- 
solved into minute fibres, like those forming the white fibrous element 
of areolar tissue, and including in their meshes large numbers of minute 
granules." 

Recapitulating the points of interest in this case, it will be observed 
that the immediate cause of death was hemorrhage from the stomach and 
bowels. For this, no source could be found in the lesion of any vessel ; 
it must, therefore, be regarded as a simple exhalation dependent upon a 
disorganization of this fluid, indicated, moreover, by the almost entire ab- 
sence of coagulation. The relation of this hemorrhage, to the disease of 
the liver, will also be noted as coinciding with previous experience j it be- 
ing well known that, in certain cases where there is an altered action of 
this organ, there is a tendency to disorganization of the blood, manifest- 
ing itself thus in hemorrhage,— ~iV. Y. Medical Gazette. 

Enlargement of the Uterus. — Dr. C. D. Meigs was desirous of calling 
the attention of the Fellows to certain affections of the uterus in which 

24 



192 Eclectic and Summary Department. [MabciL 

an erroneous diagnosis is liable to be made — simple, curable enlargements 
being mistaken for cases of hypertrophy with change of structure. The 
uterus, he would premise, is an organ peculiar in respect to this circum- 
stance, that it is naturally designed to undergo considerable and repeated 
changes in its condition; acquiring a physiological hypertrophization 
from which, upon the cause inducing this change being withdrawn, it re- 
turns rapidly to its normal size. The uterus of the non-gravid female 
measures about two and a half inches in length, about one and three- 
quarters in breadth across the body, and three-quarters of an inch in 
thickness ; weighing about two ounces. When conception takes place, 
the uterus sets off on a course of rapid hypertrophic development, becom- 
ing at the end of two hundred and eighty days, twelve inches in length, 
from seven to eight inches in width, and from one and a half to two 
pounds in weight. After having acquired this size, no sooner is parturi- 
tion completed, and it is thus emptied of its contents, than it hurries back 
to its non-gravid condition; the excess of material producing its aug- 
mented size being removed by absorption. This is usually effected in 
from twenty to twenty-eight days. The physiological hypertrophization 
of the uterus and its subsequent return to its normal non-gravid size may 
take place in the same individual sixteen, eighteen, or even twenty times. 
Now this peculiar physiological law of the uterus renders it especially 
prone, when subjected to irritation, to undergo & pathological hypertro- 
phization ; and this condition the physician will be enabled to remove if 
he can but detect and cure the irritating cause. The hypertrophization' 
may result from retroversion of the uterus, from irritation or ulceration 
of the cervix, from a rheumatic disease of the organ, or from polypus 
within its cavity ; either of which affections being removed, the enlarged 
uterus may be expected to return more or less quickly to its normal size. 
These forms of enlargement of the uterus are not unfrequently mistaken 
for hypertrophy of the organ accompanied with serious alterations of its 
structure. Are there any means by which the cases of simple pathologi- 
cal hypertrophy may be distinguished from these latter degenerations ? 
Dr. Meigs remarked, it will almost invariably be found that simple hy- 
pertrophy is unattended with any change in the general form of the ute- 
rus, whereas in cases of uterine enlargment attended with change of 
structure, the form of the uterus is always more or less distorted ; the 
distortion being various according as the change of structure and accom- 
panying hypertrophization is chiefly in the cellular tissue, the bloodves- 
sels, the absorbents or the nervous matter of the uterus. Hence, to ar- 
rive at a correct diagnosis in cases of enlarged uterus, it is only necessa- 
ry to ascertain whether the organ preserves its form or not. Dr. M. had 
been occasionally deceived, he admitted, but very generally he has suc- 
ceeded, by the test referred to, in arriving at a correct diagnosis. If it 
is ascertained that the cause of the hypertrophization is under the control 
of art, then the prognosis is favorable, for if the cause upon which the 
hypertrophy depends be removed, the uterus will hasten back from its 
state of hypertrophy to its normal size, as after parturition. — Transac- 
tions of College of Physcians, Philadelphia. 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 193 

Adhesion of the Placenta. By J. Douglass, M. D., Chester, S. C 
—Dr. Mayes, of Sumter, having, in the July number (1852,) of the 
Journal, related a case which terminated fatally under his care, together 
with the assistance of Dr. Crane, and having in great candour, and in a 
manner quite creditable to himself, both as a gentleman and a physician, 
•called upon his more experienced brethren for any suggestions they might 
make, I feel it a duty to offer the result of my own observations and ex- 
perience in the management of such cases, and also a few remarks upon 
his plan of treatment, in the same spirit of frankness which influenced 
him in his inquiry. I should have responded to a call made in such good 
faith, in the last issue of the Journal, but supposed that the very able 
professor to whom the appeal was made, would have given satisfactory 
answers to an alumnus of an Institution, to the reputation of which he 
has so largely contributed — a requisition which, I doubt not will soon be 
complied with. In reference to the treatment of such cases, we find a 
greater diversity of opinion among authors as to the time to act, than in 
the mode or manner of procedure. We must, of course, be governed by 
circumstances. In some instances, when the patient is extremely ex- 
hausted, we must, if possible, arrest the hemorrhage for a time, and rally 
the powers of the system before attempting the extraction. I rely alto- 
gether on manipulations. The hand should be introduced with the fingers 
drawn into a conical form, slowly and cautiously, giving an occasional re- 
spite to your efforts, in imitation of the natural process of labor. Great 
care should be taken that the fingers are introduced between the placenta 
and uterus, as it frequently happens that the hand is involved in the 
membranes of the ovum, which will greatly increase the embarrassment 
of the operation, and the sufferings of the patient. The hand being fairly 
introduced, we should proceed to detach it slowly with the index finger, 
while, with the other fingers, the uterus and the placenta should be kept 
steady. If the palm is kept towards the placenta, there is but little dan- 
ger, with ordinary care, of injuring the uterus. When the attempt is 
made, it should be done with a fixed determination to accomplish it. No 
misgivings should be betrayed in the countenance. The patient should 
be cheered up with hope, and be permitted to rest occasionally, according 
to her strength and the violence of the uterine pains. In this way I have 
succeeded in every case which has fallen under my care in an extensive 
practice of many years, except some two or three cases of abortion. I 
will here state, that in cases of abortion, in which the placenta cannot be 
extracted, I have, in every case, relieved the patient by giving a large 
cathartic dose of calomel. In such cases as head this communication, I 
never give ergot, fearing that it might increase the difficulty, by produc- 
ing irregular contractions of the uterus. I have been repeatedly called 
in to terminate a labor after the secale cornutum had been administered, 
in which irregular contractions were present after the delivery of the 
child, and feel disposed to attribute them to the action of the ergot. 
Some weeks since, my son, Dr. J. L. Douglass, was called to visit Mrs. 
E., with her third child. The child was born about an hour before his 
arrival, and the midwife, in her eagerness to remove the placenta, had 



194 Eclectic and Summary Department. [MARCH. 

ruptured the cord at the placenta. He found her so much alarmed, and 
sinking under such profuse hemorrhage, as to induce him to send for me, 
making, in the mean time, all necessary applications to arrest the flood- 
ing. In this case I found, in the whole of the right side of the placenta, 
the most tenacious adhesions I ever encountered. I succeeded, by con- 
tinuous efforts, to extract it, though not, perhaps, without leaving parti- 
cles adherent within the cavity of the uterus. On no former occasion 
had I to use as much force, and continue my exertions for so long a time. 
I do not hesitate to say, that there is not one half the danger of injuring 
the womb, if the manipulations are carefully conducted, that some wri- 
ters lead us to believe. On the day following, I ordered olive oil and 
spirits of turpentine to be constantly applied to the abdomen, and her 
bowels to be opened with castor oil, to which was added a teaspoonful of 
spirits of turpentine. Her convalescence was much more rapid than I 
could have reasonably expected. About two years ago, I was compelled 
to have recourse to manipulations with the same lady. The chief diffi- 
culty then was her exhausted condition and frequent faintings, as she 
had almost literally flooded to death. By active stimulation she rallied a 
little, and I accomplished the extraction by slow and careful movements. 
I refer to these two instances, merely as representing- a large number oc- 
curring under my notice, all of which have yielded to careful but deter- 
mined efforts to tear away the placenta. 

So far as regards the treatment of Dr. Mayes after the extraction, I 
have no comments to make. I have no doubt but it was proper and ju- 
dicious. If he erred at all in the management of his case, it was in de- 
lay. It is possible, had greater efforts been made when the hand was 
first introduced, the violent symptoms which ensued, might have been 
averted. As a general rule, it is not prudent to wait longer than two or 
three hours, unless the low state of the patient forbids ; and even where 
the patient is very much prostrated and feeble, the extraction should be 
attempted if the pulse is perceptible at the wrist. 

I am truly thankful to Dr. Felder for reporting his case, in which he 
.observed the marked and decided effects of kreosote. It may possibly 
have been an accidental circumstance ; but it seems reasonable, a priori, 
to suppose, from the well-known properties of the article, that its appli- 
cation might produce an haemostatic effect, and also induce contraction 
of the uterus by irritation. Its checking the hemorrhage may have been 
owing to the two effects combined, or to the mechanical operation alone. 

The profession will be under still greater obligations to Dr. Felder to 
report his further trials with this remedial agent, and also to state the 
precise strength of the preparation he uses. — Charleston Med. Journal, 



On (lie Treatment of Chilblains. By M. Trousseau. — M. Trousseau 
washes all parts affected with chilblains, three times a day with the fol- 
lowing lotion : — Borax, 50 parts ; water 500. Four table-spoonsful are 
added to a quart of water, tie also prescribes, both for the prevention 
and removal of chilblains, the following lotion, to be used night and 
morning : —Sal ammoniac. 20 parts; water, 40; proof spirit, 10. When 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 195 

ulceration has occurred, he prescribes one of the following formula) : — ■ 
Tannin, 10 parts ; water, 500. Or, ext. rhatany, 10 parts , quince mu- 
cilage, q. s. This is mixed up as a soft electuary, with which the parts 
are smeared ; and the application is also an excellent one for the cracked 
lips which occur in the winter.-— 27 Union Med. Med. Clilr. Rev. 

Bite of a Copperhead — u Trigonoceplialus Contortix" — treated with 
Whiskey. — By N. Harris Morange, M. D., of Abbeville, South Ca- 
rolina.— On the 21st of June last I was called to see a negro man belong- 
ing to Capt. P , of Abbeville district. Found him partially delirious ; 

skin hot and dry ; pulse very much excited, ranging from 100 to 120 ; 
left leg and ankle swollen to a great degree. Upon making enquiry into 
the history of this case, I learned that the patient had been bitten about 
twelve hours previously by a " trigonoceplialus/ ' or, as it is frequently 
styled in this part of the country, copperhead or highland mockeson. 
This very poisonous reptile was concealed beneath the step of a meat- 
house, and inflicted a* wound upon the inside of the foot, near the ankle 
joint. I immediately applied a ligature above the seat of affection — pre- 
scribed poultices over the wound; and olive oil, ammonia, &c, internally. 

22d. The patient is in statu quo — no abatement of the swelling, deliri- 
ous : ordered whiskey, ad libitum. 

23d. No decided improvement — -still anxious, restless, and uneasy; 
skin hot and dry. Continued the whiskey, combined with capsicum : it 
was administered until the patient was fully under its influence, without 
regard to quantity. Left opium to be given if necessary. 

24th. Had passed the " crisis." A profuse perspiration was over his 
entire system; the tumefaction was subsiding; the delirium had ceased; 
he spoke rationally, and speedily convalesced. 

Gibson says — " Of the numerous American serpents, two species only 
are known to be poisonous — the crotalus or rattlesnake and copperhead." 
If he includes under the common name of copperhead, both the highland 
and the water-mockeson, then we concur with him in the assertion. The 
two latter are of the same family, but not of the same species, which is 
abundantly manifest by their mode of living. 

The same writer says : " These reptiles are more lively, and their 
venom more active, during very warm weather. Upon the approach of 
the cold season, they become languid, and then strike reluctantly, and 
frequently without any ill consequence." 

The interesting case which I witnessed whilst a student in the Univer- 
sity of New York, furnishes a striking proof of the speedy operation of 
the poison, *even in the dead of winter. 

^Dr. W., of that city, was bitten on the hand, by a rattlesnake, sent to 
him by a friend from the State of Alabama. The hand soon began to 
swell, and in a few hours the whole arm was very much tumefied, pre- 
senting a mottled appearance, even to the shoulder and axilla. He had 
the best medical advice the city afforded, yet, after intense suffering for 
two or three days, he died. 

I have no doubt, that if the alcoholic treatment had been instituted in 
this case, with the application of the ligature above the seat of affection. 



196 Eclectic and Summary Department. [March. 

(which last was timely suggested by some of the Southern students pre- 
sent,) Dr. W. would have recovered. — Southern Med. and Surg. Jour. 

On the Benefits that may be derived from 'placing Medical Sub- 
stances on the Tongue instead of into the Stomach. By Mr. War- 
drop. — In a practical science like that of Medicine, an insulated fact 
often forms a connecting link with other facts that had appeared equally 
unimportant. The Medical observer does well to collect such facts, and 
it is one not of the least advantage of societies, that they stimulate mem- 
bers of the profession to record observations which might not have been 
deemed of sufficient importance to be brought before the public in any 
other channel. With such an impression, I venture, on the present oc- 
casion, to call the attention of my fellow-members to a subject which 
seems to be worthy of their consideration, and which has not hitherto, as 
far as I know, claimed much attention. There are many circumstances 
which might be mentioned, in order to show the influence which some 
medical substances have on the animal economy, when they are placed 
upon the surface of the tongue, these effects being caused by the absorp- 
tion of the medicine, and its subsequent admixture with the mass of 
blood. Such phenomena are quite analogous to the effects produced by 
mercury or arsenic, whether these pass into the blood by the pulmonary, 
by the cutaneous, or by the absorbents of the alimentary canal. A gen - 
tleman, subject to what are usually called bilious headaches, had, during 
many years, seldom failed to obtain relief by taking sometimes two, and 
sometimes only one grain of calomel. He repeatedly found that there 
was a distinct difference in the length of time which the calomel took to 
relieve the headache, according as it was taken in the form of a powder 
put upon the tongue, or of a pill taken into the stomach. Another gen- 
tleman, who had for many years suffered from dyspepsia, and who, for 
some years before I saw him, was in the habit of regulating his bowels 
by taking a pill composed of a couple of grains of aloes with myrrh, ac- 
cidentally discovered there was a remarkable difference in the effect of 
the pill when swallowed, or when allowed to dissolve in the mouth. 
When taken into the stomach, it always created a good deal of pain in 
the whole course of the alimentary canal, and the evacuations were irre- 
gular, both in number and in quantity ; but when the pill was dissolved 
in the mouth, no other sensible effect was ever produced than one natu- 
ral evacuation. Further experience convinced me of the difference in the 
efficacy of medicines placed upon the tongue, or taken into the stomach, 
and led me to inquire into the cause, and endeavor to explain so impor- 
tant a phenomenon. The structure of the tongue pointed out that it pos- 
sesses an abundant supply of absorbents. " The spirituous parts," ob- 
serves the illustrious Haller, " more especially of vegetables, are received 
either into the papillae themselves, or into the absorbing villa of the 
tongue, as appears from the speedy renovation of strength by liquors of 
this kind, even when they are not taken into the stomach." This struc- 
ture satisfactorily explains how medicinal bodies, when placed upon the 
tongue, are absorbed and carried directly, by the absorbent vessels of 
that organ, into the venous circulation; whereas, when the same sub- 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 197 

stances are taken into the stomach, they are necessarily mixed with the 
food and juices contained in the alimentary canal, so that a more length- 
ened period must be required to separate them, and convey them by the 
absorbents into the thoracic duct, and thence into the venous system. 
Or they may pass unchanged, as has often been observed, out of the 
stomach, and in this unaltered state they are evacuated along with the 
excretions from the alimentary canal. This remarkable effect of medi- 
cines when placed upon the tongue, is strikingly illustrated in the admi- 
nistration of calomel, and it will be found that placing a very small quan- 
tity of it, say the sixth, or even the twelfth part of a grain, at short in- 
tervals, upon the tongue, such as every half hour, the mineral is rapidly 
absorbed, and ptyalism more quickly produced than by any other mode 
of employing the calomel. These results of medicines, I may also ob- 
serve, are well known by the effects which croton-oil produces when ap- 
plied to the tongue ; and it is by no means improbable that the good ef- 
fects of some medicines, when used in the form of lozenges, may be at- 
tributed to their absorption by the vessels of the tongue. All the cir- 
cumstances regarding the difference and the effects of medicinal bodies, 
when conveyed to the venous system directly by the vessels of the tongue, 
or when they reach the blood by the more uncertain and circuitous course 
by the absorbents of the alimentary canal, appear to be worthy of being 
noticed, and may, it is not too much to hope, lead to some practical im- 
provement in the mode of administering remedies. How far such differ- 
ences will be found to result from exhibiting chloroform, the hydrocyanic 
acid, and the sulphates of quinine, iron, copper and zinc, in the form of 
lozenges, and the advantages of using these medicines in such a manner, 
well merits further inquiry.— London Lancet. 

Hints on Optkalmia neo-natorum. By A. H. Cenas, M. D. — Pu- 
rulent opthalmia of new-born infants is by no means an uncommon dis- 
ease, and is most frequently met with in lying-in-hospitals. It is very 
serious in its results, and is the cause of more destruction of vision in in- 
fants, than any other form of opthalmia. Its origin is rather obscure, 
and whether it owes its existence to a specific virus, or to atmospheric 
causes, is a question still open. For my part, I believe in the influence 
of both ; although the proportion of cases that I have been able to trace 
to specific vaginal discharges, is comparatively small. 

The disease is of rapid formation, and often occurs immediately after 
birth, but usually, not before two or three days have elapsed. We then 
see a sudden and violent swelling of the eyelids with much redness, and 
an oozing of purulent matter from between the eyelids. The whole ap- 
pearance is alarming, and an unpracticed individual would be persuaded 
that the eye was lost, and that nothing could be done. 

But, in truth, there is no disease of the eye that can be more prompt- 
ly and perfectly cured, and by the simplest treatment. 

Formerly, great discrepancy prevailed in relation to its treatment. 
Some physicians recommending sedatives, others stimulants, others again 
depletion in the early stages, and afterwards astringents, purgatives, &c, 
The frequent failure, however, of these means, suggested the present plan, 
which is pretty generally adopted, and entirely successful when proper- 



198 Eclectic and Summary Department. [MARClf 

ly carried out. It consists in the use of strong solutions of chrys. nit. 
argent, say 15 to 20 grains to an ounce of distilled water, and ap- 
plied of this strength, at once, so soon as the disease is established. My 
practice is to have the purulent matter removed from the eyes with tepid 
water, and then instil a few drops of the solution four or live times daily, 
until the disease is removed. This is my only remedy, generally speak- 
ing, and under its influence I have seen the disease subside rapidly. On 
the second or third clay, the infant is able to open its eyes, and the worst 
cases yield at the furthest in eight or ten days. When so protracted, 
however, I am in the habit of associating a constitutional with the local 
treatment, in the shape of one or two grains of hyd. cum creta, morning 
and night. The bowels are gently moved by this dose, and the disease 
rapidly mends. 

Attention to cleanliness is essential, keeping the eye balls free from 
the purulent discharge, by washing the eyelids out with tepid water of 
flax seed tea, as often as the matter accumulates, is imperative. I 
have often observed that those mothers or nurses, that were careful in 
this particular, were most successful in their prompt removal of the dis- 
ease. Another important precaution consists in the gradual withdrawal 
of the treatment, a sudden suspension of the solution, although the e}- es 
seem well, may, and often is, followed by a relapse, and in a worse form 
than before. Some of the worst cases that I have seen, have been made 
so in this way. 

I could cite some dozen of cases of the disease, occurring in my hospi- 
tal and private practice, within the last live months, and treated in the 
above manner with uniform good results. But as they were all precise- 
ly alike in character and termination, I consider the details superfluous. 
— JV. 0. Medical Register. 

American Medical Association. — The sixth annual meeting of this As- 
sociation will be held in the city of New York, on Tuesday, May 3, 1853. 

The secretaries of all societies and other bodies entitled to representa- 
tion in the Association, are requested to forward to the undersigned cor- 
rect lists of their respective delegations as soon as they may be appointed; 
and it is desired by the committee of arrangements that the appointments 
be made at as early a period as possible. 

The following is an extract from Art. II. of the Constitution : "Each 
local Society shall have the privilege of sending to the Association one 
delegate for every ten of its regular members, and one for every addi- 
tional fraction of more than half this number. The faculty of every re- 
gularly constituted Medical College or chartered school of medicine shall 
have the privilege of sending two delegates. The professional staff of 
every chartered or municipal hospital containing a hundred inmates or 
more, shall have the privilege of sending two delegates ; and every other 
permanently organized medical institution of good standing shall have 
the privilege of sending one delegate." 

EDWARD L. BEADLE, 
One of the Secretaries, 42 Bleechcr Street, New York. 



The Medical Press of the United States is respectfully requested to copy the 
foregoing. 



TRANSACTIOiNS 



OP THE 



IEW JEBSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 



MINUTES OF THE 87th ANNUAL MEETING. 

The Eighty-seventh Anniversary of the Society, was held at Temperance 
Hall, in Trenton, January 25, 1853. 

The President, Doctor Taylor, in the chair. The following is the roll 
of members— 

OFFICERS. 

President, - 0. H. Taylor 

First Vice President, J. Paul. 

Second Vice President, S. Lilly. 

Third Vice President, A. B. Dayton 

Corresponding Secretary, J. Parrish, 

Recording Secretary, W. Pierson. 

Treasurer, - J. S. English, 

Standing Committee.— Q. P. Rex, J. M. Cornelison, E. Fithian. 
Certificates were read and accepted from the following Districts. 
Passaic. — G. Terhune. 
Hudson. — -J. M. Cornelison. 

Morris. — -H. P. Green, L. Condict, R. W. Stevenson. 
Sussex.— A. Linn, F. Moran, F. Smith, and T. Ryerson. 
Warren. — S. S. Clark. 

Monmouth.— J. Vought, J. T. Woodhull, C. C. Blauvelt, R. W- 
Cooke. 
Burlington. — Z. Read, W. L. Martin, S. W. Butler and F. Gaunti 
Mercer. — J. B. Coleman, J. Woolverton, J. McKelway and Geo. R* 
Robbins. 

Camden. — J. M. Snowden, C. D. Hendry, S. Birdsell, and R. M. 
Cooper. 

Hunterdon.— J . Lessy, J. Blane, W. F. Combs, and W. Johnson. 

25 



200 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

FELLOWS PRESENT. 

Doctors L. Condict, J. W. Craig, W. D. McKissack, Z. Read, and 
S. H. Pennington. 

Doctors Whitehead and Kent appeared as Delegates from Essex, but 

not having a certificate of delegation, were on motion admitted to seats. 

The minutes of the preceding meeting were read and approved. 

On motion, Resolved, That the President's Address be deferred till 2 
o'clock, P. M. : and that an invitation be given to both Houses of the 
Legislature to be present. 

The following Committees were appointed. 

On Treasurer's Accounts, Doctors Butler, Rex, and Craig. 

On Unfinished Business, — Doctors Pennington, Blauvelt and Cooper. 

Nominating Committee. — Doctors Pennington, Terhune, L. Condict, 
Ryerson, Clark, Craig, Woodhull, Gauntt, Coleman, Cooper, Cornelison 
and Combs. 

The Chairman of the Standing Committee submitted their Annual 
Report, which was accepted and filed. 

The decease of Dr. Paul, one of the Vice Presidents of the Society, 
was announced by Dr. Coleman : and on motion, Resolved, That the De- 
legates of Mercer District be instructed to present resolutions in reference 
to the deceased. 

The Committee on Unfinished Business, reported the several scientific 
subjects referred to respective Committees at the last meeting. 

The Treasurer submitted a report which was accepted and referred to 
the Committee on Treasurer's Accounts. 

Society adjourned to 2 o'clock, P. M. 

On re-assembling, the President addressed the Society on the subject 
of " Relations of Popular Education with the progress of Empiricism." 

The thanks of the Society were ordered, and a copy requested for pub- 
lication. 

On motion, Resolved, That the Recording Secretary be instructed to 
procure blank copies of Diplomas, according to the form in the By-Laws. 

Dr. Bobbins, in behalf of the Mercer Delegation, submitted the follow- 
ing Resolutions which were adopted : viz — 

Resolved, That we have heard with deep regret of the death of our 
friend and professional brother, the First Vice President of our Society, 
Dr. James Paul, who has been, during his residence in this State, an ac- 
tive member of our Medical organizations, encouraging us by his learning 
And experience, 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 201 

Resolved, That the foregoing Resolution be placed on record in the 
minutes of the Society ; and that a copy of the same be sent with the re- 
spectful sympathies of the Society, to the family of the deceased. 

The following bills were ordered to be paid, 

O. H. Taylor, S3 82 

For use of Hall, - 2 00 

Scott's Bill for Stationery, 45 

The Committee on Treasurer's Accounts reported, that they find the 
accounts and vouchers correct, and a cash balance in his hands of 
$359 14, besides Eight shares of Bank Stock of par value of $25 per 
share. Which report was accepted, and the following resolution sub- 
mitted by the Committee, adopted : viz — 

Resolved, That a distribution of $10 be made to each District Society 
represented. 

The following Resolutions were offered by Dr. Pennington. 

Resolved, That a Committee of Arrangements be annually appointed 
consisting of members of the District Medical Society for the County of 
Mercer, who shall procure a place for the Annual Meeting of this Soci- 
ety, and give seasonable notice thereof to the Recording Secretary, who 
shall publish the same in the New Jersey Medical Reporter, and in two 
newspapers, one circulating in the Eastern and the other in the Western 
section of the State. 

Resolved, That the next Annual Meeting of the Society be held on the 
day designated by the By-Laws, at 7 o'clock, P. M., at the place selected 
for that purpose by the Committee of Arrangements. 

Resolved, That the rules for the order of business be so amended, as 
that the first business, shall be the Address of the President. 

Resolved, That the Recording Secretary invite the Executive Depart- 
ments of the State Government, the Hon. the Legislature, such of the 
Superior Courts as may be in session, and the public generally, to be 
present at the delivery of th-3 Address of the President. 

Resolved, That in order to facilitate the organization of the Society, the 
Recording Secretary be directed to obtain the credentials, and make out 
the list of Delegates previous to the time of meeting, and that the Dis- 
trict Medical Societies be requested to direct their Secretaries to render 
all necessary assistance to the Recording Secretary in the discharge of 
this duty. 

The foregoing resolutions were adopted except the third, which, as it 
involves an alteration of the By-Laws, was referred to the next meeting 
for action. 



202 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

Dr. Kyerson submitted the following amendment of the By-Laws, viz : 

Resolved, That chapter vii. section 9 of By-Laws be amended by add- 
ing the following proviso, viz : — "Provided, that a certificate of the em- 
ployment of one year in the study of such branches of general science 
and learning as may have been designated by this Society, according to 
section 5 of the supplement to the act incorporating the New Jersey Me- 
dical Society, passed January 28th, 1830, and a Diploma from any regu- 
larly chartered Medical College, whose course of study corresponds with 
that of the Colleges now recognized by this Society, be deemed a suffi- 
cient certificate of study." 

On motion, Resolved, That the Corresponding Secretary be requested 
to notify the several Secretaries of the District Societies, relative to the 
duty of sending up in due time to the Recording Secretary the several 
certificates of Delegation. 

The Fellows present through Dr. L. Condict, recommended Prof. Geo. 
B. Wood, of the University of Pennsylvania, as an Honorary Member of 
this Society, whereupon he was unanimously elected. 

The following preamble and resolutions were offered by Dr. Butler, in 
behalf of the Burlington District Medical Society. 

Whereas, observation aided by scientific investigation, has demonstrat- 
ed the fact that certain sanitary laws exist, the infraction of which are in- 
imical to a perfect state of public and individual health, and whereas, 
the present sanitary laws and regulations of this State are inadequate to 
the purpose of effectually guarding against many of the preventable 
causes of disease and death ; therefore 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this Society the sanitary laws of this 
State need revision. 

Resolved, That a Committee of three be appointed to take the subject 
into consideration, with the view of calling the attention of our Legisla- 
ture to it at its next session ; and report a plan for the purpose at the 
next meeting of this Society. 

Resolved, That it be the duty of said Committee to meet for the pur- 
pose of conference, in the months of April, July and October, at such 
time and place as shall by them be agreed upon. 

The resolutions were adopted, and the following appointed the Com- 
mittee, viz : — Drs, Butler, Pennington, and J. B. Coleman. 

The first, second, and fourth Scientific Committees made no report, and 
were continued. 

The third Committee, by Dr. Coleman, submitted a report on the ac- 
tion of mercurial preparations on the living animal tissues. 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 208 

The thanks of the Society were ordered, and a copy requested for pub- 
lication. [See p. 231.] 

The Committee of Arrangements were also appointed a Committee, in 
connection with Dr. Hopper, to watch against any attempts to repeal or 
alter our charter. 

On motion, Resolved, That an additional sum of $60 be appropriated 
to the Medical Reporter the present year. 

Dr. Alexander N. Dougherty was appointed Essayist. 

The Society proceeded to the election of Officers — and the following 
were elected. 

President , - S. Lilly. 

First Vice President, A. B. Dayton. 

Second Vice President, C. C. Blauvelt. 
Third Vice President, A. LlNN. 
Corresponding Secretary, J. Parrish. 
Recording Secretary, W. PlERSON. 

Treasurer, - J. S. English. 

Standing Committee. — J. M. Cornelison, S. L. CoNDiCT, and C° 
Cook. 

CENSORS. 

Passaic. — L. Burr, A. TV. Rogers, G. Terhune, and F. S. Weller. 

Essex. — W. Pierson, G. B. Chetwood, R. Kent, and A. N. Dougherty. 

Morris. — J. B. Munn^ J. C. Elmer, J. B. Johnes, and N. W. Condict* 

Sussex. — F. Moran) J. L. Allen, A. D. Morford, and C. W. Moore. 

Somerset. — R. S. Smith, H. H. Yanderveer, S. B. Martin, and W. 
D. McKissack. 

Monmouth. — D. Polhemus, W. A. Newell, J. S. English, and E. 
Taylor. 

Burlington. — B. H. Stratton, D. B. Trimble, J. J. Longstreet, and L 
P. Coleman. 

Mercer. — J. B. Coleman, Cf. R. Robbins, J. H. Phillips, and J. Wool- 
verton. 

Hunterdon. — J. Blane, Gr. P. Rex, A. S. Clark, and S. Lilly. 

Warren. — R. Byington, L. C. Cook, J. Fitch, and J. D. Dewitt. 

Camden.— I. S. Mulfordj 0. H. Taylor, C. D. Hendry, and A. D. 
Woodruff. 

Gloucester. — J. R. Sickler, J. F. Garrison, J. C. Weatherby, and E» 
F. Clark. 

Salem,— C Hanna, C. Swing, Q. Gibbon, and T. J. Yarrow. 



204 



TRANSACTIONS OF THE 



Cumberland. — W. Elmer, G. Tomlinson, E. C. Bateman, and J. W. 
Ludlani. 

Hudson. — J. M. Cornelison, C. Cook, J. E. Culver, andT. R. Varick. 

Delegates to the American Medical Association. — L. Condict, J. M. 
Cornelison, J. T. Woodhull, J. H. Phillips, D. B. Trimble, and F. Gauntt. 



List of Licenses 

NAME. 
John Leavitt, 
Joseph T. Tenison, 
Joseph Moore, 
Reuben Ludlam, 
Myles Synott, 
William H. Worthington, 
William L. Martin, 
John A. Johnston, 
Abner Woodward, 
Abraham Hopper, 
James J. Wright, 
Joseph H. Vondy, 
George W. x^llen, 
John Thompson, 
Andrew L. Cadmus, 
John M. Julian, 
George T. Blake, 
B. Fullerton Miles, 
Samuel C. Edmonds, 
William Wetherill, 
Reynell Coates, 
Samuel C. Thornton, Jr., 
Ezra Mundy Hunt, 
Ephraim Holmes, 
Samuel F. Fisler, 
John F. Grandin, 
George Goodell, 
Joshua B. Goodnough, 
E. 0. Dummer, 
Henry Morrill Stone, 
John Morgridge, 
John Kirby, 



granted by 0. H. Taylor, President. 

COUNTY. 
Warren, Univ. City of New Y<^rk. 
Hunterdon, " " 

Cumberland, Jefferson Med. Coll. 

" Univ. Penn'a. 

Gloucester, Jefferson Med. Coll. 
Burlington, Univ. of Penn'a. 
Chester, Pa. Jefferson Med. Coll. 

Mercer, 
a 

Bergen, 

Burlington, 

Hudson, 
a 

cc 

a 

ic 

Hunterdon, 
Camden, 

Atlantic, 

Hunterdon, 

Camden, 

Burlington, 

Middlesex, Univ. of New York. 

Cumberland, Jefferson Med Coll. 

Gloucester, " 



Univ. of Penn'a. 

Jefferson Med. Coll. 

Coll. Phys. and Surg. New York. 

Jefferson Med. Coll. 

Univ. of New York. 

Jefferson Med. Coll. 

Univ. New York. 
cc 

Coll. Phys. and Surgs. N. York. 

Univ. of New York. 

Jefferson Med. Coll. 
cc 

a 

Univ. of Penn'a. 
a 



Univ. of Penn'a. 
cc 

Univ. of New York. 

Jefferson Med. Coll. 

Univ. New York. 
Cumberland, Pennsylvania College. 
Salem, Univ. Penn'a. 



Hunterdon, 

Burlington, 

Monmouth, 

Bergen, 

Middlesex, 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 



205 



NAME. 


COUNTY. 




John H. Janeway, 


Middlesex, 


Univ. Penn'a. 


Jacob Elliott, 


Essex, 


Univ. New York. 


John V. Menah, 


Morris, 


Univ. of New York 


Stephen Weeks, 


Essex, 


Univ. Penn'a. 


William Bryan, 


Burlington, 


Penn'a. College. 


Jonathan S. Whittier, 


Salem, 


Jefferson Med. Coll 


William Pierson, Jr., 


Essex, 


Univ. New York. 



Thirty-nine by Diploma and Certificate. 



Diploma by Certificate of the Board of Censors, 



William B. Kibble, 


Morris, 


Ludwig Braun, 
Michael Moss, 


Essex, 
Passaic, 


Richard H. Page. 
William H. Day, 


Burlington, 
Hudson, 


Alfred S. Pettit, 


Monmouth, 


Henry Smith, Hunterdon, 
Joseph Cook, Salem, 
Eight by Certificate. 


Society adjourned. 





W. PIERSON, Rec. Sec, 



ADDRESS. 



Fellows and Members of the Medical Society of N. «/. 

Gentlemen — 

By your favorable and perhaps too partial appreciation, 
it becomes once more my duty to address you officially, at this, 
our Anniversary assembling : and I trust, where all are so famil- 
iarly conversant with the thousand heterogeneous calls upon 
the time and attention of the medical practitioner, it will not be 
necessary to deprecate a severe judgment upon the style of my 
remarks. 

"A fellow feeling makes us wondrous kind;" and if the sub- 
ject matter of my discourse should meet with your approbation : 
if it should elicit some noyel thought, and (which is more impor- 
tant) prompt us to novel actions, tending to increase the dignity 
of the medical profession, and advance the interests of the pub- 
lic, of which we are the servants, you will undoubtedly overlook 
mere faults of manner; for polished phrase and rhetorical orna- 
ment have seldom been promotive of the stern purposes of duty, 
or the harsh truths of science. 

On a former occasion, I had the ban, or to offer for your con- 
sideration, some speculations on the improvement of medical in^ 
structiou — a subject which for some years past, has attracted, 
and still continues to attract an unusual share of attention 
from the entire profession. I endeavoured to illustrate some of 
the duties pf this Society, and its broad constituency, as a local 
portion of the associated profession of the whole country, in re- 
lation to this vitally important subject ; and if these remarks, 
coupled with those of many co-labourers in the same field, have 
produced as yet, no practical result; let us hope that all the seeds 
of reform, scattered broadcast over the land, have not fallen on 

stony ground, but that the germs still sleep in a fertile soil await= 
26 



208 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

ing only the maturity of time, and the summer sunshine of op- 
portunity, to rise into the leaf, the flower, and the perfected fruit. 
The plough and the harrow vigorously employed, are essential 
to the luxuriance of the harvest, but a perpetual agitation of the 
ground may destroy what it is designed to foster. It is there- 
fore not my intention at present to renew the subject. 

There are numerous other questions not less closely interwo- 
ven with the public weal, which legitimately claim the attention 
of a scientific body, founded upon such authority, and destined 
to fulfil such functions, as the Medical Society of New Jersey. 

By our existing charter, modified as it has been recently, so as 
to relieve us from a portion of our responsibilities, by allowing 
us to recognize the Diplomas of the best Collegiate Schools of 
the country, without subjecting the holders to additional exami- 
nation, before admitting them to our fellowship, we are still not 
only the constituted guardians of the moral and the professional 
conduct of our fellow members, but also the legal protectors of 
the public health against the machinations of empirical preten- 
ders, who with better knowledge do not hesitate to pursue a 
dishonorable trade, by practicing upon the credulity of the un- 
enlightened. 

But here again it is not my purpose to tax your patience with 
a subject upon which I dwelt in a former address, in considera- 
ble detail. For our apparent neglect of duty in not prosecuting, 
according to law, these transgressors upon the rights, the pro- 
perty, and lives of the citizens of New Jersey, we are really less 
to blame than we at first sight seem to be. 

The honorable character of a liberal profession is appreciated 
only by the educated and enlightened portion of the communi- 
ty. The masses look upon the practice of medicine and the 
routine of ordinary trade, with equal eye; and the all powerful 
dollar, the true aim of the merchant, the farmer, and the me- 
chanic, is regarded as almost the chief object of the physician. 

The spirit of the Hippocratic oath, which, modified to meet 
the necessities of modern times, and the existing condition of 
society, still considered by ourselves, as binding upon every 
honorable member of our fraternity, is yet unknown to those 
beyond the pale. 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 209 

What wonder then, that every effort we may make to repress an 
evil of such magnitude as the unlicensed tampering with human 
life, however disinterested that effort may be, is attributed by 
the ill judging crowd to a sinister and selfish motive — the esta- 
blishment of a monopoly or trade ? But while complaining of 
such gross injustice — while we lament that the path of duty can 
only be pursued under the taunts and misconceptions which 
are of all things most painful to a noble mind, are we sure that 
the evil is incurable ? 

No effort has been spared, it is true, to awaken legislative at- 
tention to the propriety of protecting the public health, by laws 
established to restrain the unwarrantable assaults of ignorance, 
but the result has rarely proved permanently fortunate, and even 
when momentarily useful, the good has been not unfrequently, 
more than compensated by a consequent weakening of that re- 
spect, with which practitioners of the divine art have ever been 
honored, perhaps to a greater extent among savage tribes and 
in benighted communities, than in the most civilized conditions 
of society. 

For this mortifying fact, there must exist some adequate 
cause. Let us devote a moment to its investigation. The im- 
mediate cause of the evil seems obvious enough. We naturally 
seek it in the imperfection of the laws themselves, or the impro- 
per mode in which they have been executed. But the latter 
clause is included in the former, for the execution is determined 
by the statute. In the case before us, the execution of the laws 
against empiricism, is entrusted to ourselves ; and we, as has 
been before observed, have, found the attempt impracticable, ex- 
cept at a sacrifice of manly feeling, which even the community 
has scarcely the right to demand of any class of citizens. 

Do we not then trace the impunity of unlicensed empiricism 
back to the inherent imperfection of the laws ? But let us step 
one pace further in the train of causes. To what shall we at- 
tribute the existing imperfection of the laws for the regulation of 
medical practice ? In answer, let me ask, by whom are these 
enactments made ? By bodies of men, representing the mass of 
the community, from which we, when viewed professionally, 
stand forth more perfectly isolated than any other class. Our 



210 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

Science is recondite, "to the Jews a stumbling block, and to the 
Greeks foolishness." If a determining majority of legisla- 
tors were competent to judge a medical question, if they were 
themselves conversant with the wants of a medical education, 
and the delicate rules of medical ethics, the moral propriety of 
which is perceivable only by the initiated, they would then con- 
stitute no improper representation of their great constituency. 

Even the few legislators selected from our own ranks, have 
mostly relinquished the profession for another, and hardly com- 
patible one, before a long course of practical acquaintance with 
one difficulty has rendered them suitable advocates in our defence, 
and even were they in all respects qualified for the task, their 
feeble voices would be last in the roar of the great army of 
those who look upon medicine as a mere trade, and would go- 
vern it by mercantile rules alone. Again, in these latter days, 
the ranks of empiricism outnumber those of the regular prac- 
tice — they only are represented in the halls of legislation, and 
often wield their numerical power, far greater than our own. 
Would we wish it otherwise ? I trust that no American would 
be willing to urge a single argument against those institutions 
to which we owe all our prosperity as a people, however he 
may regret the serious evils which are occasionally observable 
in the operations of the system. 

Who would wish to expel the life-giving sun from the firma- 
ment, because his mid-summer arrows sometimes carry death 
in our midst, or because some spots abate the glory of his efful- 
gent radiance. Even if we could succeed in removing this ig- 
norance of our legislators upon subjects apart from the ordina- 
ry pursuits of men ; even if the wisest of legal restraints upon 
empiricism could be enacted, and effectually executed at our 
suggestion, though human life might be for a time more certain, 
yet in the present state of society, we should ultimately fail in 
our purpose. 

The enlightened masses, ever open to deception by pretend- 
ers, whos& vaunted claims they are unable to test or deny, 
would soon be taught to regard us as monopolists and arbitrary 
rulers; and in a country, in which., happily, the popular voice is 
law, all such restraints would be removed, or new and incom- 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 211 

patible enactments made, to the destruction of all order, so that 
the evils which we deprecate, would be enhanced instead of be- 
ing lightened. Let us look across the water. In Pennsylvania* 
the regular graduate holds no legal privileges, and many em- 
pirical sects have acknowledged legal organizations — their in- 
stitutions being endowed with corporate powers, secured by the 
same high authority that created the venerable University of 
that magnificent State. Is the profession, therefore, less respect- 
ed in the land of Penn, than here in our own Commonwealth ? 
Is it less efficient? 

In Delaware, an Association, like our own, exerted for many 
years, a similar healthful influence within the pale of the pro- 
fession. At length empiricism invaded the territory of our gal- 
lant little sister, and, somewhere about the year 1820, the Medi- 
cal Society, through one of its fellows, induced the legislature 
to bestow upon it certain examining powers, and to render its 
fellowship or its diploma requisite to the legal practice of medi- 
cine within the State. 

In small communities, changes of system are more easily and 
rapidly effected than in those of greater numerical strength, and 
the ultimate results of the grant of exclusive powers, to the re- 
gular members of the profession, in a country with democratic 
institutions, were demonstrated in Delaware more quickly than 
would have been possible in a larger State. Let us profit by 
her experience. The complaints and murmurs of the empirical 
practitioners excluded from legal rights by the grant just men- 
tioned, rose loud and high almost upon the instant. The legis- 
lative ear was wearied by their unceasing expostulations, and 
but two or three years elapsed, before another act was passed, 
which struck a deadly blow to the dignity of the profession, and 
in a great degree destroyed the usefulness of the Medical Socie- 
ty, as a guardian of the public health. 

The same immunities which were secured to the holders of 
diplomas from the most distinguished schools of the country, 
were extended by an express statute to those also who could 
produce diplomas from a Thomsonian College, and men who 
had devoted years to the duty of perfecting themselves in the 
knowledge of the multitude of sciences, which form the founda- 



212 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

tion of the art of healing, were forced into a species of an willing 
fellowship, with the unenlightened pupils of a school founded 
upon no science at all, with men whose vision is limited to one 
kingdom of nature alone; who, in their reasonings, if reasonings 
they can properly be called, repudiate all generalizations, 
and whose practice is reduced to the rule of purely empirical 
dicta. A temporary calm, it is true, followed this strange ac- 
tion of the legislature of a truly enlightened State. The Medi- 
cal Society struggled on, in the midst of the despondency result- 
ing from this broad insult to its dignity, and the complaints 
against the exclusive privileges of the regular, and one branch 
of the irregular profession were confined to those stragglers from 
the great army of empiricism, whose members were yet insuffi- 
cient to effect an organization under a collegiate head. 

But it was not to be expected that quietude could permanent- 
ly be established, while one division of irregulars were enfran- 
chised to the exclusion of all others. Thomsonian Colleges 
were succeeded by Homoeopathic Colleges, and, at a period a 
few years later, another law was passed, by which the immuni- 
ties granted to the devotees of the vegetable system were extend- 
ed also to the infinitesimalist. Indeed, this second proceeding was 
the inevitable consequence of its predecessor, for on no princi- 
ple of justice, could legal advantages, accorded to those who 
scoff at all science, be refused to those, who at least profess to 
found their practice upon a theory, though the better instructed 
may denounce that so called theory, as the unsubstantial shade 
of an hypothesis. 

The final effect of this wise legislation in Delaware, for the 
regulation of the practice of medicine, is this : The principle has 
been virtually established, that whenever any body of empirics 
shall succeed in obtaining corporate rights, as a medical school, 
through the philosophical ignorance of the law-makers in any 
State, the diploma of that school shall entitle the holder, 
to all the advantages conferred upon the regular practition- 
er, while the latter, in crder to claim the most honorable posi- 
tion in his proper fraternity, must incur the expense, and sub- 
mit to the restrictions consequent upon membership in the Me- 
dical Society, or the obtaining of its license— a tax upon learn- 
ing and an immunity for ignorance, 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY, 213 

These evils, gentlemen, have not fallen upon New Jersey, 
but let us candidly ask ourselves the reason. That like causes 
produce like effects, is an unalterable law of nature, and in due 
time, under the existing circumstances of society, this rigid ex- 
ercise of our legal powers, in the suppression of the practice of 
ignorant pretenders to skill in our art, would lead in all proba- 
bility to its legitimation by statute, here, as it did in Delaware. 
That this result has not already taken place, may be attributed 
perhaps as justly to our lenity in the exercise of our powers, as 
to the greater extent of our territory and the population, or to 
the superior wisdom of our rulers. 

It is fair then to conclude, that, if we would operate effective- 
ly and according to the spirit and intention of our foundation, in 
protecting our own respectability, and the health and life of the 
community against the constantly increasing assaults of empiri- 
cism, we must essay some mode of action, other than immediate 
appeals to legislative bodies, which are unfitted to judge wisely of 
the necessity of the case, and on which the popular constituency 
is still less enlightened. Does it not appear reasonable then, that 
if we wish ultimately to correct the errors of medical legislation 
which cause such just complaint — if we wish finally to esta- 
blish our professional rights, and elevate our craft to its proper 
position, as one of the most important classes of the community; 
we must begin by removing that unfortunate blindness of the 
masses, on all subjects relating to disease and Hygiene, which 
is the true source of these errors, and the general want of just 
appreciation under which we labor ? 

But how, it will be inquired, can this darkness be removed ? 
At first sight, the difficulty of the question really appears insur- 
mountable, but may not some of these difficulties originate in 
errors of our own ? 'Tis true, we cannot indoctrinate the mass- 
es safely with correct medical theories. We cannot venture to 
argue before such an audience, the propriety of various plans of 
treatment of disease, and the relative merits of conflicting opin- 
ions in our science, from the fact that even our very language 
would be as unintelligible to our hearers, as the technicalities of 
a sailor to the landsman, whose footsteps never trod the deck of 
a vessel. There exists no pursuit to which the precept of an 



214 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

eminent poet, "A little learning is a dangerous thing," is more 
applicable than to the practical department of our noble calling; 
and it would be folly to advise the general public "to drink 
deep or taste not" here, for so numerous are the ramifications — 
so vast is the extent and complication of our art, that the exclu- 
sive devotion of our time, and the occupancy of many years in 
study and close observation, are necessary to fit the novice for 
an entrance, even into the vestibule of the temple of Esculapius. 
But modern experience manifestly evinces, that the popular 
teaching of the first principles of the science of life is not only 
practicable, but highly useful. In many academies, and even 
primary schools, the outlines of physiology are now considered 
a necessary portion of the regular course of elementary instruc- 
tion, and the application of sound physiological principles to the 
art of preserving health, and the development of mental powers 
has been the subject of numerous addresses to mixed audiences. 
These efforts have proved no less beneficial to the public, than 
conducive to the fame and the fortune of the pioneers in this 
department of instruction. 

Drawing without stint upon the inexhaustible mines of nature, 
for the richest and most interesting illustrations upon the vege- 
table world, in its boundless variety of forms, from the lichen 
or scarcely visible conferva, to the cloud-piercing Californian 
pine, or the thousand trunked Indian Banian — upon the ani- 
mal creation, from the jelly-like polype, with all its functions, 
equally diffused throughout its simple cellular body, to man, in 
all the fearful and mysterious complexity of his organization — 
the elements of physiology, when properly treated by a master- 
hand, possess the power of enhancing the popular attention of 
both youth and age, the lettered and unlettered, in a greater de- 
gree than those of any other science. 

May not we find then, in the more general circulation of a 
knowledge of the first principles of life, a more available barrier 
against the progress of empiricism, than even the majesty of the 
law has yet been able to erect? May we not by enlightening 
the masses, the constituency of our political representation, 
pave the way for the election of legislators, who may wisely 
enact laws for the preservation of the public health ? May we not 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY, 215 

become the creators of an enlightened public opinion, which 
will support such laws above the contamination of ignorance 
and the assaults of unprincipled acquisitiveness ? Or, failing in 
thus correcting the inherent imperfections of Medical and Hy- 
gienic laws, may we not at least fall back upon this newly en- 
lightened public opinion, for protection against the evils of 
which we so justly complain ? 

By being made familiar with the extreme variety and delica- 
cy of the machinery of life, and with the curious interlinkings of 
the numerous functions required for the accomplishment of what 
seems to the uninstructed, the simplest operations of vitality in 
health, the now uninformed public, would be taught duly to ap- 
preciate the grasp of mind, the profundity of study, and the 
keenness of tact, that are requisite to fit the medical philosopher 
to solve the simplest problems even in the thepry of health. 
Would that public then consent to entrust the ignorant or half 
informed, with the power to tamper with the springs and wheels 
Qf God's master machine, the human frame, in the vastly more 
complex conditions resulting from disease, with its ten thousand 
aberrating sympathies ? What man, the owner of a Cotton 
Mill or a watch, finding an error in the apparatus, threatening 
his mere personal interest, would appeal to the shoemaker or 
the merchant for its repair or regulation ? What man, in doubjt 
as to his eternal welfare, and confused by conflicting theplogica} 
opinions, would fly to the practitioner at the bar, in order to 
unravel his doubt of conscience ? 

It cannot be supposed then, that a public properly enlightened 
on the subject of the laws of life, would continue to put confi- 
dence in men divested of preliminary education, drawn from the 
humbler walks of life, from the stable or work -shop, and after 
fifteen months or perhaps two years of partial study under one 
sicfed teachers, sent fprth with a legal but ridiculous diplopia, to, 
practice on the lives and hearts of parents, children, husbands, 
and wives, on all the indiyidual interests and domestic ties, whicli 
alone render life desirable in this sublunary scene of physipal 
suffering. 

Let us suppose some individual of inquiring mind, but unpro- 
fessional occupation, to have availed himself of an offered op- 
27 



216 TRANS ACTIONS OF THE 

portunity of attending a really philosophical course of popular 
lectures, upon the principles of physiology and hygiene, when 
the knife of the lecturer, acting perhaps on the body of some 
brute animal, in condescension to the natural aversion from hu- 
man dissection, has laid bare before him, in one broad view, the 
almost infinite complexity of bones, muscles, nerves, vessels, 
viscera and tissues, and reacting to a common purpose in the 
most ordinary operations of daily life. When this inquirer finds 
that all his efforts, short of years of exertion, would fail to fix 
upon his memory the details involved in the performance of any 
general function ; would he dare to trust the simplest external 
injury of any gravity, to the management of the natural bone- 
setter who becomes a surgeon by intuition? When taught 
that the severest pain in the head may result from a concealed 
irritation of the stomach — that the most dangerous fever may be 
merely a symptom of a pin-scratch on the toe, too slight to at- 
tract the attention of the patient, will he repose confidence in 
an arrogant sect who prescribe only for symptoms, and advocate 
the doctrine " similia similibus curantur." Even to suppose the 
possibility of such results, is to deny the impress of rationality, 
stamped by his Maker upon man. 

I have always entertained the opinion, that it was possible 
for practitioners of our profession, by the natural effects of the 
habit of looking at the "res angusta domi," to become near 
sighted, as the over attentive school-boy does, when he robs 
himself of his natural rest, and devotes himself unceasingly to 
his wearying pages, in order to win the honor of some far dis- 
tant prize. The "otium cum dignitate" of a professional old 
age, is the wisest as well as the most rational object of every 
one who wastes the energies of early and middle life, in the self- 
sacrificing and exhausting duties of our calling, and it behooves 
us to be careful in struggling too constantly, though with hono- 
rable feelings after this most desirable result, that we should not 
permit ourselves to overlook those opportunities of usefulness, 
which occur on either hand, though they may be at some little 
distance from our immediate path. 

The members of a truly liberal profession should never for a 
moment forget, that to communicate knowledge, is to repay the 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 217 

Gods. Who is there among us, that does not acknowledge the 
sentiment of Seneca ? 

" Si cum hac exceptione detur 
Sapientia, ut reclusam teneam, 
Nee enunciam rejiciam." 

"If wisdom were given me, upon the condition that I should 
keep it to myself, and not proclaim it, I would reject it." 

There is nothing in the nature of the subject, that renders the 
study of physiology unfit for a wise system of popular instruc- 
tion. There is no danger that a little knowledge of this kind, 
would engender that rashness, which too commonly leads the 
half educated student of pathological hypothesis and therapeuti- 
cal dogmas, to tamper with disease in his own case, upon the 
principle, that every man best understands his own constitution, 
or to thrust himself before the public, as a practitioner of the 
healing art, armed with a diploma from some institution mis- 
called scientific, whose professors, wise in their own experience, 
reject the experience of ages. The influence of the diffusion of 
physiological knowledge would be precisely the reverse of this, 
and it may well be doubted whether among the causes of the 
growth of empiricism in a country where all men read — where 
every cottage has its book shelves, there is one cause more pro- 
lific than the neglect of the science of healthful, living actions, 
even in the schools devoted to pathology. 

The learned and far-seeing Dr. Benjamin Rush — one of the 
" fathers of American Medicine," was thoroughly imbued with 
the importance of the principles and policy which have just been 
indicated, and, carrying his views perhaps a little too far, most 
strenuously advocated the diffusion of a portion of practical me- 
dical knowledge, as well as hygienic theory among the people. 
He did so on the avowed principle, that such a course would be 
the most successful means of retarding the march of Quackery, 
which, if alarming in his day, is vastly more so now. His opin- 
ions on this subject, may be detected in his introductory lec- 
tures, which were addressed not exclusively to the medical 
class, but to mixed audiences, invited to be present at their pub- 
lic presentation, and we are informed that many of these lec- 
tures, were read in private circles for criticism? comment, and 



£i8 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

suggested corrimendation, even before their delivery in the Uni- 
versity. Many of those who enjoyed the happiness of a perso- 
nal acquaintance with this truly great man, and who still re- 
main among the living, retain a vivid recollection of his gen- 
eral advocacy of this policy, and his condescending efforts, safely 
to break down all unnecessary barriers between the medical 
profession and the great mass of society. It may be well ques- 
tioned, whether the profession has not retrograded in opinion 
on this subject, since his death. 

In the beautiful code of medical ethics, derived from the essay 
of the celebrated Dr. Percival, and modified to meet the re- 
quirements of this age and country, by the American Medical 
Association, (a code by the spirit of which, all regular and 
honorable practitioners acknowledge themselves morally and 
solemnly bound,) — we find most Wisely condemned. the sinister 
arts of those, who employ secresy, the advertisements of special 
pretension, or the preservation of patent or mercantile rights, in 
any thing relating to medical or surgical practice. We find also 
the courtesies due from One Physician to another, correctly esta- 
blished, and not only the duties which the profession owes to the 
public, but those which the public owes to the profession, stated 
and made the subject of Comment ; but we do not find any sug- 
gestions of the propriety of diffusing among the people, the 
knowledge that would render such sinister arts ineffectual, and 
such selfishness opprobrious with the masses. Of what avail is 
it, that we should address to" ourselves grave commentaries oh 
the respect and consideration, that the uninitiated owe to the 
practitioner of a liberal and dignified art ? If we would influ- 
ence the conduct of others towards us, surely, we should direct 
our reasonings to them, rather than to our brethren, to whom 
such disquisitions can bring no added light. 

It is with all becoming modesty, that I venture these, perhaps, 
unpopular suggestions, but it does appear to me, that by draw- 
ing too distinctly the necessary lines which separate us as a 
body, from the great circle of our fellow citizens, we may lay 
.ourselves open to misconstructions, and promote the evils of which 
we complain. And yet it must be confessed, that there is little 
use in dwelling upon mere generalities, in relation to this sub- 
ject. 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 219" 

This discourse would be unworthy of your acceptance, and 
the time which it has occupied sadly misspent, were I not to at* 
tempt, at least, to give a somewhat utilitarian direction to the 
suggestions which have been thrown out. This then, I shall 
endeavor in a few words to do. 

The wide diffusion of scientific and literary information 
throughout New England is proverbial, and (let me not be con- 
sidered as making the remark invidiously), while that portion 
of the Union has contributed her full quota to the ranks 
of quackery in other States, her people thus enlightened, are 
less easily duped by ignorant pretenders at home. 

This happy immunity, she owes, before all other things, to her 
admirable system of Lyceums. There is no city — there is 
scarcely a village in her broad domain, that cannot boast an in-* 
stitution of this character, in which throughout the long winter 
evenings, a series of weekly lectures is delivered. 

These lectures are attended, not only by the male population 
of adult age and refined education, but by females and children* 
apprentices and factory girls. Side by side with wealth and 
fashion, sit the humble operative and modest domestic ; acquir- 
ing by imitation and observation, habits of order and amenity 
of manners, while drinking in rich draughts of knowledge, be it 
from the more sparkling streams of polite literature, or the 
deeper currents of science, as they pour forth from the minds of 
some of the most talented thinkers of the age. 

Till recently it is true, that History* Poetry and the Drama, 
have enjoyed too large a share of attention from the peripatetic 
teachers of the north, while the physical philosophy of life, has 
been too much slighted by the more learned lecturers of the day* 
and has been entrusted in many instances to incompetent 
hands, probably in consequence of this very disposition of which 
I venture to complain, the desire to retain all knowledge of the 
sciences collateral with medicine within the pale of the profes- 
sion. Fortunately, however, this evil is now on the wane in 
New England. 

The enthusiasm attendant upon the advent of M. Agassiz the 
accomplished Swiss naturalist, who was recently connected with 
Harvard University, has rendered popular, far deeper researches 



220 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

into the arcana of nature, and now some of the most distin- 
guished scholars of the day, are occasionally engaged in diffus- 
ing a knowledge of the laws of the animal economy, through 
the medium of Lyceum Lectures. 

If then, under such unfavorable circumstances, this mode of 
furnishing proper mental aliment to the youth of the Northern 
States, was found effective, not only in restraining the vices re- 
sulting from the absence of rational amusement, at an age when 
mental inactivity is utterly impossible, but also in limiting the 
domain of empiricism, by the enlightenment of its victims — 
much more may we anticipate from the novel impetus given to 
the study of nature, during the last few years. 

And why should these advantages of the Lyceum system be 
confined to the New England States ? Is New Jersey too poor 
to imitate their laudable example ? It is true, that a few of our 
larger towns may boast of institutions similar in name and per- 
haps somewhat analogous in purpose ; but even in these, there 
is a radical defect of system, destructive of their usefulness. 

The funds of the midland or Southern Lyceums are devoted 
exclusively to the maintenance of a library, a hall, and perhaps 
a cabinet of curiosities. Not a dollar of the income, is usually 
devoted to the remuneration of that talent which is selected for 
the purposes of public instruction within its walls. The honor 
of addressing a few hundred individuals, is the bribe held out 
to induce some men of intellectual distinction, to travel perhaps 
at their own expense, it may be, from some far distant city, to lec- 
ture at a small provincial town. 

But let us suppose that public spirit and disinterested desire 
for usefulness should sometimes lead able men to make the ne- 
cessary sacrifice, and devote a portion of their leisure to the en- 
lightenment of their benighted fellow citizens, in this manner. It 
should be remembered that men of science are proverbially poor 
— the very nature of their studies compelling them to be so. Is 
it then to be supposed that such will sacrifice sufficient time and 
gratuitously meet the expense of necessary illustrations, for a 
course sufficiently extensive to develope the elements of any 
.branch of human learning, in a practical and useful manner ? 

Our Lyceum courses are composed of a series of disconnected 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 221 

lectures on the most heterogeneous subjects, from which little- 
practical and no scientific knowledge can be acquired. The 
History of Greece — the Philosophy of Life, — the Nature of 
Things — the Value of Education, — and a thousand other genera- 
lities, each wide enough to require for its proper elucidation a 
month of time, are seized upon as subjects for discourses of an 
hour, and the orator, cut off from the possibility of teaching, 
must content himself with a mere personal display of elocution 
to the amusement of an audience, that quits the Hall, with per- 
haps a lively impression of the grace or awkwardness of the 
speaker — but a most dream-like and misty conception of his 
theme. Our eastern neighbors are wiser — with them a portion of 
the income of Lyceums is invariably appropriated to the payment 
of a consideration to the lecturer — which he must receive, before 
he is permitted to leave the apartment. No matter how hum- 
ble the offering be, (and it varies in different towns from five to 
twenty, and even thirty dollars) it is not material how wealthy 
the recipient, it cannot be declined without offence. A refusal 
is met by one or two retorts, either the objector is politely re- 
minded that he has no legitimate right, to force upon the public 
an obligation, under which that public does not wish to rest, or 
he is told, and sometimes with much feeling, that the accident 
of fortune does not warrant the wealthy, in bringing a blush to 
the cheeks of talent perhaps quite as useful, though less happily 
endowed with means, by giving to the payment of a just debt, 
the air of gratuity. 

Two noble results follow from this custom in New England 
on the principal that whatever is paid for is prized. Her au- 
diences are vastly more attentive, than those which are ad- 
dressed gratuitously; and on the principle that labor duly com- 
pensated, is usually well done, the quality of the discourses 
and their practical usefulness is astonishingly enhanced. Sub- 
jects that require time for their proper elucidation, are much 
more fully discussed, and connected courses embracing many 
lectures by the same individual, before popular and village au- 
diences, are of common occurrence. 

Small as is the compensation given for each course, its con- 
sentaneous delivery, in each of four or five adjacent towns, ren= 



222 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

ders the total remuneration sufficient to the end in view, and 
many admirable scholars, in the eastern States habitually real- 
ize a competency, mainly by the most useful process of peripa- 
tetic teaching. 

The formation of a similar system for our State, is surely not 
beneath the contemplation of this Society, and would prove in 
its hands and under its patronage, not only a powerful lever 
for the moral advancement of the community, but, if rightly di- 
rected to the spreading of a knowledge of physiological truth, 
a most efficient means of curtailing the practice of empiricism, 
and elevating the popular estimate of the dignity of the profes- 
sion. 

By railroads and other facilities of recent date, most of our 
smaller towns and villages are drawn into close communication 
in point of time and easy transport. Most of them are provided 
with Halls for the use of societies, and fixtures adapted to the 
business of lecturing, available for public purposes at a very rea- 
sonable rate, so that, there is no town of a thousand inhabitants 
that could not conveniently afford such a subscription, as would 
yield five or even ten dollars for each, of twelve lectures, which 
would constitute a weekly course during three months, when 
business is at a stand and the public are anxious for mental 
improvement. 

Let the people of any neighborhood be once convinced, that 
knowledge of real and practical utility could thus be economi- 
cally obtained, in place of the display and idle verbiage too fre- 
quently offered them, under the present system, and their wil- 
lingness to move in the matter, would undoubtedly be found 
fully equal to their obvious ability. 

And, members of the Medical Society, shall we not — are we not 
in duty bound to be up and doing in this really important work ? 
Each of us, in his proper sphere, possesses an influence sufficient 
for the initiative step. Within our own pale, there is adequate 
energy and talent to carry it out to a happy and most useful 
issue. Let us devote some thought to the question, and, after 
examining the premises, resolve to act. Assuredly if we suc- 
ceed, we shall win from a grateful public the acknowledgment 
of important services, and even in case of failure, we shall be 



STEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 223 

cheered with the consciousness of having deserved its thanks. 

But there is yet another and a parallel mode, in which this 
Society may promote its own just reputation, and advance, 
to an incalculable extent, the diffusion of knowledge, while 
struggling for the suppression of empiricism and its consequent 
evils. Our vision need not be restricted to the present generation. 
Corporations are not limited like individuals, to a life of three 
score and ten. They endure through after ages and may legiti- 
mately look to the interests of our yet unborn successors. If, by 
the regulation of Lyceums we can remove in some degree the 
errors of ignorance among the people of the present day, 
through the influence of the common school, we may act upon 
the people of to-morrow. By arming our youth with a rational 
knowledge of the philosophy of life, we purify the very founda- 
tions of intelligence and precipitate those adulterations, on which 
the destructive animalculae of empiricism depend for their 
support. 

Physiological studies have gradually been forced to a certain 
extent, into the school systems of other States, but no where, so 
far as I am informed, has the medical profession as a body, ex- 
erted its legitimate influence, in the regulation of popular in-? 
struction. If it be right to employ our aid and powers in favor 
of Lyceums, it cannot be less so, to attempt a reform in this di^ 
rection also. 

Now, New Jersey stands unenviably distinguished among her 
sisters, by the total absence of well regulated public schools, un- 
der the direction of her Legislature. The small fund which she 
annually appropriates in aid of the voluntary taxation of the 
local districts for the purposes of education, bears no proportion 
either to the wealth or population of the State, when compared 
with those by which she is surrounded. The isolated and ill- 
regulated efforts of her citizens in this direction are divested of 
all unity and approach to system. 

How small an exertion on the part of this Society, during the 
last session of her Assembly, would have removed the blot from 
her escutcheon, and would have supplied the means, at least, if 
not the wisdom of arrangement necessary to effect a thorough 

reformation. A proposition to appropriate to the School Func[ 

28 ' 



224 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

of the State, the income tax on roads (a fund amounting now 
to nearly one hundred and thirty thousand dollars, and constant- 
ly increasing), is said to have been lost in the Senate by a single 
vote. Cannot a Medical Society, in which so much State pride 
is felt, determine a single vote among the conscript fathers? One 
effort — one little struggle — and the victory would be won. 

But it is not sufficient that we should advocate the appropria- 
tion of adequate means. We should also take an interest in the 
law by which the application of these means may be determined. 
To be effective, the School System must be rendered uniform in 
principle throughout our territory, without attempting to make 
a railroad of the human mind, and to bind every child in the 
commonwealth to one routine of study, and one set of class 
books after the Austrian mode ; each should be thoroughly in- 
structed in the elements of those practical sciences, which have 
direct relation to the duties of American citizen, whether econo- 
mical, political, social, or moral, while the refinements of 
classical and polite knowledge, so ameliorating and humanizing 
in their influence, should not be neglected. They should be 
subordinate to the more immediate claims of pure utility, in- 
stead of being made to appear, as they usually are, the 
end and purpose, rather than the ornament of a genuine educa- 
tion. Among the truly useful sciences, none are more appro- 
priate — none are more indispensable in a wise system of public 
instruction, than physiology and the kindred subjects of Hy- 
giene. It is our duty to see that their claims are duly recogniz- 
ed and effectually defended. 

But no such uniform system is practicable unless the machi- 
nery be under the direction of some competent individual head. 
It cannot be established by the disconnected efforts of scattered 
townships, but should be regulated by a general law, and placed 
under the jurisdiction of an able Secretary of Instruction, whose 
arduous duties should receive a reasonable compensation. 

And now, having fulfilled the task allotted, in a manner 
which at first glance, may not appear so technical and exclu- 
sively professional, as the occasion might seem to require ; allow 
me in self defence, to remind our fellow citizens, who, as invited 
guests, may have honored this somewhat dull address with a 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 225 

patient hearing, that this Society, being a creature of the law, 
with legal purposes, has other duties to perform than those 
which relate directly to the science upon which rests the art of 
healing. Its obligations to the community extend, to collateral as 
well as immediate measures, that are connected with the pre- 
servation of the public health, and it would be severely censur- 
able were it to rest satisfied with a near-sighted view of its re- 
sponsibilities ; confining its attention exclusively to those af- 
fairs which immediately affect the purse of the individual honor 
of its members. 

The soldier on the field of battle — the clergymen in the pulpit 
— the lawyer at the bar, does not lose the character of the pri- 
vate citizen, in assuming a position that isolated him from the 
mass as a constituent of a peculiar class; and why should the 
medical practitioner be more widely removed from the broad 
fellowship of his kind ? On questions of constitutional impor- 
tance — the bar, as a body proper exerts a permanent influence. 
Wisely the clergy of all denominations participate in every pub- 
lic measure designed for the purification of the morals of socie- 
ty ; urging by the combined force of their character and energy, 
the measures which they deem most essential to the well-being 
of the human soul, even in the forum and before the conscript 
fathers. 

Why then should not the corporate faculty of our peculiar art 
be felt in legislative halls, when questions arise that affect the 
very organization of the human frame, the structure and func- 
tional power of that mysterious engine, by which the soul of 
man is brought into relation with external things ? While the 
law deals with the purse, the capital of the vast workshop of 
Society, and regulates the application of its labour, while reli- 
gion prescribes the moral duties of the swarming operatives, 
and gently bends the multiform results to the honor and the dig- 
nity of the divine architect owner — to medicine belongs the task 
of keeping the machine in order, and of directing the repairs, 
without which all would be confusion, crash and terrible explo- 
sions. 

" Mens sana in corpore sano," is an adage as ancient a^ it is 
true, and as the want of proper mental culture, whether in early 



226 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

childhood, when the brain is forming, or in adult age, when 
time is wearing its wheels, must weaken or destroy the regular 
movements of the most complex apparatus ; to us belongs the 
paramount necessity of the guardianship of that education, 
which forms the human mind. Without our aid — without a 
diffusion of the knowledge of the physiological laws of life, the 
lever by which religion carries out the great ends of existence, 
cannot fulfil the proper functions, nor all the wisdom of the law 
prevent the overthrow of order among the teeming millions of 
ill-directed agents. 

And now in conclusion, let me deprecate all possible censure 
from those, who perchance may be present, and whose duty it 
js to make laws for our highly favored State. We thank them 
for their patient and long enduring courtesy, in listening to a dis- 
course, which in its very nature precludes all eloquence. One 
in which oratorical ornament would have been impertinent, as 
calling off attention from the practical and serious bearing of the 
subject 

It has been no part of our design to encroach, in the least de- 
gree upon their proper province, but as a citizen of that free and 
happy country, in which the humblest voter is a portion of the 
sovereignty, I have but endeavored to direct the attention of a 
somewhat exclusive class, to the objects of duty and circles of 
legitimate exertion in a wider and more general interest. 

And to you, gentlemen of the New Jersey Medical Society, 
let me apologise for any disappointment yon may feel, in the se- 
lection on this occasion of a subject^ so foreign from the usual 
routine of our annual addresses. 

If from the suggestions now thrown out, you should be in- 
duced first to reflect and then to act upon the great questions 
thus crudely stated, I am convinced, that even the more imme- 
diate results would cheer you with the consciousness of having 
acted well. You will have stricken a blow at the root of empi- 
ricism, instead of idly lopping off the topmost branches of a tree, 
that bourgeons faster than we with all our axes, are able to cur- 
tail it. And in this honorable struggle you will no longer meet the 
opprobrium, or the suspicion of interested motives, that has ever 
followed our previous attempts. Here, the community goes 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY, 227 

with you, not against you, and all now present, be they guests 
or members, with thousands beyond this hall, moved by our 
influence — thousands in future years, will bless the day, when 
the embodied medical profession of New Jersey, stepping forth 
from its beaten path, shall erect the banner of popular educa- 
tion, and without transcending its legitimate powers, shall awa- 
ken to the full perception of the beauty of that noble saying of 
Terence — 

" Homo sum, et humani, nihil a me slienum puto." 



REPORT OF STANDING COMMITTEE. 



In Chapter II, Section 7 of the By-Laws of the State Medical Society, it 
is made the duty of the Standing Committee, "at every anniversary meeting 
to report the general state of health of the citizens of New Jersey, dur- 
ing the preceding year, the causes, nature, and cure of epidemics (if any 
have prevailed,) in any part of the State, curious medical facts, discove- 
ries, and remarkable cases that may have come to their knowledge." 
"And that these several objects may be promoted, it shall be the duty of 
each of the several District Medical Societies, at its annual meeting, to 
appoint one of the members as a reporter, who shall be required to fur- 
nish the Standing Committee, on or before the first day of January of 
every year, with all the information which may present relative to these 
subjects, within the bounds of the District Society to which he belongs/' 
There are fourteen District Societies in the State of New Jersey, from 
none of which have any reports been received. Your committee there- 
fore infer, that the citizens of our State have enjoyed an unusual degree 
of their wonted health, during the past year. Our immediate predeces- 
sors received reports from seven Counties, which formed the basis of their 
Report. It was the intention of your present Committee to have pursued 
the same course, and they have waited in expectation of receiving the 
county reports, until it was too late to offer any extended observations of 
their own. They have no knowledge of any epidemics that may have 
existed in our State, neither have any curious medical facts, discoveries, 
or remarkable cures, come to their knowledge, nor have any irregulari- 
ties, neglect or contempt of the rules and regulations of the Medical So- 
ciety been reported to them, consequently their Report must be entirely 
barren of the objects of their appointment. 

Your Committee are of the opinion that the plan of appointing district 
reporters to report to the Standing Committee, has not answered the ex- 
pectations of those who suggested it, from the fact of the carelessness or 
remissness of duty, that exists in regard to it. The District Societies 
have either neglected to appoint their reporter, or the reporters have 
failed in the discharge of their duty. 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 229 

Your Committee would suggest the following alteration. Let each 
reporter when appointed be ex-officio a member of the Medical Society 
of New Jersey, let it be expected of him that he will faithfully report 
everything relative to the objects of his appointment within his county, 
and it will be expected of him, at the annual meeting of the State 
Society to read his report. This plan has been adopted by other 
State Societies, and operates well. Your Committee believe that this 
plan would insure full reports from all our District Societies, and would 
greatly add to the interest of our annual meetings. Besides, we should 
then obtain a knowledge of epidemics, their causes and cure, and the best 
interests of humanity, the object of the medical profession, would be 
greatly subserved thereby ^ 

Your Committee would also suggest, that hereafter the Standing Com- 
mittee be appointed, so that its members shall all reside in one county, or 
at least so near each other, that they can meet as often as may be neces- 
sary to fulfil the duties of their appointment; as it is at present, it is imprac- 
ticable, from the fact of the members living so remote from each other, for 
the committee to have a meeting and consult how their duties may best 
be discharged. The labors of the committee would be comparatively 
easy, did they reside near each other. 

Epidemics have doubtless occurred in some localities during the past 
year, a faithful history of which would prove valuable to the profession 
and beneficial to the community at large. 

The Standing Committee of last year referred to the report from Glou- 
cester, " of the prevalence in that locality of a disposition to purulent de- 
posits in the external tissues of the body." Since that time, this dispo- 
sition has spread, and now exists in an epidemic form in many parts of 
the State of New Jersey. It is believed to be increasing, and although 
apparently a mild disease, evidences of its fatality in some some instances 
are not wanting, yet it is worthy of notice from its extensive prevalence ; 
and " what is most singular it appears to have broken out in the four 
quarters of the globe at one and the same time, and to have been influ- 
enced in its rise and progress by one universal cause." 

Thomas Hunt, F. K. C. S., Surgeon to the "Western Dispensary for dis- 
eases of the Skin, has published in several late numbers of the London 
Lancet, a very interesting series of papers "on Carbuncles and Boils with 
especial reference to their prevalence as an Epidemic." These papers 
contain all the necessary information relative to the history, pathology, 
and treatment of the epidemic, and are well worthy of being read by the 



230 TRANSACTIONS, ETC. 

profession. Your committee are not aware, that any other general epi- 
demic has been prevalent since our last meeting. 

The Committee would notice, with feelings of regret, the decease of 
our first Vice President, Dr. James Paul, In this visitation of Provi- 
dence the Society has lost one of its valued members; one who felt a deep 
interest in its prosperity, and who contributed largely of his personal ef- 
forts to promote its success ; and it is due to his memory, that some suita- 
ble tribute of respect be paid by this Society in remembrance of his mo- 
ral excellencies and scientific attainments. 

We have reason to believe that there is still an increasing interest, in 
most of our District Societies, the attendance at their meetings is general- 
ly large ; and they are becoming more useful to the profession, from the 
fact that their primary object is now an interchange of professional ex- 
perience and observation. The course of medicine in our State is on- 
ward, and the profession generally keep pace with its progress, and no 
means is more successful in accomplishing this result, than a well 
organized District Society. 

The Committee notice with pleasure, the effort being made to establish 
a Medical Institute at Burlington, and we are of the opinion, that if the 
effort is successful, it will do much to elevate the character and standing 
of the medical profession of New Jersey. Prom the known reputation of 
most of the gentlemen engaged in the enterprise, we would commend it 
to the profession as worthy their patronage and support. We would also 
unite in the recommendation of several preceding Committees, on the im- 
portance of medical men extending their patronage and support to the New 
Jersey Medical Reporter. As that journal is at present conducted, it is a 
credit to our State, and if the profession of New Jersey would counte- 
nance and support the Reporter, as they ought, we should then have 
a journal that would compare favorably with any other — at present 
published monthly, at the same terms — in this country. It is therefore 
hoped, that the medical men of this State will see their true interest, and 
extend to this Periodical that support of which it is worthy. 

GEORGE P. REX, 
January, 1853. Chairman of Standing Com. 



REPORT 

On the effects of Mercurial Preparations on the Living 
Animal Tissues : read by James B. Coleman, M. D., Chair- 
man of Committee. 

Animal formations being composed ultimately, of specific organized ar- 
rangements, these arrangements must be regarded in determining dis- 
eased as well as healthy action. 

The composition, or chemical elements of these formations, hold speci- 
fic relations to the agents taken into the circulation. 

Substances acknowledged as remedies in disease, are safe or dangerous, 
according to their chemical constitution. 

Mercury has never been properly regarded in its chemical action upon 
the ultimate structures. 

To investigate the action of mercurial preparations upon the living 
animal tissues, we must be governed by the foregoing propositions. We 
must begin with the organic rudiments, and trace the formations through 
their various phases of development. The molecules, their chemical ele- 
ments, and their vital affinities, are the points to be considered ; for with 
living, as with dead matter, changes in composition take place only be- 
tween atoms. 

The nitrogenous compounds constitute a group of formative principles. 
They embrace nerve, muscle, glandular matter, and the soft tissues gene- 
rally. The carbonaceous and earthy compounds, including fatty matter 
and bone, proceeding indirectly from the action of the nitrogenous group, 
do not immediately concern this investigation. It is in the nitrogenous 
group that we see the extreme point of organization. This, in the em- 
bryo, is a cell, composed of membrane, surrounding a fluid, containing a 
nucleus. When observed separately, there are but few marks to deter- 
mine whether it be of vegetable or animal origin, or what part it is to 
fill in the myriad groups of organized existences. Yet in that cell there 
is some force which determines the character of the individual to which 
it belongs, and not only the individual, but the specific organ in which it 
is to be deposited. By an effort peculiar to each cell, it selects elements 
of its kind from the fluids of circulation, and arranges a structure that 
soon appears in some of the acknowledged forms of organized tissue. In 
whatever way we regard the cell influence, in the changes from the em- 
bryonic state, to the perfect maturity of the individual, the fact cannot 
29 



232 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

be doubted, that the cell nucleus, its nitrogenous centre of vitality, its 
predetermining formative principle, still exists, whether surrounded by a 
fluid, as in the soft rudimental stage of the embryo, or the indurated tis- 
sues of the adult. It is reasonable to believe that it is at this point 
many diseases begin, which show themselves afterwards by violent 
symptoms in the more obvious structures. To suppose the contrary is to 
disavow the chemistry of life. If there be sufficient force in these mole- 
cules to form the young, and if it be from them alone, that the matured 
perfect animal has been constructed, and by them that he is continued, 
exhibiting all the phenomena of vitality, we cannot regard their derange- 
ment as unimportant in correct pathology. 

The formative cell, or ultimate molecule, is derived from the blood, in 
which its proximate elements exist, with other combinations of organic 
compounds. These organic elements, in a healthy and properly nourish- 
ed animal, are favorable to its proper affinities, and final arrangement. It 
is the uninterrupted play of these affinities of the ultimate molecules, that 
produces healthy tissue, and it is again, the influence of these tissues 
upon each other, arranging the organs and their appendages, which 
constitutes a perfect being, exhibiting all the varied phenomena of organi- 
zed existence. The organizing influence first seen in the cell, may be 
vitiated by the fluids of circulation when they contain disorganizing che- 
mical agents. The extreme sensitiveness, which enables them to select, 
with a vital discrimination, elements essential to their further develop- 
ment, is blunted and destroyed. Some may suffer more than others, ac- 
cording to their more delicate combination of elements, and such tissues 
as are formed by them, may be most easily affected by the foreign bodies 
in the circulation. The organizing molecule may be indirectly deranged 
and destroyed,, by alterations of the grosser structures, such as are affect- 
ed by mechanical violence, or other causes that have power to change 
the anatomical relations of tissues. 

All organic derangements, attended by a changed condition of the 
functions of an organ, are more open to the observation of the physician, 
than those which interfere with the formative elements. From the ex- 
tent of the phenomena they exhibit, they offer more for treatment. Re- 
acting upon associated parts, and deranging their forces, whatever reme- 
dy experience has proved to have power to depress exalted, or stimulate 
depressed action in any organ, is resorted to, as one or the other con- 
dition prevails. This frequently answers the end — functions seem to re-,- 
surne jtheir natural condition, and the patient is, afterward, apparently 
^fell Whether the treatment b.a,s been that which a correct discrinii? 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 233 

nation would have adopted, remains questionable. The result does not 
prove its propriety. There are powers of life, beyond the temporary in- 
terference of remedies, that will remove obstructions and heal lesions. It 
is unnecessary, in an article of this kind, to refer to fa mi liar illustrations. 
Gross mechanical obstructions, such as indigestible substances in the 
alimentary canal — obstructions of the bile tubes—- strictures — deposits in 
the urinary bladder — tumors — distensions by serum, all these necessarily 
derange the vital forces, and they can frequently be removed with entire 
certainty, and the diseased condition disappears with their removal. 
Such remedies as produce these effects, are certainly not to be classed 
with those agents which operate more obscurely upon the organisms, and 
which, from their known interference with the ordinary forces of life, 
are called alterative, and among which mercury stands first. A common 
cathartic dose operates as a foreign body, irritating the stomach and bow- 
els so as to discharge their contents. Different agents, producing these 
effects, have their individual kinds and degrees of irritation. Urinary 
deposits, either acid or earthy, are dissolved by agents carried through 
the circulation, or are removed by the surgeon ; tumors may be destroy- 
ed in various ways : accumulations of fluid can be discharged by tapping, 
and thus with many other of the obvious obstructions of the system. But 
those states dependent on affections of the formative cells, in which the 
elementary tissues are the first to exhibit pathognomonic symptoms, hav- 
ing nothing more than an exalted or depressed state of the vital forces, to 
mark a departure from health, and certain sympathies of the most sensi- 
tive organs to respond to their changed condition, being too obseure to 
admit of a correct diagnosis in the present state of pathological know- 
ledge, must, if treated in any other manner than the instincts of the in- 
dividual direct, be experimental and hazardous. Who' can tell, in many 
of the species of fever, the original movement ? On that movement de- 
pends all correct reasoning, and fair treatment. The disturbances that 
follow in the train of the original morbid action, are certainly not the 
phenomena that call for attention, it is something beyond these that must 
be controlled. It is not because these consequent disturbances are more 
easily observed, that they are more inimical to life. Pain may subside, 
parts may become accustomed to the pressure of foreign bodies and mor- 
bid enlargements, vicarious offices may be performed by organs to relieve 
the system of elements that have been obstructed in their proper outlets; 
all these states ma}'- exist to a considerable extent, and the animal reco- 
ver, finally, with a tolerable degree of health. But if the organizing ac- 
tion is arrested in any of the vital tissues, complete destruction of the in- 



234 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

dividual must follow, if it "be not soon relieved. If the encephaloid mo* 
lecules are vitiated, we observe a prostration of vital forces. Nothing is vio- 
lent, all tends to a gradual destruction of the organisms. In these cases, 
we support, we stimulate, we try in a variety of ways to infuse into the 
languid system, the principle of life. Alcohol, tonics, frictions, artificial 
temperature, inhalations, the imponderable elements are applied in their 
turn, and if, after all, the patient struggle through his distemper, noth- 
ing that art has used, can be satisfactorily determined as the individual 
certainty, the agent that has, by any known law of nature, acted positive- 
ly upon the disturbing influence. True science reviews the case, and de- 
clares, in the honesty that is ever its great characteristic, that organic na- 
ture, in its struggle for life, has not been thwarted ; that warmth and air, 
and food, and rest, have been regarded, and that every opportunity has 
been allowed for the curative tendencies to exert themselves to the utter- 
most. If, on the other hand, an undue quantity and activity of the me- 
dullary molecules exist, exalted action prevails, and all the phenomena of 
life are in excess, we fear a rapid wearing out and breaking down of the 
system, we then resort to such means as will destroy life, We bleed, we 
chill, we set the emuDctories at work. The kidneys, the liver, the ali- 
mentary canal, and the skin, are thrown into violent action, to bring 
down the morbid symptoms. We even make direct attacks upon the 
heart, by agents that paralyze its movements, so that the vital current, 
after it has been reduced in quantity, may be retarded in its motion. 
What is the cause of this exalted action ? Where is it ? What are we 
doing when we blindly attack organs that are healthy, as far as they are 
related to the primitive affection ? The patients recover, as recover they 
will under the most contradictory treatment. Have we met the require- 
ment ? Do we know why we administered, and what we were battling ? 
The chemist, the microscopist, and the physiologist must determine, and 
if from them we do not obtain the information we seek, practice must be 
empirical. 

That elements and compounds are administered, and taken into the 
circulation, which are not nutritive, and against which the instincts re- 
volt, is well known. By the way of the stomach, and by application to 
the surface, and even by inhalation, various agents are administered, with 
the view of changing some morbid action. Some of these agents change 
chemically the organic principles, coagulate albumen, dissolve fibrine, 
and indurate medullary matter. Others suspend decarbonization, and 
even destroy the nervous phenomena. Arsenic, mercury, antimony, bis- 
muth, copper, zinc, and lead, with iodine to assist in their energy, are as 



NEW JERSEY 3IEDICAL SOCIETY. 235 

freely given as if we were operating in a laboratory, with the scale of 
equivalents before us, the test glass in one hand, and the reagent in the 
other, upon a mass, the composition of which was perfectly known. Now, 
agents which are inimical to life, recognized as such by the protective in- 
stincts of the animal, proved to be such by common observation, and de- 
monstrated such by the organic chemist, should be most accurately rea- 
soned upon, and carefully administered. The inquiry should be, if to al- 
lay a disordered function, we administer arsenic, do we control that func- 
tion, and no more. If we prevent a recurrence, if an intermittent, (what 
is an intermittent ?) do we not produce disorganization of albuminous 
formations, and by establishing a commotion among the elements of vi- 
tality, so far diminish that force which is necessary to an intermittent fe- 
ver, that there is in reality, not vital power sufficient for this compara- 
tively safe disorder. Whence the puffed semi-transparent prostrated con- 
dition of the arsenic taker ? Can any one determine the important 
changes that have been made in the ultimate molecular structures by this 
mineral, or at what period of the life of the individual he will have en- 
tirely recovered from its effects, or what its influence may be upon his 
progeny ? 

In civilized life, a man may be apparently well. He will be without 
pain, sleep easily, take a moderate share of food, and attend to some kind 
of business that taxes but lightly his physical powers. He will pass as 
a healthy, although delicate man. Yet the life of this individual is sus- 
tained by constant watching. Very great regularity in exercise, diet, 
temperature, and even mental exertion, are conditions carefully guarded, 
and it is when there is a departure from this monotonous routine, that 
the whole organization seems too feeble to overcome the accidents of man- 
ly life. Such an individual is not well. Either disease, or bad treat- 
ment, or the imperfections of his parents, have vitiated tissues, and made 
his life a struggle, in which the vital forces barely hold the mastery. He 
has none of that excess of power which impels the scout, coarsely fed, and 
half clothed, through floods, and over deserts, with a velocity and endu- 
rance scarcely equalled by the reindeer. This vigor of the scout, is the 
healthy condition of man. His every structure is made to brave such 
perils, and accomplish such feats. He has within him, compensations 
for hot and cold, wet and dry ; he has apparatus for motion, unsurpassed 
for variety and endurance, by any other animal. When we see so many 
entire families, so imperfectly organized, so deficient in physical strength, 
we are to impute the variation from the perfect man, to imperfection in 
the parent. An imperfection sufficient to impress organic deficiency 



236 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

upon the child, must be a changed organism, a condition that propagates 
according to some new type. 

The question now arises, how far the recuperative power of the organs 
can overcome the effects of agents that have power, when administered 
in excess, to destroy them. Many of the vegetable poisons destroy life, 
not by chemical solution, or induration of organic compounds, but by 
some peculiar action upon the nerves. These poisons are compounds of 
oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and nitrogen, and the peculiar atomic arrange- 
ment, as to quantities, is all that distinguishes a poison from a vegetable 
nutritive compound. The combination is so slight that they are rea- 
dily decomposed. If they do not destroy life instantly, they are ge- 
nerally harmless. It is such poisons as ulcerate, and dissolve the animal 
formations, or such as enter into combination with them, and make inor- 
ganic insoluble products, that tell most fatally upon the system, in doses 
that do not immediately destroy life. These are the substances that are 
denominated alterative, for they, if perseveringly administered, will gra- 
dually break up some organic action, and produce a train of sympathies 
so different from the manifestations of the previous condition, that the 
living phenomena are certainly changed. Sometimes a diseased action 
is converted to one of apparent health, and the patient recovers — some- 
times the reverse, and he is hurried out of existence more rapidly. 

If an agent have been introduced into the system that has acted as an 
alterative, how far has it deranged the elementary structures, and made 
them incapable of performing, afterwards, their perfect functions ? It is 
true, this is a difficult point to determine. We know that the oxide of 
lead will produce incurable disease of the alimentary canal, and palsy — 
phosporous disease of the bones — mercury sloughs of the albuminous 
structures, and osseous disorganization. After a tissue has been so far 
changed in its integral arrangement, as to present to the eye a different 
structure, it cannot perform its function as was originally intended, and 
in proportion to this change, it affects associated tissues. Parts depend- 
ing upon these new formations cannot be considered healthy, nor can their 
action be as perfect as if no change of the kind had taken place. The 
nerve function is not as strong, nor enduring, in one who has suffered 
from cerebral concussion, phrenitis, palsy or apoplexy — the aeration of 
the blood as thorough after pneumonia or pleuritic adhesions — the action 
of the liver is vitiated by structural changes, such as engorgements, ab- 
scesses, and cicatrization — the bones are not as strong, as well shaped, 
and as nicely adjusted to their offices, in one who has suffered from ne- 
crosis. All these, and similar diseases, leave their evidence after the pa- 
tient has ceased to complain of their particular symtomatic annoyance. 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 207 

As certainly as a cicatrix shows the track of the scalpel, the organic le- 
sion of tissues which attend many diseases, and the action of many re- 
medies, leaves its mark for life. 

If it be conceded that the recuperative powers of the system be suffi- 
cient to bring about a healthy condition, in one suffering from obstruc- 
tions, that are in their nature removeable — from substances that merely 
clog for a time without destroying structure — agents that can be decom- 
posed into harmless elements, it does not follow that the same protective 
energy can create new tissues, and identical with those that have been 
destroyed, after their place has heen filled by other formations. 

The nature of some remedies is to control the vital actions by suffering 
a decomposition of themselves. They become, as it were, the food of the 
diseased organisms, and impart to them the elements required to bring 
them into a normal state. This is peculiarly the case with organic re- 
medies. The inorganic substances which are used as medicines, are, 
many of them, such as do not enter into the animal formations. Copper 
— arsenic — antimony — -bismuth — mercury, for example. When these pro- 
duce a supposed salutary effect in morbid conditions, it is difficult to de- 
termine the mode of operation, unless it be by changing seats of irrita- 
tion, and instituting new diseases, and giving to the new action a specific 
power to withold the irritating agent, whatever it be, from the primary 
point of attraction. That the new action is a disease, none can deny, 
and it is the caution alone of the physician, that prevents its running be- 
yond control, and ending in complete disorganization of some portions of 
the animal structure. Even with the most careful, in some peculiar in- 
stances, these agents disorganize dreadfully, and eventually destroy life. 

After having given this outline of the most probable action of medi- 
cines upon the organisms, the question recurs, what is the action of mer- 
curial preparations upon the living animal tissues ? The books in- 
form us no further than our own observation has taught, that it causes 
secretions of various glands — that it allays inflammation, and sometimes 
causes inflammation — that it breaks up certain specific actions — that it is 
an alterative. They do not instruct as accurately as to the chemical 
character of the secretions they induce — whether those secretions are the 
specific fluids of the parts, or fluids loaded with broken down structures, 
such structures as cannot be lost with impunity. They do not give the 
quantity of the most highly vitalized portion of the blood that is destroyed 
under the action of mercury when it is used to arrest inflammation,— 
they do not even inform us intelligibly where syphilis ends, and mercurial 
disease begins, — -nor do they explain, in a manner becoming the times. 



238 TRANSACTIONS OF THE 

what they mean "by an alterative. The best authorities on the use of 
mercury, give such contradictory statements of its utility, in certain dis- 
eases in which they all have had equal experience, and opportunities for 
investigation, and they account so differently, and at the same time so 
unphilosophically for the results observed, that we cannot, with the lights 
of modern chemistry and structural combination to direct us, place 
much confidence in what they teach. It is unsatisfactory to assert, that 
in certain conditions of the system, such as the cancerous, scrofulous, ca- 
chexia, or leucophlegmatic, that mercury is inadmissible, when the 
highest power claimed for it is that of an alterative. It is unfair to speak 
of its wonderful effects in curing those diseases in which no organic 
changes have taken place, and in which the powers of life are sufficient, of 
themselves, to restore the healthy action, even under the difficulties of an 
interfering treatment. In such cases the evidence of the direct benefi- 
cial agency of mercury is wanting, and when it is well known that as 
great a number similarly affected, recover without its use, the value of 
mercury is considerably depreciated. 

Inflammatory action, indicated by an increased temperature of the part 
affected, and as it progresses in extent, by an accelerated movement of 
the arterial system, is allayed by withholding the oxygenated globules 
of the blood from the part. This is done either by diminishing the 
quantity of blood, or inviting its oxygen to some other point, where it 
can enter into combination either with worn out structure, some secre- 
tion, or some agent introduced into the system immediately for the puis 
pose. The conditions favorable to rapid spread of inflammation, are me- 
chanical irritation of the part — exalted temperature — much food contain- 
ing nitrogen — and want of sleep. Mechanical irritation causes move- 
ments that waste those powers of life, which are antagonistic to the de- 
composition of the structure. Every movement is attended by a loss of 
structure, and this loss is brought about by oxygen combining with the 
structures that are put in motion. Hence, the more a part is irritated, the 
greater the amount of oxygen consumed, and in proportion to the quanti- 
ty required, will be the flow of blood to the seat of inflammation. A high 
temperature increases mobility by exalting the action of the nerves, 
which hurries all the phenomena of the part to a consummation that 
would be retarded or prevented if heat were abstracted. Nitrogenous 
food being essential to the blood globule, can be withheld advantageously 
when there is an excess of these carriers of oxygen. It is a natural and 
safe abstinence. No organs suffer in consequence, beyond the ordinary 
casualties of a healthful life. They are merely weakened in their func- 



NEW JERSEY MEDICAL SOCIETY. 239 

tion from want of supply, and are ready to assume their full powers when 
appropriate nourishment is administered. Instinct teaches forbearance, 
and points to the kind of nourishment required in inflammatory condi- 
tions. Fruits, and particular kinds of vegetables, such as contain scarcely 
any nitrogen, are relished, whilst meat is rejected. Sleep allays inflam- 
matory action. Rest of all the voluntary muscles makes the demand for 
oxygen less than when they are in motion. Hence, less oxygen is taken 
in during sleep, less circulation of it through the structure that is suffer- 
ing from its action, and as, during sleep, the vital forces are accumulat- 
ing, there is a greater resistance made to the agents of decomposition. 
The reasonable treatment, then for inflammatory diseases, is to act in ac- 
cordance with the laws that control the actual changes that are taking 
place. If we disregard them, when the experience of the best observers 
of all ages has given us the very remedies that modern research has 
proved exactly suited to the emergency, and in their place select others 
of doubtful utility, or others again decidedly at variance with every law 
of life, we place the treatment of disordered animal functions in a more 
degrading position than the repair of a steam engine. 

If we arrest inflammation by mercury, that is, prevent the oxygena- 
tion of the tissue in which it exists, we do it not directly by witholding 
oxygen globules, as by blood letting, or by non-nitrogenous food ; not 
by lowering temperature, so as to lessen chemical affinity ; not by rest, 
which strengthens the vital forces, but by an uncertain and dangerously 
indirect way. If mercurial preparations are not taken into the circula- 
tion, but reduce inflammatory action by catharsis alone, they stand by 
the side of many mild cathartics and are not to be preferred, because they 
sometimes produce effects not intended, and highly deleterious. If the 
salts of mercury, enter the circulation and produce their specific effect, in- 
flammation is overcome by their action upon the oxygen globule. The 
albuminous principles of the blood are deranged by the bi-chloride of 
mercury, the form this metal generally assumes when it enters the circu- 
lation, the hydrochloric acid of the gastric and dermoid fluids yielding 
the equivalent to form this salt from the preparations of mercury gen- 
erally administered. Both chlorine and mercury are destructive to albumen. 
They destroy the vitality of the blood. They enter into combination 
with its elements, and form products that are thrown out of the system 
by all the emunctories that can discharge carbonic acid, sulphuretted hy- 
drogen ammonia, and such liquid solutions as envelope the offending 
agents. The salivary glands pour forth their foetid discharge,— -the 

skin and the lungs exhale their offensive gasses, — the liver discharges 
20 



240 TRANSACTIONS ETC. 

the elements of tissues that have been violently broken up, — -the kidneys 
remove such effete matter as comes within their peculiar circle. Mercury 
disturbs every function, because that element, essential to the mainte- 
nance of health, ceases to penetrate its accustomed tissues. The oxygen 
that is taken in by the respiration, finding at almost every point, organ- 
ized matter without vitality, enters into combination with it, to form va- 
rious inorganic products. Hence, the cause of inflammation ceasing at 
the seat of disease — there is no oxygen to spare to carry it on. 

Accompanying this arrest of specific inflammation by mercury, there is 
a general disturbance of the system. The blood being vitiated by a de- 
struction of its vital components, dead matter is carried to all the organ- 
isms, and the grand struggle begins between the living and inorganic 
forces. In many cases, the waste is thrown out of the system, and the 
peculiar difficulties, under which the patient suffered, pass away, and the 
case is considered cured, and that too, perhaps, with a promptness equal 
to the risk. In other cases the destruction occasioned by mercury is too 
great to be overcome. Structures are dissolved beyond the recuperative ac- 
tion of the organs, and a broken down system, or death, is the conse- 
quence. Thus in administering mercurial remedies, we cannot know the 
extent to which their peculiar action will be carried. It acts beyond the 
limits intended. If it only reduced the excess of oxygen globules in 
cases of inflammation, did not destroy albuminous compounds, and viti- 
ate the molecular structures, we could trust it more as a curative agent. 

None suffering under exanthemous diseases can safely receive mercury 
into the circulation, for it prevents the oxygenation of that morbid matter, 
the uninterrupted removal of which is the natural restoration to health. 
Mercury being the grand antagonist to healthy oxygenation in the tis- 
sues, the enlightened physician will discriminate by a correct molecular 
pathology, those cases in which it is entirely inadmissible. 

It follows, from the combining affinities of the different preparations of 
mercury, that none but the most robust can take it into their circulation 
without obvious injury, and even in their cases the safety is questiona- 
ble. If obstructions exist, such a degeneration of tissues into formations of 
parasitic vitality, in which the living forces barely control decomposition, 
the destruction of those forces in the blood, and the tissue forming cells, 
overcomes the balance, and the morbid structure, no longer checked,, 
softens and runs into utter decomposition. 

Trenton, N. J., Jan, 1853. 



THE 

NEW JERSEY MEDICAL REPORTER. 

VOL. VI. FOURTH MONTH (APRIL 15th), 1853. No. 7. 



BIOGRAPHICAL. 



A brief Biographical Memoir of the late Calvin Smith, M. D., of Tole- 
do, Ohio. By Stephen W. Williams, M. D., Deerfield, Massachu- 
setts, with copious extracts from the Sermon, entitled " The Beloved 
Physician," preached at his funeral, September 19th, 1852, by Rev, 
Anson Smyth. 

Doctor Calvin Smith, the subject of this notice, died at Toledo, Lucas 
County, Ohio, on the 4th of September, 1852, aged 41 }^ears. He was 
born in Colraine, Franklin County, Massachusetts, on the 23d of Febru- 
ary, 1811. His parents were highly respectable, and much esteemed by 
their fellow townsmen. He early devoted his attention to books, and re- 
ceived his academical education at Shelburne Falls, near the place of his 
birth, where he attended diligently to his studies, and qualified himself 
for the study of the profession of medicine, agreeable to the requisitions 
of the Massachusetts Medical Society. He then entered the medical of- 
fice, as a student, of Drs. Nathaniel and Horace Smith, of his native 
town, where he remained about a year, and then entered my office as a 
pupil, where, excepting during the time in which he was attending the 
Medical Lectures in the Colleges of Woodstock, Vermont, Pittsfield, 
Massachusetts, where he graduated, and the Jefferson Medical College, 
at Philadelphia, he remained to the close of his pupilage. While in my 
office he was remarkably diligent in his studies. He was scarcely absent 
from it, or from my practice during the time he was under my instruc- 
tion. At the close of his studies with me, he sought employment as a 
physician at the Great West, which was then, in point of population and 
intelligence, a very different thing from what it now is. At this time 
our young physicians go there from choice. Eighteen or twenty years 
ago, they sought it from necessity. He first established himself at 
Ypsilanti, Michigan, where he remained but three months, when he re- 
moved to Manhattan. Ohio, near the mouth of the Maume river, 
31 



242 Memoir of Calvin Smithy M. D. [April 

where he resided, with a good run of business for a period of six 
years. A more eligible and pleasant situation then presented itself in 
the pleasant and flourishing town of Toledo, near by, where he removed 
and established himself as a practitioner, and continued there for the last 
eleven years of his life. His death was universally deplored by his pro- 
fessional brethren, and by his fellow townsmen. 

Doctor Smith had a strong and powerful mind. He loved his pro- 
fession. He studied it constantly and diligently, and hence he was a 
very successful physician. His practice was very extensive. In his in- 
tercourse with his fellow beings, he was modest and retiring, and, like 
most eminent physicians, he never sought distinction or notoriety in the 
public transactions of life, without the pale of his profession. He also 
bore he reputation of a most faithful physician. In this respect, few, if 
any, could have exceeded him. He was generous and kind hearted, not 
so much from necessity, which is often the case with physicians, but from 
choice. In the notice of him in the sermon above alluded to, by Mr. 
Smyth, the author says, — " It is believed, that during his residence here, 
the Doctor performed gratuitous services to the amount of ten thousand 
dollars. For many of his attentions to the sick among the destitute, he 
made no charge. It was his dying request, that in the collection of his 
accounts, no poor person should be pressed for payment." He contri- 
buted much for charitable and religious purposes, and willingly expended 
largely towards sustaining the institutions of the Gospel, in the city of 
Toledo. "It was through his efforts, that this house of worship, was, on 
one occasion redeemed, after it had passed under the Sheriff's hammer." 
Dr. Smith was eminently a religious man. His was a religion of the 
heart and of the G-ospel, which sustained him through life and in death ; 
and we have no doubt that it has admitted him to the higher, progres- 
sive, and more ennobling enjoyments of the eternal state, which are re- 
served for all the faithful and worthy of the present world. 

As peculiarly applicable to the subject of this slight memoir, and to 
the profession generally, you will pardon me, I presume, if in conclud- 
ing, I quote somewhat largely from the sermon of the Rev Mr. Smyth, 
above alluded to. It is a beautiful tribute to the beloved Physician, by 
a man not belonging t5 the profession, and will be read with deep inte- 
rest by our professional brethren, although somewhat protracted. 

"To become a beloved physician, one worthy of the confidence of so- 
ciety, a pure and exalted morality is an indispensable requisite. This 
qualification in the profession we cannot too imperatively demand. To 
introduce to our sacred homes, and most sacred confidence a vile and un- 



1853.] Memoir of Calvin Smith, M. D. 243 

principled man, — why, the mere thought is enough to make us shudder. 
What man, or what woman of virtuous character, could endure the idea 
of calling to the sick room, a physician whose breath should reek with 
the offensive fumes of intoxicating drink, or whose language should be 
profane, or in the least degree, indelicate ? As well might we trust a 
sick and helpless friend to the care of a maniac, as to an intemperate 
physician. 

"Let the physician be a man of education, of thorough knowledge of 
medical science ; let him be a gentleman in manner, and let him possess 
a pure moral character, and he is qualified for such a discharge of his 
professional duties, as will make him like Luke the Evangelist, "the be- 
loved physician/' He fills a noble, a G-od-like profession. It was once 
practiced by the Son of God, who " went about healing all manner of 
sickness among the people." It is a profession to which no illiterate, 
ignorant or vile man should be admitted. Of the different medical theo- 
ries or patliies I have nothing now to say, willing for the occasion to 
leave them with the divers isms of theology. But this I am ever ready 
to affirm, that the miserable empiric who presumes to practice his quack- 
ery upon the lives of his fellow men, ought, by law, to be restrained from 
running at large. Of all our temporal interests, none can, for one mo- 
ment, be compared with those which we entrust to the physician. In 
his professional, social, and moral character, human welfare demands that 
he should stand above the reach of just reproach. 

u The services which physicians perform, claim for them the esteem and 
gratitude of the world. To save life, to remove disease, to promote health 
and happiness, are the constant efforts of the Faculty. When the first 
symptom of illness is perceived, our thoughts, with more than electric 
speed, fly to our physician. The mere thought of our skilful, faithful, 
and kind Doctor, dispels much of that alarm which the occasion would 
prompt. He hastens to our dwelling, and by timely remedies checks the 
incipient malady, or perhaps, convinces us that without important aid 
from medicine, nature will work her own recovery from the injury she 
has received. At another time, all unexpected to us, acute and threat- 
ening disease enters the peaceful and blessed home circle— a parent or a 
child, some dear one is suddenly attacked, and at once, what agitation, 
what fear of a fatal result, causes every heart to throb, and every counte- 
nance to mantle with sorrow ! Without delay the family physician is 
summoned — he who never wants a second bidding— he enters the dark- 
ened chamber, examines with care the case, discovers the character of 
the disease, and administers counteracting agencies. Beside the sick 



244 Memoir of Calvin Smith, M. D. [APRIL 

one he watches while danger continues ; now quickening the languid 
pulse, now cooling the fevered brow, and, all forgetful of his own pillow 
unvisited, whispers to the patient words of encouragement, Ere long 
the stricken one walks forth in health, and joy revisits his home. That 
life, to many so precious, has been saved only by the science, skill, and 
fidelity of him who ever after is to that household, " the beloved physi- 
cian." Do you say that such is not always the result ; that often the 
patient dies under medical treatment ? True, but this does not at all detract 
from our indebtedness to the profession. "It is appointed unto mail 
once to die." At some period, earlier or later, all must sleep in death. 
The physician may do all that science, skill and benevolence can accom- 
plish, and yet death ensue. The disease may be of so occult a character 
that its diagnosis shall be beyond human research, It may be so com- 
plex as to baffle all pathologic analysis. It may be of so virulent a type, 
or have made such progress before treatment commenced, or such may 
be the constitutional feebleness of the subject, that no earthly power can 
save him from the grave, It may be true in some cases — I believe it is 
in many — that the physician's prescriptions and advice are neglected, 
and death is the result of the obstinacy or imprudence of the patient. 
But be the fatal termination the effect of one cause or another, it is, in 
more than ninety-nine cases in a hundred, wrong to impute blame to him, 
who night and day, with deep anxiety and ceaseless effort, has battled 
with approaching death, and striven to rescue the victim from its grasp. 
I know of no cruelty and of no meanness, surpassing that of those who 
are forever ready to blame the physician for every death that occurs 
under his treatment. If he be a man of professional ambition — if he 
have a sensitive and kind heart, he will deeply lament the death of his 
patient, without the promptings of the cold and cruel criticisms of those 
who know nothing, and care nothing, for the matter whereof they affirm. 

" Do you say, physicians are paid for their labors, and therefore, the 
world is no more indebted to them than to merchants and mechanics, 
who follow their callings for the profits they afford? I reply that 
money cannot repay our indebtedness to medical skill and achievement. 
You may however, be for a single hour in physical distress, spasms and ex* 
cruciating agonies tormenting your frail body j but your physician hastens 
to your side, and administers some quiescent preparation which at once 
removes your pains and paroxysms, and restores you to health and hap- 
piness. Will money pay for such a cure ? For how much would you 
remain all your life in such a state ? 

u Again, your precious child seems ready to fall a prey to violent dis- 



1853.] Memoir of Calvin Smith, M. B. 245 

ease ; but, by the skill and care of your physician, its life is saved, its 
health restored. Will money pay your indebtedness to him who brought 
back your dear one from the gates of death, and replaced it upon your 
rejoicing bosom ? Or, your own life is in danger; your weeping friends 
greatly fear that you will die. Death, it may be, has for you fears, just 
and unspeakable. To your agitated soul there may be a ( fearful look- 
ing for of judgment/ and retribution. But through the efforts of your 
physician, your years are prolonged, your probation continued. Now can 
you balance this preservation, and salvation it may be, with dollars and 
cents ? The expiring English Queen, in deepest agony exclaimed " Mil- 
lions of money for a moment of time ! 

" The physician is obliged, often, to disregard his comfort, his health, 
and his life even, in ministering to the life, health, and comfort of others. 
You wake at midnight — it is densely dark, and the cold and sweeping 
storm howls around your dwelling. Upon the side-walk you hear hur- 
ried footsteps, or in the streets the rattling of carriage wheels. It is the 
Doctor driving in hot haste to some abode of sickness. He had after 
severe professional labor, just laid himself upon his couch, which the pre- 
vious night he had not visited. Though exhausted and worn down, he 
hesitates not for a moment, but hastens to the renewal of his cares and 
toils. While you so quietly sleep, free from all alarms, the physician is 
bending over the sick, performing disagreeable duties, inhaling the breath 
of disease, witnessing scenes of suffering, listening to the groans of the 
dying. Look at physicians in times of epidemic disease : then is appa- 
rent the value of these noble sons of science — these heroic men who rush 
to the conflict, throwing themselves before the raging pestilence, a shield 
to the lives of their fellow men. Like chivalrous brothers, or like God's 
angels of mercy, they fly to the relief of suffering humanity. There is 
no hovel so poor, so reeking with the deadly breath of the pestilence, or 
filled with wretches so abject, that these messengers of life refuse its calls 
for help. They are the life guards of human society, in all its grades. 
u I was sick and ye visited me." Blessed encomium ! 

u Our obligations to physicians, dollars cannot cancel. And if they 
could, often they do not; for how large a proportion of their labors is 
gratuitous. There is no profession, no avocation in life upon which des- 
titution and distress make so heavy and frequent demands. Scarce a 
day passes in which they are not called upon for laborious service by 
those who have no means to recompense them for what they do. And 
not only are such labors without pecuniary remuneration, but the condi- 
tion of house and patient is often such as to render their performance 



246 Stuart on Medical Organization. [April 

disagreeable and self-sacrificing in the extreme. The farmer, the mer- 
chant, and the mechanic, are not expected gratuitously to supply the 
wants of even the most destitute, and yet like drafts are continually 
made upon the benevolence of the physician. Moreover, the medical 
profession exposes the lives of those who practice it, to the most immi- 
nent danger. Who else is so often exposed to contagious and infectious 
diseases ? Who so liable to be overtasked by excessive labors ? In the 
meridian of life, how many fall sacrifices to the health of others ? And 
surely the man who performs for us such services, who subjects himself 
to such toils, self-denials, and perils, well deserves the title of the " Be- 
loved Physician/' 



Organization, the true Basis of Medical Reform. 
By James H. Stuart, M. D., U. S. N. 

Medical Reform of all kinds, particularly that to be effected by organi- 
zation, is dear to our heart. It seems so natural and proper, that all 
medical reform should be accomplished by physicians themselves, if at 
all practical, without extraneous aid, that no one, we feel persuaded, 
will dispute the propriety of it. 

The prevalence of quackery is owing to the ignorance of the people re- 
garding what is true medical science. When physicians are divided, 
each one stands alone on his own basis. There is nothing but his own 
word to distinguish him from the venal quacks around him. The peo- 
ple are too busy to enquire into his merits, and, though his every action 
may stamp him as a scientific gentleman, yet the " populace" are too apt 
to look more to newspaper puffs, (which an honorable man disdains to 
oise,) than to take the time and trouble to examine his merits for them* 
selves. When they discern the difference between the physician and the 
•quack, it is alas ! too frequently, only with the glazing eye of dissolu- 
tion, and " dead men tell no tales" to warn the living. 

Reputations too, are frequently dependent on some accidental cure, or 
heroic operation, which by chance proves successful against all the rules 
of correct practice. And frequently one unfortunate case will ruin a man 
of undeniable skill and ability. Now what can enlighten the community 
on this subject ? Neither law nor their own education will, for the for- 
mer might be used to aid a " clique," and the latter, (unless medical) is 
more apt to deceive them than otherwise. 

But, when they see medical men uniting themselves into a body which 
excludes only those who are ignorant of their profession, or are charlatans 



1853,] Stuart on Medical Organization. 247 

from rascality or self deception — when they know from their own ob- 
servation, that this body consists of nearly all the intelligent and scien- 
tific physicians in the country — when they see E that none are excluded 
who are properly grounded in the grand principles of our profession. — 
when they observe those in our brotherhood refusing to consult with 
charlatans, and thus distinctly branding them as base quacks ; what ex- 
cuse have they for error ? None. If they admit that medical men are the 
best judges of their own profession, they are without excuse, and their 
blood is upon their own heads if they err. There is a choice before them 
of good and evil, and on themselves rests the responsibility. Undoubt- 
edly, all right minded people will choose the former. Already the influ- 
ence of the organization is sensibly felt. "We have encouragement to 
persevere. Those of us who would otherwise have acted alone, and to 
great disadvantage in our efforts for reform, are now operating in unison 
with the intellect of our profession, and " in union there is strength/* 
And our organization is just and equable. We injure none. Those 
who are excluded by us, are men who have no sympathies with us ; are 
men who would feel unhappy in our brotherhood. 

Our right to associate with kindred spirits to elevate our profession, is 
undoubted. Not the wildest adherent to fanaticism and quackery, who 
would boldly oppose legal interference as iniquitously unjust, dares to 
question it. 

Another cause of the prevalence of open quackery, is the amount of 
secret and disguised charlatanism, so fearfully prevalent in the profession 
itself, among " regular graduates." This, having been discovered by in- 
telligent men, has weakened their confidence in professional honor and' 
rectitude. They think that, if they are to be deceived— if impossibili- 
ties are to be pretended to, they had better go to those who promise them 
the greatest amount for their credulity. Such men, once inimical, are 
the most dangerous foes to medicine. 

Now this is done away with by Medical Organization: No one having 
a taint of quackery can, if discovered, remain among us. He becomes a 
very Pariah, and is shunned as an infected, loathsome thing, by the just 
among the brethren. Thus is a broad line of distinction drawn between 
the profession and quacks who, bearing our livery, are wolves in disguise. 

The moral influence exerted by such organization is immense. It 
shows true medicine to be a unit — one great whole. It shows that all 
improvements and useful discoveries are adopted, and all others rejected. 
It shows that we belong to no " party" of any kind, but use any and 
every treatment to effect our object. (And, en passant, I cannot but ex- 



248 Stuart on Medical Organization. [April 

press my disapprobation of Dr. Hooker's use of the word "Allopathy," 
throughout his late really magnificent prize essay. ' He had no right to 
allow sufficiently for the ignorance of the community to use so gross a 
misnomer in a scientific work.) It shows that the very name "system" 
in medicine, is presumptive proof of ignorance and charlatanism. It 
shows that the wise, learned, and conscientious of our profession, are 
agreed in frowning steadily upon all such attempts to impose on the cre- 
dulity of our fellow citizens. And it shows a steady determination to 
rescue our beloved science from the miry slough of quackery in which it 
had so nearly been merged. Such efforts cannot but meet with success. 
Such determination must be rewarded. Our country is now far behind 
others in medical respectability, and only because we have hitherto pos- 
sessed no efficient medical organization. 

Quackery is also in a measure dependent upon the number of diplo- 
mas which are yearly issued. In this immense multitude of " doctors" 
many must necessarily be found who are unworthy. But they are u gra- 
duates," and therefore are of the profession. Medical organization shows 
that the mere possession of a diploma is not a criterion of ability j that 
something more is requisite to make the true physician. Thus another 
source of evil is done away with. 

A community of sentiment, of interest, and of action is established by 
such union. The very institution of prize essays sets brain power to 
work, and makes every man feel that, however humble, he too may, by 
pursuing the upright track, become known to his fellows, and distin- 
guished by them. The fact of competing with the great minds of his 
profession, establishes a fraternity of feeling that will bind him, as with 
cords of iron, to the association which gives him these advantages. To 
work side by side and shoulder to shoulder, with his revered friends and 
those who are known to him by fame, will make him uphold, with heart 
and soul, that glorious fabric of which he feels himself a part. 

It is objected that the association will be styled "a clique for inter- 
ested purposes." The objection is almost too trivial to notice. A clique 
of " the wisest and best men our country ever knew !" The idea is ab- 
surd, and carries its own contradiction on the face of it. And for self 
interest, who among us would not Tar better subserve his interest by turn- 
ing quack, robbing the mail, or some equally honorable pursuit, than by 
attempting to turn popular opinion from its favorite channel of fanatical 
quackery, into that of love for scientific information ? 

It elevates the tone of gentlemanly sentiment. Each man feels him- 
self called upon to sustain, not merely his own private reputation, but 



1853.] Corson, — Health vs. Fashion. 249 

the honor of the profession. He feels that he is a respresentative of the 
principles of medicine, and that he must beware how he betrays so sa- 
cred a trust. Can quackery prevail against an organization where each 
member is a Briarean Argus to guard the purity of his calling ? Other 
professions preserve themselves by association. Lawyers have their Bar 
meetings, Clergymen their Synods and General Assemblies. Conse* 
quently they keep their professions pure. The hypocrites and pettifog- 
gers are known and frowned upon. No one confuses them with the pro- 
fession, or blames their knavery upon it. Yfe feel no disgust; for Law 
or Divinity because of their unworthy representatives. Thus let it be 
with us. Let organization progress until medicine and quackery are as 
distinct in the public view, as they are now in ours. 

The only semblance of a real objection, is the length of time that must 
elapse before this plan can fully operate. But if true, is it a reason ? 
All reforms are slow, and is not a slow reform better than none ? Can the 
objectors offer a quicker? But it is not true. " We judge of the future 
by the past." During the few years of the existence of medical organiza- 
tion, the condition of the profession has almost incalculably improved, 
and is improving surely and rapidly. 

******** 



Health vs. Fashion, By Thomas J. Corson, M. D. 

We of modern times, are very fond of boasting of our progress in the 
arts and sciences, and contrasting our degree of advancement in refine- 
ment and useful knowledge with the comparatively low standard of the 
ancients. In some things it is true, that we do excel our predecessors, 
but in other respects we are far behind those who lived long before our 
time. For instance, the ancients had more regard to health, and appre- 
ciated this inestimable blessing more fully than we do, as is evinced by 
their mode of living, and the manner in which their children were trained, 
and also by the fact that, among their other objects of worship, Hygeia, 
the Goddess of Health, received no small share of their attentions, and 
had stated devotional rites observed in her honor, But who in this age, 
when the clear light of medical knowledge is spread throughout the 
land, dispelling the clouds of superstition and ignorance, which formerly 
obscured this subject,- — when the laws of health are made plain 
to the most humble understanding, — who now worships health ? Ph> 



250 Corson, — Health vs. Fashion. [ApRlk 

tus, Venus and Bacchus have numberless votaries, but Hygiea's altars 
have no peace-offerings or sacrifices. Who will even obey those laws 
which are known to be absolutely necessary to the preservation of the 
mind and body, in a healthy condition ? Alas ! but few, lamentably few ! 
While men will labor night and day, undergoing almost incredible hard- 
ships, to amass wealth, or to gain a name and place among the great ones 
of the earth, that they may thus gratify that " shadow's shadow, ambi- 
tion," — very few can be found who are willing to forego any pleasure, or 
give up their accustomed pursuits, however detrimental they may be, in 
order to secure for themselves, the invaluable blessings flowing from the 
clear fountains of Health. 

In this essay, I propose to notice some of the many ways in which we 
ruin ' ourselves, mentally and corporeally, by doing those things which 
are opposed to the healthful exercise of our various life-functions. When 
I headed this essay " Health versus Fashion," it was intended that the 
word Fashion should be received in its widest signification, meaning, as 
is expressed in our lexicon, " custom, general practice." Let us then 
observe in how many and various ways, the general practice of persons 
interferes with and destroys health, dooming such persons, who wilfully 
act in opposition to the plainest Hygienic and Physiological laws, to pass 
a whole life-time under the influence of morbid feelings and painful sen- 
sations, — thus rendering them unable to enjoy the many good gifts of 
an all-benevolent Providence. 

One of the most prolific causes of disease is a lawless indulgence of ap- 
petite. In the time of St. Paul, there lived some of whom he said, 
u whose Grod is their belly;" and the same might very justly be said 
of very many living in the present age, to whom we might apply 
the rest of Paul's words, " whose end is destruction." Most people eat 
too much — many sit down to the table and eat till they are gorged, lite- 
rally crammed full, — until the stomach positively refuses to receive any 
more. When they rise from the table, instead of feeling refreshed and 
invigorated, as every man should and does feel after eating a reasonable 
amount of food, they feel oppressed and incapacitated from making any 
exertion. Then, instead of taking exercise to promote the digestive 
function, they lie down and take a siesta in order to get rid of the un- 
comfortable feelings arising from the tension of their stomach and bowels, 
caused by such an unreasonable and unchristian stuffing of food. This 
is particularly the case among the affluent, who can afford to spend their 
time as they please. Although the stomach is the "workshop of the sys- 
tem," it cannot do its work properly when it is overloaded with all kinds 



1853.] Corson, — Health vs. Fashion. 251 

of rubbish. How many people might justly attribute a life of sickness 
to "big dinners?" such people deserve to suffer, for any man of common 
sense must know that such swinish indulgences will inevitably cause 
pain and suffering. If a man's stomach and intestines were made of cast 
iron or sole-leather, they might bear such treatment; but as they are 
constituted of delicate materials, lined by a sensitive mucous tissue, it is 
altogether reasonable to suppose that their normal action will be morbifi- 
■cally influenced by such a course of proceeding. How many thousands 
annually eat themselves into Dyspepsia, from the distressing effects of 
which they never recover, ever after leading a miserable life, constantly 
suffering pain and distress from the slightest causes. And what else 
could be expected? Even the "dura messorum ilia" could not bear such 
harsh treatment. The stomach virtually says, "nemo me impune laces- 
sit." The stomach of man is not an all-enduring organ, and nature is 
forced to afflict with Dyspepsia and similar disorders such persons as 
gluttonize, in order to prevent them from eating themselves to death. 

And not only do men err in the quantity, but also in the quality, of 
their food. They will search throughout the vegetable and animal king- 
doms in order to find something to gratify a taste that has already be- 
come depraved by long indulgence. They will use the strongest and 
most irritating spices and condiments, and have their food dressed up in 
every imaginable style by the most experienced cooks, in order to please 
their palate, never reflecting what it is that they are putting into their 
stomachs. Tell them that they are ruining their health by high living, 
and they will laugh at you. Is it an easy task to persuade your gouty 
patients to reduce their diet — to live on plain food ? No, — they will tell 
you that they have used rich food for years, and that they cannot live 
without it. And they will not stop its use until the progress of their 
disease makes them willing to do any and everything whereby any relief 
from their sufferings can be obtained. It would be impossible to make 
any specified amount of food do for every person. The sturdy plough- 
man and the hardy blacksmith need more food, and food of a more nutri- 
tive kind, than does the wealthy citizen, who takes hardly enough exer- 
cise to keep himself awake. In one case, "the wear and tear" of the 
whole system is greater than in the other, and more is required to replace 
what has been used. But let every one eat prudently — never eat to 
satiety — and every one can make a pretty accurate estimate of how much 
he really wants, by the state of his feelings. 

I cannot refrain from making some extracts, while on this subject, 
from a speech delivered before the Boston Mercantile Association, by 



152 Coreon, — Health vs. Fashion. [April 

Horace Mann. He says, " not only ' lying lips/ but a dyspeptic stom- 
ach, is an abomination to tbe Lord. The brutish part of our nature go- 
verns the spiritual. The appetite is Nicholas the First, and the noble 
faculties of mind and heart are Hungarian captives." " Yerilv, the man 
who is physiologically \ wicked,' does not live cut half his days ; nor is 
this the worst of his punishment, for he is more than half dead while he 
appears to live." " Let the young man, then, remember, that for every 
offence which he commits against the laws of health, nature will bring 
him into judgment. However graciously G-od may deal with the heart, 
all our experience proves that He never pardons stomach, muscles, lungs, 
or brain. These must expiate their offences im-vicariously." Thus 
speaks Horace Mann. He speaks truthfully, too; and the instruction 
thus quaintly expressed is replete with wisdom and sound reasoning. 

The abuse of spirituous liquors is so common a cause of destruction of 
health, as to deserve a prominent place among the morbific agents which 
affect man. Of this so much has been said, that but little more can be 
urged. This is not a proper place wherein to undertake to depict the 
horrors of intemperance ; this has been done by men of eloquence and 
benevolence, who were well qualified to perform the task. Appeals of 
the most touching nature have been made to induce men to refrain from 
the bestial vice of drunkenness, and yet, after the evils resulting from 
habitual indulgence in stimulating drinks have been portrayed in living 
colors — when we can see daily, the victims that have fallen before this 
ruthless destroyer of mind, body, and soul — after all this mirabile dictu, 
men will " put an enemy in their mouths to steal away their brains." 
It is natural to suppose that the delicate mucous membrane of the hu- 
man stomach would be literally burned up by the constant and excessive 
use of ardent spirits. It is distressing to see how greatly habits of in- 
temperance have increased within a few years. The car of this worse 
than Juggernautish fiend, had been for a while stayed in its destructive 
progress by the efforts of warm-hearted and benevolent men, who were 
filled with love towards their fellow-beings, and who recognized the noble 
principle, "nil humani alienum." But now " Lager Beer Halls," and 
thousands of other machinations of the arch fiend, have sprung up to in- 
duce people to return to their old habits, and to entrap those unaccus- 
tomed to drinking. But this is a subject which requires a more extend- 
ed consideration than can be given to it in such an essay as this. When 
we see how many noble minds are forever crushed, how many warm 
hearts stilled, and how many generous " spirits, born to bless," are ruin- 
ed bv this most powerful agent of death, we may well exclaim with Cas= 



1853.] Corson, — Health vs. Fashion. 253 

sio, " thou invisible spirit of wine, if thou hast no name to be known 
by, let us call thee — devil." 

Akin to the vices already mentioned, is the very general use of tobac- 
co in its different forms. It is well known that the active principle of 
this plant — nicotia — is a virulent poison ; and it is equally well known 
that its habitual and excessive use lays the foundation of some of the 
most serious disorders to which the nervous system is liable. It enfee- 
bles the digestive powers, thus producing loss of appetite, emaciation^ 
and general debility. The taste for this article is entirely acquired — it 
is not natural to any animal except a certain species of worm — a hard 
gauntlet has he to run, a most distressing state of preliminary suffering 
must he endure, who is desirous of being initiated into the pleasures 
arising from the use of " the divine weed/' It naturally sickens the 
stomach by its irritating and emetic properties ) and yet, when the habit 
of using this substance has been acquired, it is like being flayed alive to 
give it up. Can you not see from the excessive nervousness of him who 
uses tobacco to excess, that it is injuring him? Is it not a natural con- 
sequence that the increased amount of saliva which he expectorates 
should affect him deleteriously ? Tobacco is a nervous sedative, and to 
those accustomed to its use, it imparts the most delightful sensations im- 
aginable, calming mental and corporeal inquietude, and almost transport- 
ing them to a seventh-heaven of delight. He spoke truly who said of 
his cigar, 

" No present joys are like the pleasant dreaming 
Attendant upon thee in lonely hours." 

But this constant use of tobacco must, and does produce unpleasant re- 
sults, as those engaged in the practice of medicine have frequent oppor- 
tunities of observing. This is proved by the fact that many diseases are 
alleviated, and some entirely cured, by the mere stoppage of the use of 
this morbific agent. That tobacco does act most injuriously on the hu- 
man system, producing most unpleasant and debilitating effects, I have 
good reason to know, for on this point "haud inexpertus loquor." 

(To be Continued?) 



254 Bibliographical Notices. [April 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



A System of Practical Surgery: By William Ferguson, M. D., Prof, 
of Surgery in King's College Hospital, and Surgeon to H. R. H., 
Prince Albert. Fourth American, from the third and enlarged Lon- 
don Edition, with three hundred and ninety-three illustrations. 1853. 

The work before us, containing 620 pages, is principally a history of 
its distinguished author's experience, derived from large opportunities of 
hospital and private practice, from an extensive intercourse with distin- 
guished surgeons, and from his professional relations with a great 
number of pupils from different parts of the world. It is purely a prac- 
tical work. The various collateral subjects of physiology, chemistry, &c. 
often treated in connection with a system of Surgery, are omitted, so 
far as allowable, not because they are irrelavent to the subject in hand, 
but because each, in itself, forms a distinct part of the curriculum of 
study, embraced in the medical course. The student who reads Fergu- 
son, is supposed to possess, from other sources, the knowledge which is 
essential to his appreciation of the relative branches with which a com- 
plete system of Surgery is necessarily connected; the author assuming 
that the true elements of Practical Surgery are to be found chiefly, in a 
complete system of education. He has divided the contents of his book 
into an introduction, and four parts, embracing the surgical anatomy, 
surgical diseases, and treatment of the superior and inferior extremeties, 
head and neck, and of the chest, abdomen, and pelvis. There are also 
393 illustrations scattered through the work, embracing excellent wood 
cuts of a variety of instruments, diseases, and operations, well defined, 
and clearly explained. We believe, from its comprehensive and practi- 
cal character, it will be deservedly esteemed by the profession. 

It is published by Blanchard and Lea, of Philadelphia, who with their 
usual good taste have made the work attractive by the correctness of its 
typography, and the neat style of its mechanical execution. We are 
more pleased with the book than any of the kind we have seen for a long 
time. 

Maclise's Surgical Anatomy, with additions from Bourgery, &c: 
Edited by K. U. Piper, M. D. Boston, Jewitt & Co.; Cleveland, Ohio, 
Jewitt, Proctor and Worthington. London, Low & Co., 1853. 

Works on Surgical Anatomy, with plates, are not found as often as 
they should be, on the shelves of the physician, because of their expen- 
siveness ; but the plan of the present work removes to a great extent this 
objection, being issued in numbers, at intervals of five or six weeks, at 
75 cents per number, until eight or ten shall complete the volume. The 
low price at which it is offered, cannot remunerate the publishers with- 
out an extensive sale. In Part 1, there are seven plates (colored,) they 



1853.] Editorial. 255 

are elaborate and careful drawings of dissections made by eminent French 
anatomists, with copies from the well known Maclise. 

We hope that the low price of this work will ensure its purchase by 
all. Five numbers will be sent to one address by the remittance of $3. 

The Druggists' General Receipt Booh, comprising a copious Veterinary 
Formulary, and table of Veterinary Materia Medica: numerous re- 
cipes in Patent and Proprietary Medicines, Druggists' nostrums, &c. 
Perfumery and Cosmetics, Beverage, Dietetic Articles, Condiments, 
and Trade Chemicals, &c, with an Appendix of useful Tables: By 
Henry Beaseley. Second American, from the last London Edi- 
tion, corrected and enlarged. Lindsay & Blakiston, 1853. 

The title of this book is sufficiently expressive of its character. To our 
professional friends who " doctor" their own horses, and chickens, 
it may suggest a few hints ; and to barbers, who need cheap recipes to 
color the wigs and whiskers of their customers, and to nostrum venders, 
who may want the material to prepare and sell quackery, and to cooks, 
who would compound by rule the various fixtures for the gastric cavity, 
under the names of sauces, tinctures jellies, vinegars, &c, it may afford 
some way-marks ; but it is not for the physician, an essential text book. 

We acknowledge the receipt from Blanchard & Lea of Phila. of the 
Hand Book of Natural Philosophy and Astronomy: By Dionysius 
Lardner, D. C. L., formerly of University College, London. It is illus- 
trated by upwards of two hundred wood engravings, and is principally 
devoted to the subjects of heat, magnetism, and electricity. It is just 
published, and is no doubt a valuable book. 



EDITORIAL. 

American Medical Association. 

The next Annual Assembly of American Physicians, to be held, as it 
will be, at the great city of our Republic, and at the time too, of the 
"World's Fair," ought to be well attended. Our neighbors of our 
younger sister city, are no doubt anticipating the largest meeting of the 
Association that has ever been held. The time and place of meeting, 
and the great subjects of interest to the profession, that will be present- 
ed for discussion, ought to secure the attendance of the best men of our 
profession, from all parts. 

The Association was conceived in the great Empire State — its first 
meeting was held in New York City, and from thence it went out with 
an unparalleled impetus to the East, South and West, and has enlisted 
all over the land, a degree of interest in professional reform, that ought 



256 Editorial. [A?RIL 

to show itself in some strong expression of improvement, when it returns 
again to its native clime. Let New Jersey do her part, as she always 
has done. 



State Lunatic Asylum. 

The sixth Annual Report of the Managers and Officers of this noble 
institution is before us. To do justice to it in a brief notice, will not be 
expected. Suffice it to say in this place, that the institution is in a 
flourishing condition, and is annually adding blessings to our citizens, 
and increasing honors to our State. " The whole number of patients 
admitted into the institution since it was opened in May, eighteen hun- 
dred and forty-eight, is five hundred and fifteen ; of which number, two 
hundred and sixty-four have been discharged as cured or improved. This 
simple statement is sufficient of itself to establish the value and impor- 
tance of the institution, and to commend it to the judgment and sympa- 
thy of the public." 

The subject of completing the original design of the building, by in- 
creasing the means of classification, as well as by enlarging the accom- 
modations for a greater number of patients, is strongly and justly pre- 
sented ; and while it is proved by all experience, the best economy to be 
liberal in such expenditure as is called for, the claims of benevolence and 
humanity make it doubly binding upon the State, at all times to listen 
cheerfully to the piteous claims of her unfortunate children, and to open 
her hand without grudging, to supply not only their necessities, but to 
minister to their every possible comfort, and innocent enjoyment. 

We refer our readers to the Eclectic Department of this Journal, for 
extracts from the Superintendent's Report, on the nature of insanity; its 
forms, causes, means of prevention, and general principles of treatment, 
as worthy of their attentive perusal. 



Dr. N. S. Davis, and the Students of Rush Medical College, Chir 
cago. III. On the 7th of February last, a committee on behalf of the 
students of Rush Medical College, presented Prof. Davis with a valuable 
Microscope, with achromatic object glasses, varying in power from 100 
to 1000 diameters. A letter accompanying the gift, expressed the high 
gratification experienced by the class with Dr. Davis's instructions in the 
College and Hospital. * 

*** We have just received an interesting article from B. H. Washing- 
ton, M. D., Hannibal, Mo., which must be postponed till our next issue. 
We should be glad to hear from Dr. W. frequently. 



1853.] Editorial 257 

Proceedings of Medical Societies. 

[We are much obliged to our friend, the Secretary, for furnishing us 
with the following minutes, and hope that all the District Secretaries 
will favor us with outlines of the proceedings of their respective Societies. 
Let us be more in the habit of exchanging salutations in this way, 
through the pages of the Reporter. — Ed.] 

Mercer County. The last Quarterly Meeting of the District Medical 
Society of the County of Mercer was held at Temperance Hall, Trenton, 
on Tuesday, January 18, 1853. 

The President, Dr. Taylor, in the Chair. In the absence of the Se- 
cretary, Dr. Johnston was appointed Secretary pro tern. 

The President announced to the Society the death of Dr. James Paul, 
a late member of the Society. On motion, Drs. McKelway, Coleman, 
and Woolverton, were appointed a committee to report resolutions ex- 
pressive of the sense of the Society in relation to the death of Dr. Paul. 
The committee reported as follows : 

Resolved, That in the death of Dr. James Paul, a member of the Mer- 
cer county Medical Society, we have to regret the loss of one who from 
education, experience, high moral worth, and gentlemanly deportment, 
was an ornament to the profession, and invaluable to our Society. 

Resolved, That a copy of the foregoing resolution, with the sympathies 
of this Society, be forwarded to the family of the deceased. 

The Essay was read by Dr. Johnston, on the painlessness of death. 

Dr. Robbins reported a case of hydrocephalus successfully treated by 
hyd. chlo. mit. and pot. iod. 

Dr. W. W. L. Phillips reported a case of retroversio uteri, occurring 
during the second month of pregnancy. The uterus was restored to the 
normal position by the usual method. 

The subject of conversation was 'calculus/ Dr. McKelway related a 
case, in which calculi were found, post mortem, in the kidney and left 
ureter. The specimens were shown to the Society. During the discus- 
sion, Dr. Taylor related a case of castration which occurred at the Prison. 
The operation was requested by the prisoner; and justifiable from his 
condition, — miserable in the extreme, — the result of onanism. 

Drs. Coleman, Woolverton, McKelway and Robbins, were appointed 
delegates to the Annual Meeting of the State Medical Society. 

Dr. W. W. L. Phillips was appointed Essayist for the next meeting. 

After the transaction of incidental business the Society adjourned, 
33 



258 Editor's Table. [April 

EDITOR'S TABLE. 

The American Psychological Journal, devoted chiefly to the elucida- 
tion of Mental Pathology, and the Medical Jurisprudence of Insanity. 
Conducted by Edward Mead, M. D., Physician to the Cincinnati Re- 
treat for the Insane, &c. &c. Bi-monthly — 32 pages — Cincinnati, Ohio : 
One dollar a year in advance. 

We have received the first number of the above work, and are much 
pleased with its appearance. The Editor has effectually guarded himself 
against criticism, by " confessing judgment" on criticisable points, which 
are really of comparatively small importance. The object and design of 
the Journal are excellent, and the contents of the present number good. 
We would say to our readers, that they must not think from the title, 
that the Journal is devoted to the advocacy of the new doctrines of " Bi- 
ology," &c, as such is not the fact, it being devoted to the legitimate 
aims of psychological science. We can heartily recommend the work to 
those who are interested in the pathology and treatment of mental mala- 
dies. * 

Lecture, Introductory to the second course in the Medical Department 
of the University of Nashville, &c. By W. K. Bowling, M. D., Pro- 
fessor of Institutes and Practice of Medicine. 

The Medical department of the University of Nashville, was establish- 
ed nearly two years since, and has met with remarkable success. In- 
deed, the lecturer seems to have been intoxicated with that success, for 
look which way he will, Nashville fills the world of his vision, and he 
seems to anticipate the time when the Medical Schools of Nashville will 
absorb all the medical students worth having, North, South, East and 
West. Now, we heartily rejoice at the prosperity of the medical schools 
of our native State, and yet, we cannot like the spirit of Dr. B's remarks. 
He seems to endeavor to arouse Southern pride and feeling against North- 
ern schools, in a manner that he would hardly tolerate in a Northern 
Professor, should he assume the same prerogative. His shafts are parti- 
cularly aimed at the schools of Philadelphia and Louisville, and he takes 
occasion to predict that in ten years u the star of empire" will depart 
from these places, and wend its way to — Nashville of course. Nashville 
is to be the great thoroughfare of the continent, and the centre of medical 
education. Well, if we should venture to prophesy, it would be natural 
to predict that in course of time (not ten years though, or twice ten), 
Ichabod will be written on many a learned institution of the Atlantic 
border, and even on the walls of our national Capitol, but we doubt 



1853.] Miscellany. 259 

much whether the eagle of destiny will let the line fall on Nashville. 
However, we will not commit ourselves by saying more, and conclude 
with the remark, that though we thus speak, we wish the Nashville Uni- 
versity every success. May their College be yearly filled with' 500 (not 
more, for it would be too many,) attentive students — and may their 
graduates be counted by hundreds, so long as its Professors are faithful 
instructors in the science of medicine ! B. 



Miscellany. 



It is said that Dr. Owen of England, has discovered a new metal of 
the earthen class, holding an intermediate position between magnesia 
and manganese. The name given to it is Thalium. Its oxyd dissolved 
in hydrochloric acid, is of a beautiful pea-green color. 

Dr. M. Clymer, (formerly of Philadelphia,) has resigned the Chair of 
Institutes and Practice of Medicine in the University of New York. Dr. 
C. has held the post about three years. Dr. John A. Swett has been ap- 
pointed to succeed him. 

One way in which it is done. Our profession has ever complained of 
the venality of which our brethren of the newspaper press are guilty, in 
allowing their columns to be the vehicles of advertisements for notorious 
and unprincipled quacks. But, as though this were not enough, some of 
them at least, stoop so low as to give a favorable opinion of a quack re- 
medy " for a consideration." One of the editorial fraternity in a neigh- 
boring city, thus twits a rival editor with whom he was formerly associ- 
ated. "He has probably forgotten also, his letter, (since published) to 
Doctor Talbot Watts, offering to give him for ten dollars his "opinion" 
of the " Nervous Antidote." And this from the editor of one the most 
extensively circulated newspapers in this country ! 

Another way. The Boston Daily Journal complains, that the propri- 
etor of a certain nostrum called " Morse's Cordial," has forged and pub- 
lished a recommendation as from that Journal, in language that it would 
not dare to lay before its readers ! We see also in advertisements of 
another nostrum several Medical Journals named, as having recommend- 
ed it, and among them this Journal is mentioned. Of course we need not 
say that this is false ! 

Dr. Jedediah Miller has received the appointment of Health Commis- 
sioner of New York City, at a salary of $3,500 per annum. 

The pest of the lives of physicians and patients is that class of persons 
who make it their business to advocate the interests of some favorite nos- 
trum or pathy. A friend of ours, who has had the misfortune to have 
considerable sickness in his family of late, deals with them in the follow- 
ing summary manner. To their solicitations his answer is : — "I inherit- 
ed my politics, married my religion, and mean to die, like a gentleman 
and a patriot, by the United States Pharmacopoeia 1" 



260 Miscellany. [April 

The Michigan Legislature has appropriated $23,000 toward the erec- 
tion of a State Lunatic Asylum, to be located at Kalamazoo. 

The first Annual Commencement of the Philadelphia College of Den- 
tal Surgery was recently held, when the degree of Doctor of Dental Sur- 
gery was conferred on six young gentlemen. 

A Bill legalizing Medical inquiry has been before the Legislature of 
New York, and has given rise to considerable discussion. The old bug- 
bears of "violating the sanctity of the grave" — "respect for the dead/' 
&c, &c, were urged, but the temperate, and pointed arguments of 
Messrs. Wright, Beekman, Bartlett and others, set the matter in its pro- 
per light, and the bill was ordered to a third reading, and will probably 
become a law. We need such a law in New Jersey. We are required 
by our laws to be good and competent physicians and surgeons, and 
yet who of us would dare to have a dead body in our possession for sci- 
entific purposes ? 

The Western Journal of Medicine and Surgery has lost a subscriber, 
for which he has our sympathy. " Start not gentle reader" (as popular 
tale writers say), at the grave announcement. We make it, not because 
it is in itself a rare thing, but by way of introduction to the following or- 
der of discontinuance, with which our confrere has favored the world, 
and which is certainly " rare." 

"Dear Sir I wish you to stop sending the Medical Journal to me 
for I will leave for Oregon this Spring So close up for it is the no a 
countest thing I ever read it is at least 50 years behind the times you 
had better stop grinding or turn Eclectic then you will be a benefit to 
mankind. M. Jefferies, M. D." 

The Journal facetiously observes — "Dr. Jefferies, it will be remarked, 
does not deign to make a stop in his letter. It is to be hoped that he 
did not stop till he got to Oregon." 

We noticed recently in an advertisement of a " Phy so-magnetic doctor- 
ess the following : — " When the person to be examined cannot be present 
by reason of extreme illness, distance or other circumstances, Mrs. M. 
will require a lock of the patient's hair" !! In this connection we can- 
not resist the temptation to say, that we have some subscribers, from 
whom we would be happy to receive the testimony of a " lock of their 
hair," that they are in existence ! 

The University of Vermont, located at Burlington, has taken measures 
to establish a Medical Department, in connection with its course of study. 
Four professorships have been filled, three to be supplied. Drs. Samuel 
W. Thayer, Jr., Prof, of Surgery, L. W. Bliss, of Anatomy, Owen 
Smith, Obstetrics, &c, and I}. S. Carr, Chemistry and Pharmacy. The 
students to have access to the Library of the University. There are al- 
ready two chartered medical Institutions in Vermont, one located at Cas- 
tleton, and the other at Woodstock. If the three will unite, they may 
make one very respectable School. That is what they ought to do ? 

Dr. Thomas Wood has become associated with Dr. Lawson in the Ed- 
itorial management of the Western Lancet. 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 261 

There are several institutions for medical teaching in Cincinnati and 
other parts of Ohio. Surely the present generation of students, will not 
lack in opportunities to acquire a complete medical education ! 

The second volume of Dr. Drake's great work on the principal dis- 
eases of the Interior Valley of North America, is soon to come out. It was 
left in an advanced state, at the time of the distinguished author's de- 
mise. , 

Dr. James C. Forrester has been appointed to fill the vacancy in the 

Medical Board of Bellevue Hospital, occasioned by the death of Dr. A. 

W. Robertson. Three additional members of the Medical Board have also 

been appointed, viz. Drs. John J. Crane, Isaac E. Taylor, and John 

W. Carson. 



DEATHS. 

Died — Jan. 25, in London, George Gregory, M. D., author of several 
important medical works, particularly one published recently on Eruptive 
Diseases. 

March 6th, at Millstone, N. J. William D. McKissack, M. D., 

set. 60.. Will not some friend furnish us with a short biographical no- 
tice of the deceased? 

March 11th, in Groldsboro', N. C, Samuel A. Andrews M. D., 

set. 56. Dr. A. was a native of Woodbury Ct., and graduated in me- 
dicine at Yale College, in 1818. He removed to N. C. in 1824. 

March 12th, in Philadelphia, William E. Horner, M. D., Prof. 

of Anatomy in the University of Pa., set. 60. 

March 15th, in N. Y., of Pneumonia, Dr. James Campbell. 

March 22d, in N. Y., of the same disease, Dr. A. W. Robertson, 

one of the Physicians in Bellevue Hospital. 

March 30th, in Dan vers, Mass., Andrew Nichols, M. D., set. 70. 

April 1st, in New York City, Joseph J. O'Reilly, M. D. 

At Guilford, Md., Dr. Benjamin Gale, set. 102. 



ECLECTIC AND SUMMARY DEPARTMENT. 



On the use of Taraxacum in certain Morbid conditions. By A. FoRS- 
ter Axson, M. D. — It has often occurred to me that in the multiplici- 
ty of new remedies, which chemistry and a closer knowledge of the vege- 
table kingdom are daily bestowing on the healing art, we are apt to over- 
look some valuable agents, simply because they have long been known, 
and may at times have failed to realize expectations when most relied on. 
Novelty and fashion have their votaries, even in medicine. To some 



262 Eclectic and Summary Department. [April 

such influence must be referred the popular repute of some medicaments, 
and their short lived hold on the faith and confidence of the profession. 
Used for a certain set of symptoms, we do not inquire into their modes 
of action as remedial agents, but seek by anology rather to extend their 
applications and diversify their uses. This process of reasoning and ex- 
periment, however safe in matters of logic, too often involves us in doubt, 
and leads us to a denial of their assumed virtues altogether. The truth 
is, that in the present condition of medical science — using the phrase in 
its widest acceptation — there is no more difficult inquiry than that of the 
modes of operation of the various articles of the materia medica upon the 
animal organism. Plausible and ingenious speculations abound, but as 
yet it is not possible to construct out of them formulae, which may be re- 
garded as expressing principles general enough for all our facts. Vital 
chemistry has done much to enlighten our ignorance, but its teachings 
are not seldom contradicted by clinical experience, and certain facts are 
left isolated, which no theory has, hitherto, been adequate to compre- 
hend. Nor should this seem very wonderful when we reflect on the kind 
and nature of the obstacles that hedge around such inquiries. They in- 
volve not only questions in which the blood and other fluids of the body 
are directly concerned, but in an equal degree the solids also, and their 
mutual relations and aflinities — and all subordinated to a principle of vi- 
tality, which necessarily and powerfully modifies the action of admitted 
forces, whether chemical or physical. Hence the proclivity to adopt 
briefer and less laborious methods in our investigations into the laws of 
action of medicaments, and the uncertainty, if not positive denial, of effi- 
ciency to many that once were honored with favors little short of what 
should rightfully belong to catholicons, did such really exist. I shall not 
aim, in recording the following cases, to restore to forfeited esteem a me- 
dicine which once was vastly applauded, but is now neglected or seldom 
prescribed. If I can accurately define and limit the pathological condi- 
tions, in which I have found its use of marked benefit, and show, in the 
history of these cases, that it is a reliable agent, acting with certainty 
and safety, I believe more will be effected than by any extravagance of 
praise or undue heralding of its virtues. 

It may be premised here, that, by all observers who have noticed the 
results of the use of taraxacum, it is pretty uniformly spoken of as a resol- 
vent and tonic, and mainly indicated in chronic disorders of the digestive 
organs, including in this term the large glandulse annexed to the alimen- 
tary canal, and directly subsidiary to its functions. There can be little 
doubt of its tonic powers, if bitterness, a quality possessed by the recent- 
ly expressed juice of its root, be supposed indicative of such powers in 
medicine. Mr. Donovan, in an article of the Dublin Medical Press for 
June, 1851, seems to have investigated the properties of the fresh juice 
of the root with great care, and with reference to a better mode of pre- 
paring it so as to preserve its powers. In his opinion, the bitterness is 
due to the presence of a proximate principle that is crystalisable, and 
which " naturally belongs to the juice." The form, in which, in this 
latitude, we usually see it, is that of the extract of commerce, or of the 



1853] Eclectic and Summary Department. 263 

dried root, in neither of which is the presence of bitterness appreciable. 
It is highly probable that in this, as in other instances, the love of thrift, 
of dishonest gain, rather than imperfect modes of preparation, has crafti- 
ly qualified the extracts, and given us an inert instead of a really valua- 
ble drug. According to Mr. Donovan, however, the bitterness of the 
juice is not its only property. He has found it " to contain sulphates, 
phosphates, muriates, and tartaric acid, or a bitartrate," constituents that 
doubtless, conduce much to its value as a remedial agent. In truth, I 
believe that to these latter constituents is due its chief excellence as a 
renal alterative, and as such a powerful depurative of the blood, a pro- 
perty so generally accorded to it. It is well known that there are medi- 
cines, which, when introduced into the system, sensibly affect the meta- 
morphosis of the tissues, increasing the quantity of solid matter passing 
out with the urine. To this class belong not only the alkalies and their 
carbonates, but all the salts of alkalies capable of being decomposed while 
in the body, and converted into the carbonates, such as the citrates, tar- 
trates, etcetera. The writings of Bird, Becquerel and others, have 
made us familiar with these properties and their modus operandi. Here- 
tofore, whenever the diuretic action of taraxacum was conceded, it was 
supposed from analogy to be similar to that of guiacum, squill or juniper, 
articles well known from every day experience, to be capable of augment- 
ing the renal secretions, but without any power to induce chemical change 
in organic matter, and thus to effect those metamorphoses by which the 
blood is purified and waste matter got rid of. It was rather as a renal 
hydragogue than as a depurant we were disposed to class it. In the care- 
ful analysis of the fresh juice by Mr. Donovan, and the discovery there- 
in of some of the alkaline salts, we are now able to correct this error, and 
to assign it a better defined position in our catalogue of medicines, one, 
at least, that brings it within the vergp of those chemico-pathological doc- 
trines which have done, and are still doing, so much to simplify the art 
of treating and curing diseased conditions. With this preface I will cite 
two or three cases illustrative of its powers. 

Case 1. — Joseph Smith, aged 28, of full habit, and a sanguine tem- 
perament — free in his modes of living — rather inclined to dissipation, 
was seized with spitting of blood — great distress about precordial region 
— rapid breathing — pulse frequent and strong — skin warm and plentiful- 
ly bedewed with perspiration. Auscultation disclosed in cardaic region, 
only tumultuous impulse of the heart — no murmurs or bruit — loud and 
large moist rhoncus over both lungs, such as is usually heard in hemop- 
tysis or more properly in pulmonary hemorrhage — percussion indicated 
no remarkable modification of the resonance of the lungs until the right 
hypocondriac region was approached, when it became flat and dull. Pass- 
ing the hands down to the margin of the ribs, and making pressure over 
the liver, much tenderness was felt; this extended round to the vertebral 
column. Bowels had been confined for some days previous, and urine 
had been high colored and scanty. Tongue heavily furred at its posteri- 
or half, and the whole surface covered with a thick clammy saliva — 
breath hot and strong. I had him bled to some sixteen ounces, when 



264 Eclectic and Summary Department. [April 

the pulse became soft and broad. A brisk cathartic of infus. Sennas 
and manna was ordered. 

I saw him the succeeding day, when his medicine had operated well, 
and excepting the tenderness in the hepatic region, he seemed every way 
improved. There was occasional hemoptysis during the day. Deeming 
his condition one that admitted of the diuretic and deobstruent action of 
the dandelion, I left the following prescription with him : 
R Fresh root of Taraxacum ^ ss. 

Extract of Taraxac 3 j . 

Sodas Bicarbon 3J. 

Extract Gentian gj. 

Boiling water oj. 
Infuse for a half hour, decant, and when cold, a tea-cupfuil to be taken 
twice daily. Diet to be light and unstimulating. Under the use of this 
combination I had the satisfaction to find every indication of disease, and 
every morbid symptom to yield. The hemoptysis ceased, the tenderness 
to pressure over the liver disappeared, and the urine became of a normal 
color. 

There is no doubt that we had here great venous congestion of the 
right side of the heart, lungs and liver, that the venesection and free 
purging effectively relieved this, leaving a residue of disease only in the 
liver, which still showed signs of tenderness on pressure. The kidneys 
likewise showed in the color and scantiness of their secretion that there 
remained something farther to be done. I am persuaded that the salt of 
soda and the taraxacum combined, mainly contributed to those decompo- 
sitions and changes of tissue, by which the waste material and the pro- 
ducts of disease were largely increased and eliminated through the medi- 
um of the urine, and the organs consequently restored to their physiolo- 
gical state. 

Case 2.— Frances, servant of Mr. Raymond, had been declining in 
health for some time— had been under treatment by several physicians, 
by some of whom she was told her spine was affected. Her condition, 
when I saw her, was thin and somewhat emaciated, she moved about 
slowly, shuffling along rather than walking, complained of pain in her 
back, directly over the kidneys. No appetite, and imperfectly disgesting 
what she ate — constant acidity of the stomach — bowels irregular rather 
than costive, and urine small in quantity and of a deep color — tongue 
coated with a heavy brown fur, broad and indented at the sides from 
pressure of the teeth. Her uterine organs evinced functional disturbance, 
the menstrual flux sometimes being suspended for a term or so and always 
deficient in quantity; no dysmenorrhea. A careful exploration of the 
abdominal organs gave out signs of tenderness over the right hypochon- 
drium and extending back to the spine. I commenced the treatment of 
this case by having her dry cupped over the whole of the tender part, 
and repeated as often as tenderness was felt, to take a pill of rhubarb, 
aloes, and Spanish soap every other night, till her bowels were regulated, 
and twice during the day to drink a tea-cup of the infusion of Taraxacum, 
according to the preceding formula. This treatment was extended over 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 265 

a period of a fortnight, before any visible improvement was noticed. Af- 
ter this, she mended in health rapidly, conld walk with briskness and for 
long distances without fatigue or tripping — appetite restored, and, in a 
word, all her functions coming round to a normal point, both in the kind 
and degree of their action. I saw this woman a year afterwards, and she 
seemed in perfect health. ******* 

I could go on enumerating cases similar to these, did I not regard 
them as sufficiently illustrative of the alterative and tonic powers of Tar- 
axacum. That something is due to the combination of soda, must be ad- 
mitted when we consider how completely this class of medicines affect the 
composition of the tissues, and their relations with the blood and other 
organic fluids. But since the careful analysis of Donovan, Taraxacum it- 
self is found to supply an element in the bitartrate and its other salts, 
well adapted to meet all the exigencies of a renal depurant. It is, con- 
sequently, in such frequent perversions of nutrition as are furnished by 
our narrated cases, in deficiency or incompleteness of secondary assimila- 
tion, where the excreta fail, and the blood becomes charged with their 
effete matter, that it is chiefly indicated, and its salutary and remedial 
powers exerted. — N. 0. Med. Register. 

Liquor Ammonias Acetatis. By John T. Plummer, M. D., of Rich- 
mond, la.-The following remarks may be of service, as items in the general 
stock of experience. They have been induced by the diversity of results, 
reported by different authors. Introduced more than a hundred year3 
ago, its medicinal properties do not yet appear to be definitely settled, 
espocially with regard to its action on the uterine functions; and the doses 
to be administered. Cloquet of Paris, Muzuyer of Strasburg, and Patin 
of France, report favorably of its use in dysmenorrhea. The last named 
physician appears to have given 40 to 70 drops, three or four times a day; 
and by these doses giddiness was produced. Christison (Dispensatory) 
says " the dose should be half an ounce for an adult every two or three 
hours ;" and makes no reference to its pathogenetic effects, but adds, 
" many physicians err in prescribing it in small doses." Patin advises 
against the incautious use of it, as it diminishes the quantity of the men- 
strual discharge. u In large doses," says Christison, " it probably pos~ 
sesses the narcotic-irritant properties of other neutral ammoniacal salts." 
In cases of profuse catamenia and uterine hemorrhages, Patin obtained 
the most remarkable results. 

For twenty years I have employed this remedy with frequent success 
in amenorrhcea, instead of " profuse catamenia;" and in dysmenorrhea, 
I have prepared it extemporaneously, with the strongest cider vinegar ; 
and with acetic acid of sp. gr. 1011. The first, I have generally used in 
amenorrhcea, in half ounce doses every two hours, at the commencement 
of the menstrual efforts, indicated by headache, pains in the loins, &c; 
and in dysmenorrhea, in like manner. The preparation with acetic acid 
I have used in the same affections, at intervals of 2 to 4 hours. From 
the use of the vinegar combination, I have never witnessed the slightest 
ill-effects, except, perhaps, sometimes that degree of nausea which moai 



266 Eclectic and Summary Department. [April 

medicines are apt to occasion. From the acetic acid preparation, I have 
observed variable effects in the doses named. 

A married female, about 30 years old, suffered from a multitude of 
nervous symptoms, in consequence of a prolapsed uterus, occasioned by 
too early rising after confinement with her first, and as yet, only child. 
To restore menstruation, she had taken, from various physicians, helle- 
bore, savin, and numerous other articles, with but little effect. (The pro- 
lapsus appears not to have been suspected by her medical attendants.) 
After replacing the uterus, I found the catamenial period painful, but 
without flow. I gave ^ss doses of the aqueous acetate of ammonia, of 
the strength above named, and the menses appeared without any patho- 
genetic action from the medicine. At the next period, the same means 
were used, after the patient had been allowed to pass several days be- 
fore the expected time ; and a more copious catamenia followed, than she 
had ever witnessed. 

To another patient about 20, married, but sterile, yet possessing gene- 
ral good health, I gave §ss of the acetate, with the effect of vomiting, 
severe headache, and delirium. In a few hours the headache and deliri- 
um had ceased. Next day gij. of the acetate was given with the like 
result, but in less degree. 

This article appears to have been proposed as a means of " dispelling 
intoxication." In the last named case, it evidently induced sj^mp- 
toms, closely imitating intoxication, if it was not intoxication itself. 

My experience fully accords with that of others, in respect to the 
febrifuge properties of this remedial agent. I have never been able to 
discover that it, in the slightest degree, excites the sanguiferous system. 
So far from it, it has in my hands, appeared to be a cooling sedative. I 
have found it to be especially serviceable, in the early and eruptive stages 
of measles, sometimes combined with camphorated water, but mostly 
alone. 

I do not wonder, however, that it has by some, been considered as a 
stimulant of the arterial function. Even, as originally prepared by Min- 
derer, it appears to have differed from our modern solution, in being 
more disagreeable in consequence of the accidental formation of an am- 
moniacal soap. But as I have seen it formed extemporaneously by some, 
claiming to be physicians and apothecaries, it would serve well, in case 
of emergency, to fill a smelling bottle. 

I was called in consultation, in the case of a child laboring under dys- 
enteric fever ; and prescribed, in part, the solution of acet. of ammonia. 
In a few hours afterward, I was called, in the absence of the family phy- 
sician, on account of the occurrence of vomiting and increase of fever. 
Suspecting the cause, I examined the preparation, and found it so strong- 
ly ammoniacal, that, to satisfy my curiosity, I took it home and added 
to one part of the original preparation, six parts of acid. acet. dilut., be- 
fore the alkali became neutralized. At another house, in a case of infan- 
tile pneumonitis, I discovered a like preparation to be the all-sufficient 
cause of a violent exacerbation of all the symptoms. I need not multi- 
ply examples ; the cases given will serve to show, not only an inexcusa- 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 267 

ble recklessness in the preparation of the medicine ; but, also, the pre- 
mises from which some are willing to draw their conclusions of the pro- 
perties of remedial agents. To assure me that it was a neutral compound 
that he had been administering, the physician stated that he added the 
carbonate of ammonia until effervescence ceased. He may possibly have 
heard of litmus and turmeric ; but, according to his own avowal, the con- 
cession of effervescence was enough for him, without the aid of these ve- 
getable tell-tales. 

Of late years, I prepare this solution, exclusively with dilute acetic 
acid and the alkali. On account of the unsightly, turbid, brown liquid 
produced by the combination of ordinary vinegar with the ammonia; and 
the great variation in the strength of vinegar; dilute acetic acid of offici- 
nal specific gravity should always be used. When properly prepared, it 
requires much patience in attaining the point of neutralization, even with 
the aid of test papers. It may be readily kept for months, in a cool 
place, in well stopped vessels. — Western Lancet. 

The late Jonathan Pereira, M. D. — This distinguished physician, 
some weeks before his death, when on a visit to the Hunterian Museum, 
fell down and ruptured the tendon of the rectus femoris of the right side, 
from the consequences of which injury he was gradually recovering up to 
the time of his decease, which occurred, we are informed, as he was as- 
cending the stairs to his bedroom ; he was seen to place his hand to the 
chest, and had merely time to express his conviction that the hand of 
death was upon him, and to request the attendance of a medical friend 
in the neighborhood; before, however, that gentleman arrived, the Doc- 
tor had ceased to exist. The deceased deservedly occupied a high posi- 
tion in the profession, to the advancement of which he had contributed 
several valuable works, particularly his " Elements of Materia Medica 
and Therapeutics/' a work enjoying an European celebrity, and a third 
edition of which he had nearly completed and published when he was ar- 
rested by death. Dr. Jonathan Pereira became a member of the Royal 
College of Surgeons on the 3d of June, 1825, an M. D. of Erlangen, 
1840, L. R. 0. P. in the same year, and in 1845 became a Fellow of the 
College. The deceased was one of the principal supporters of the Alder- 
gate-street School of Medicine, where he had a very large class, which 
after a while he resigned for a more successful field for his exertions, 
viz., the London Hospital; of this excellent institution he was physician 
at the time of his lamented decease. Dr. Pereira' s death also creates a 
vacancy in the Examining Board of the University of London, an ap- 
pointment which the Senate will experience some difficulty in filling up 
with a successor equal to the deceased, as an examiner in materia medica 
and pharmacy. The following are some of his contributions to the ad- 
vancement of science : Treatise on Diet, 1843 ; Selecta e Praescriptis, 
eleventh edition, 1851 ; Lectures on Polarized Light, 1843 ; A Transla- 
tion of the Pharmacopoeia of 1824 ; A Manual for the use of Students, 
1826 ; A General Table of Atomic Numbers, with introduction to the 
Atomic Theory, 1827. In addition to the above, Dr. Pereira bad con- 
tributed several valuable papers to the Journals of the day, and was a 



268 Eclectic and Summary Department. [ApEil 

member of several learned societies, both at home and abroad.— Medical 

News. 

Insanity or Mental Derangement. An inquiry into its nature, forms, 
causes, means of prevention, and general principles of treatment. By 
H. A. Buttolph, M. I). — The brain is the physical agency by or through 
which the mind is manifested in this life, and is therefore entitled to pri- 
mary consideration, in any and every investigation relating to the facul- 
ties of the latter. The essential requisites of a perfect brain, are, that 
its material substance be of the property quality, that it be of sufficient 
size, and of proper form. When these requisites are fulfilled, experience 
teaches that the faculties of the mind are manifested with the greatest 
strength, in the most harmonious manner, and that the departures from 
the highest standard of excellence in the separate and combined action of 
its various powers, alike in the case of nations and individuals, proceed 
mainly from the failure of one or all of these three conditions. 

The next important fact relative to the brain, as the organ and agent 
of the mind, is that although it is a perfect whole, yet it is composed of 
many regions and parts, each being endowed with the power of manifest- 
ing the several classes and individual faculties of the mind. While this 
fact explains very perfectly, the ground of the interesting and endless di- 
versity in the mental character of individuals, it also reveals in our pre- 
sent inquiry, the natural standard of mental soundness or sanity, possess- 
ed by them in health ; and the true basis for judging of their mental 
symptoms in disease. 

A state of healthy action in all the parts of the brain is invariably at- 
tended by a natural or healthy development of the mental faculties, and 
constitutes the standard of mental soundness or sanity of the individual ; 
while a state of disease in this organ, consisting of a deficient, disordered 
or excessive action, in any of its parts, is followed by corresponding 
changes in the state of the mental faculties, and constitutes mental un- 
soundness, or insanity; the diversity of the mental symptoms in the 
latter, corresponding to the varieties and stages of disease in the former, 
and are quite as great as the varieties in individual character. 

From this it will appear how utterly futile are attempts by physicians, 
physiologists and jurists, to frame a definition of insanity, so comprehen- 
sive as to embrace all supposable examples of the disease, and yet so par- 
ticular, as to be of practical utility, in determining its existence in doubt- 
ful cases. Insanity or mental derangement, being the opposite or coun- 
ter state to sanity or mental soundness, a knowledge of each individual 
standard of the latter, must be had to enable us to exercise enlightened 
judgment of the existence and degree of the former in a given case. It 
may be remarked generally, therefore, that a state of insanity or mental 
derangement, is that in which there is a departure, through disease of 
the brain, from the natural standard of thought and feeling of an indi- 
vidual, without his being conscious of the same ; and in the loss of his 
ability to act freely in these circumstances. The expression of the sen- 
timent embraced in this statement is deemed important, so far as it sug- 
gests the necessity in each case, of a careful comparison of the supposed 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 269 

insane with the natural character of the individual, rather than a reliance 
upon a definition or rule of judgment, that may not apply to his state or 
standard of mind ; and especially, that may not recognize disorder from 
the above cause of the individual faculties, feelings and propensities, as 
a state of insanity and connected with which, the responsibility of the 
party may be materially lessened or entirely destroyed. 

In criminal suits, involving the question of insanity, this rule or mode 
of procedure is quite as important to secure the ends of public justice, as 
to protect the rights of the culprit • because, conduct that would appear 
as the height of insanity in a majority of minds, may be in strict keeping 
with the standard of character in the person committing the offence, and 
indicate, either an excusable degree of stupidity, or a most reprehensible 
state of depravity. 

Having determined as to the nature of insanity, that it consists in a 
disordered state of any or all of the faculties of the mind through disease 
of the brain, we come next to consider the forms of mental derangement, 
induced by disease of this organ. 

Much light has been thrown upon this branch of our inquiry by the 
improved method of classifying the mental faculties — the mental forms of 
disease of the brain, of course correspond precisely with the region or 
part affected, and are as numerous and varied as the number and func- 
tions of such regions and parts. As the brain in its functional office is 
divided into three general regions, the regions of intellect, of sentiment, 
and of animal or selfish feelings ; so insanity is divided into three princi- 
pal forms, which are characterized by the disturbed state of these several 
classes of faculties. The more minute and mixed varieties, under these 
general heads, will correspond to the number and nature of the affected 
organs and faculties in each of the several groups, and all the forms may 
be modified also, according as the disease affecting the physical parts is 
characterized by diminished, disordered or increased action. 

Before entering upon the description of the different forms of insanity, 
it may be well to remark, that as in health, each class of the mental fa- 
culties, and each individual faculty of the several classes, have a specific 
office to perform, and exercise a positive influence, according to their of- 
fice and rank, in preserving the healthy balance of the mind ) so the de- 
ranged state of a class or single faculty, has an equal tendency to dis- 
turb and distort the action of other faculties, and thus to complicate all 
the mental phenomena of the case. For the purpose, however, of ena- 
bling my readers to comprehend some of the intricacies of the mixed 
forms of the disease, I shall in the first instance, give a general account 
of the symptoms as they would appear, if the disease of the brain was 
confined to a single region, and affected but one class of the mental facul- 
ties at a time. 

Intellectual Region. The mental symptoms of disease in this region, 
consists in a depressed, disordered, or excited state of the intellectual fa- 
culties, perceptive and reflective, according as the disease of the physical 
part is characterized by these several grades or forms of action. If the 
diseased is less than the natural action of the brain, then the faculties ap- 
pear obtuse and tardy in their exercise — the person perceives the charac- 



270 Eclectic and Summary Department. [April 

ter of external objects with slowness and difficulty, and comprehends and 
reasons upon their relations imperfectly, or fails altogether to form a de- 
finite mental conclusion in regard to them. 

On the contrary, if the disease be characterized by excitement or in- 
creased action, some or all of the faculties of the group, including the or- 
gans of the special senses, are preternaturally acute — the person per- 
ceives the qualities of physical objects readily, remembers distinctly, 
speaks fluently and reasons rapidly, though perhaps incorrectly. 

Region of the Sentiments. The faculties of this class consists of those 
higher feelings proper to man, and when disturbed by disease of the 
brain, are diminished, perverted or increased in their natural strength, 
as were the first named, according to the character of the diseased action. 
If the moral and religious faculties, the highest of this class, are involved 
and unduly excited, a hopeful, joyful, and even ecstatic state of the feel- 
ings, in reference to their present condition and future prospects, is ex- 
perienced, and the attention of the individual is exclusively engaged in 
the contemplation of such subjects and scenes as relate to their gratifica- 
tion. On the contrary, it often occurs that the hopeful are diminished 
in connection with and in proportion to an increase of the timid and fear- 
ful feelings ; when, if the general health of the person is low, all the 
symptoms of profound religious melancholy are at once developed ) the 
very counter state to that first described. In other cases, extreme vanity, 
pride or firmness and obstinacy of character may be developed, as the ef- 
fect of excitement of these natural feelings ; or from a state of diminished 
action in this region of the brain, may result great humility and indeci- 
sion of character. 

Region of Animal or Selfish Feelings. This region of the brain re- 
lates primarily to the wants of an animal body and its connection with a 
physical world, though the faculties manifested by or through it, are also 
called upon to lend important aid to those of the other classes, and hence, 
to serve the two-fold purpose for which they are designed, they are en- 
dowed with great natural strength, which renders them spontaneously 
.active. In this group are arranged the faculties that relate to the suste- 
nance and propagation of the species, the acquisition of property, defence 
of .personal rights, etc., etc. When duly developed only, and trained to 
proper subordination to the higher faculties of reason and moral senti- 
ment, they are the sources of many pleasures to man, and should, as they 
deserve to be, considered as highly respectable in their nature and objects. 

From their inherent strength, however, and the want of enlightened 
training, from which many, if not most minds suffer, they are liable to 
become Irregular and excessively active, and are then popularly, and per- 
haps properly denominated passions, though we here suppose a degree of 
activity that does not transcend the bounds of health in their organs, for 
which their possessor is responsible. When however, to large and habit- 
ually active organs of this class, is superadded the excitement of disease, 
which latter has perhaps arisen from the functional excesses of the organ 
involved, we have developed the most revolting form of derangement of 
which the human subject is capable ; and one in which is exhibited, in 
the progress from the healthy legitimate action of the faculties involved, 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 271 

to the ultimate catastrophe, the varying character of a christian nian ? 
barbarian, brute, and finally, demon incarnate. No wonder that in an- 
cient times, the subjects of this dire makxbf were considered as being 
possessed by evil spirits ) for certainly all the supposable bad traits of a 
fiendish character are aptly personated by them. 

In the opposite form of disease of this region, or that in which there 
exists diminished action, there occurs a simple suppression, general or 
partial in its functions, and consequently in the manifestation of the fa- 
culties dependent upon it. When this takes place, the mind in general, 
loses its accustomed spirit and vigor in regard to the objects and pursuits 
of life. So important in their influence on the mind are the faculties of 
this class, that when they are lost through disease, the unfortunate sub- 
ject at once degenerates from an active, industrious, enterprising and en- 
ergetic man, to an indolent, useless character, alike incompetent to pro- 
vide for his own or the wants of others. With the knowledge of the in- 
vigorating influence in the animal economy of well trained and balanced 
animal propensities, let no teacher of the young fail to give them that en- 
lightened direction and guidance that their tendency to go astray de- 
mands ) nor in view of their encouraging, propelling influence to the no- 
bler faculties of intellect and sentiment, let no good man consider them 
merely as wicked appendages to his mental economy ) nor pray for entire 
relief from their promptings, while as in this life, the Creator's purposes 
are subserved, by their intimate union with man's high powers. 

Mixed Forms of Insanity. As before stated, so intimately are the 
different regions and organs of the brain connected by continuity of tex- 
ture and by functional action and sympathy, that the disease of a region 
or lesser part, seldom remains circumscribed for any considerable length 
of time. Thus, in many or most recent cases, in whatever class or facul- 
ty the derangement first appears, we soon observe some or all of the fa- 
culties of the other classes participating in the affection; indeed, the very 
essence of the malady, as a mental disorder, consists in the false judg- 
ment that one faculty or class of faculties makes in reference to the ex- 
isting state of others, or if the delusion is not perfect, as occasionally 
happens, in the want of ability in the sound faculties, in the particular 
circumstances of the case, to restrain the unsound within proper bounds. 
In proportion as the disease of the brain is extended, embracing different 
regions and many individual organs, will the number of affected faculties 
be multiplied, and the actual mental symptoms be complicated and con- 
fused. Here it may be remarked that the simple or physiological sys- 
tem of classification of the faculties adopted in this essay, is of the great- 
est value in assisting the physician to perceive the strong and weak points 
in the natural character of his patient, and so to discriminate between 
the existing sound and unsound faculties, as to make his knowledge 
available in prescribing the mental and moral treatment required for his 
relief. — (To be continued.*) — — 

Naval Surgeons. — The Naval Medical Board of Examination, which 
convened at Philadelphia, on the 15th of December last, have report- 
ed the following Assistant Surgeons as qualified for promotion to wit : — 
No. 1, William Lowber ; No. 8, P. J. Hortwitz ; No. 3, B. Rush 
Mitchell j No> 4, D= B, Phillips j No, 5. James Hamilton j No. 6 



272 Eclectic and Summary Department. [April 1853.] 

J. L. Burtt. The Board having carefully examined, thirty-four of the 
candidates for admission into the Navy as Assistant Surgeons, who ap- 
peared before it, have selected nine of the best qualified. They are as 
follows : — No. 1, James H. Stuart, of Penna. j No. 2, Pembroke 
Thorne, of Va. ; No. 3, John M. Browne, of iV. H. ; No. 4, John 
T. Taylor, of Del. ; No. 5, Henry Clay Caldwell, of Va.; No. 6, 
Thos. J. Turner, of Pa.; No. 7, Wm. T. Hood, of Ky.; No. 8, Went- 
worth R. Eichardson, of Mass ; No. 9, A. Clarkson Smith, of Pa. 

[We translate the following from U Abeille Medicale."] — On the em- 
ployment of Creosote in Deafness. By Dr. Harrison Curtis. — One of 
the principal causes of deafness is the absence of the secretion of cerumen 
in consequence of a fault in the action of the ceruminous glands. Often 
in my clinics, even when the deafness has continued for a long time, I 
have observed that it has no other cause, and on removing that, I have 
caused the infirmity to disappear. It is very true that to obtain this re- 
sult, more or less time is necessary, according to the duration of the infir- 
mity, and in proportion to the gravity of the first cause of the inaction 
of the glands. After having cleansed the auditory meatus, and re-opened, 
so to speak, the orifice of the passage, by removing the morbid secretion 
which obstructs it, the use of a moderate stimulant is indispensable to re- 
establish the normal action of the glands. But before all, it is necessary 
to cleanse the auditory meatus, as no remedy can have the least effect, un- 
less this operation has been well performed. In general I employ a prepa- 
ration composed of half an ounce of beefs gall and a drachm (ungros) of 
tincture of castor or tincture of musk. With it I moisten a piece of cot- 
ton, which I place in the auditory meatus at night, to soften the harden- 
ed cerumen. In the morning I syringe the ear with warm water, to 
which may be added an ounce of soap liniment and a little cologne. I 
have often substituted with advantage, for the preparation of beefs gall 
and tincture of castor, the solution of potass of our Pharmacopoeia (Lon- 
don ?) with the oil of sweet almonds, to dissolve the cerumen. 

I would recommend for this operation, to be particular in the choice of 
a syringe. When the ear is well cleansed, and the glands are in such a 
state that a stimulant can act upon them, I would advise, in accordance 
with results which I have obtained from my clinical experience, the em- 
ployment of a solution of creasote in oil of (sweet) almonds, to induce the 
ceruminous glands to resume their normal action. The following is the 
formula which I employ — 

R Creasote - f. gj. 

Oil of sweet almonds f. ^iv. tr^ . and with a badger's hair pen- 
cil put a small quantity in the auditory passages night and morning. I 
ordinarily commence with a solution of this strength, and augment the 
quantity of creasote according to the effects obtained. Cases, however, 
present themselves, in which no good result will be obtained from this 
application without applying behind the ear a vesicatory of ointment of 
tartarized antimony, or other derivatives. In otorrhoca, and always when 
there is pain or inflammation the creasote is contraindicated. 

It3 application causes no pain or unpleasant sensation; but only an 
agreeable fooling of warmth. — From the Lancet. 



THE 

NEW JEESEY MEDICAL REPORTER. 

VOL. VI FIFTH MONTH (MAY 27th), 1853. No. 8. 

Health vs. Fashion. By Thomas <T. Corson, M. D. — Concluded. 

Another mode in which incalculable detriment is done to health, is the 
neglect with which physical education is treated. Parents do not pay 
sufficient attention to the physical development of their children. In 
their overweening anxiety to improve the mind, they neglect the body ; 
thus laying the foundation for diseases which will afflict the individuals, 
who have been subjected to such treatment while children, during the 
whole of their after-life. For my part, I would rather have a child who, 
at six or seven years of age, should have his muscular system well de- 
veloped, and his features darkened by the rays of the life-giving sun, 
even though he were hardly able to read his primer, than have one who 
at his age had made surprising intellectual advancement, while his skin 
was as white as chalk, his muscular system hardly strong enough to car- 
ry him, and his whole frame showing that his mind had been developed 
to the detriment of his body. Leave the mind alone until the body 
grows strong, and then it will be able to bear the effects of strong men- 
tal exertion. Many, very many children have the foundations of their 
health sapped by confinement in poorly ventilated school-rooms, and ap- 
plication to study, before their bodies are strong enough to bear such 
treatment. If parents knew the full value of physical training, and would 
pay due attention to the subject, we should see less disease among chil- 
dren and young people. 

While on the subject of education, it may not be inappropriate to look 
at the effects of confinement in schools and to study, upon rather older 
persons, particularly on young girls in the cities. Many young girls in 
the cities are cooped up from nine until two o'clock, in crowded school- 
rooms, and are made to pursue such a variety of studies as to require al- 
most the whole of their time while out of school, to prepare their lessons. 
And when they are not studying, they are kept drumming on the piano, 

or learning to play the guitar, thus getting little or no time for healthful 
35 



274 Corson, — Health vs. Fashion. [May 

exercise — and doing all this very often against their own inclination and 
feelings, but urged on by parents and teachers, in order that they may 
become " accomplished." 

It has become fashionable for young girls to study Algebra, Botany, 
Mineralogy, French, Latin, Music, Drawing, &c, &c, &c; and very often 
all of these studies are crowded upon them at once, giving them no time 
to rest day or night; for after studying and being kept shut up from the 
blessed fresh air all day, they go to bed feverish and worn out, so that 
they cannot rest. Far be it from me to object to having girls liberally 
educated; with this I have no fault to find ; my objection applies only to 
educating them too fast. Let them stay at school longer, and by having 
fewer things to do at one time, and a longer period wherein to do them, 
they will succeed better in accomplishing their object. Young girls be- 
tween twelve and sixteen are particularly liable to be morbidly affected 
by such a rigid course of discipline, as this is the time when that impor- 
tant change takes place, which is the commencement of a new era of 
their life. They are now changing from the girl to the woman ! Now 
it is that the menses appear, or rather, they should now appear. But if 
girls are kept closely confined at school, and their minds almost unremit- 
tingly applied to study, so that their physical frames cannot be properly 
developed, the menstrual discharge will not take place. 

Probably nature may make an effort to establish this new function ; 
but under such circumstances, the effort will prove abortive. In such a 
case the physician will often be consulted, and told by the mother that 
her daughter has retention of the menses, and will be asked what can be 
done to save her from impending destruction. Will an intelligent phy- 
sician prescribe emmenagogues for such a patient, and still allow her to 
pursue her studies as usual, and be confined as much as ever ? By no 
means would he do so. He would tell her to throw away her books — 
stay out of the school-room — walk and ride in the open air, and take much 
active exercise. Under such regimen he can pretty safely predict that 
she will soon regain her wonted health. 

Look at the difference between the country and city girl. One is rosy 
with health, possessed of sufficient muscular strength to pile wood, while 
the other has not enough muscular power to enable her to walk four or 
five miles a day without feeling an almost insupportable degree of fatigue. 
What makes this wide difference ? Nothing but the difference in their 
situations. She who lives in the country has the benefit of exercise in 
The pure fresh air, and shows the healthful effects of it in her whole con- 
tour; while the city girl, taught that work is degrading, lolls on the sofa 
<md drags out a miserable existence, almost killed by ennui. 



1853.] Corson,-— Health vs, Fashion. 275 

If young girls would work more, would exercise more in God's free, 
open air, we would not see so many young ladies with narrow shoulders 
and diminutive chests ; but they would be rosy with the bloom of health, 
and would be more like her of whom the poet spoke— 

Her neck with grace descending, 
In a heaven of beauty ending. 

Instead of being sallow and sickly-looking, they would be cheerful and 
gay — their smiling countenances indicative of the pleasures arising from 
perfect health. 

In dress, it is, that fashion has almost universal sway — in this respect 
people feel bound to obey her dictates, however foolish they may be, 
Many, very many persons, will sacrifice health and comfort for the sake 
of being " in the fashion;" seeming to think that they "might as well be 
out of the world as out of the fashion." This potent goddess is ak 
changeable as the wind, at one time compelling her votaries to clothe 
themselves almost to suffocation — and then again going to the other ex- 
treme, and giving them hardly enough apparel to hide their nakedness. 
If short-sleeved and low-necked dresses happen to be a la mode, young 
ladies who already have a predisposition to Phthisis Pulmonalis, and to 
whom it is all-important that every precaution should be taken to pre- 
vent its development, will expose themselves to the influence of cold and 
damp, while insufficiently clad, thus contracting pneumonia, bronchitis, 
and other diseases, which will act as exciting causes to develope the la- 
tent tendency to phthisis which is lurking in their systems, ready to ap- 
pear at the slightest bidding. 

Pulmonary phthisis has doubtless been brought into existence in very 
many cases by such exposure, when it might have been prevented, or at 
least deferred for years, by protecting the breast by high-necked dresses 
and flannel, and observing prudence against exposure to cold and damp. 
How often do we find young ladies attributing the first symptoms of 
phthisis to exposure on a certain night when they "caught a cold/ ' 
while going to a party, dressed very thinly — while at the party, becom- 
ing excited and warm, and then going out into the cold without being 
clothed warmly. If young ladies appreciated the truth of Thompson's 
words, 

****** loveliness 
Needs not the foreign aid of ornament, 
But is, when unadorn'd adorn'd the most. 

They would not resort to the meretricious aids of fashion to make them 
appear to better advantage. But, dressing neatly and tastefully, they 



276 Corson,™ Health vs. Fashion, [May 

would still have a due regard for their health, and by prudent care would 
endeavor to ward off disease, and thus prevent the rose on their cheek 
from being banished, to give place to the pale lily. 

Happily for the health of our females, the murderous practice of wear- 
ing corsets has been almost entirely done away with. Comparatively few 
ladies now wear these instruments of death. No wonder that one sixth 
of the ladies who wore these things were afflicted with deformity and dis- 
ease. Look at the modus operandi of corsets, and you will not be sur- 
prised at the effects which they produce. They are laced tightly around 
the chest, compressing the heart and lungs, restraining the freedom of 
action of the respiratory and spinal muscles, and making the wearer breathe 
chiefly by the diaphragm and abdominal muscles. Such treatment natu- 
rally produces disease. The lungs cannot fully expand — the heart can- 
not act with its natural force, and the respiratory and spinal muscles be- 
ing thus shut up, inevitably lose much of their vigor of action ; and dis- 
ease and deformity are the necessary consequences. Thanks to the good 
sense of our females, and the exertions of medical men, who have long 
cried out against their use, corsets have been very generally thrown aside. 
And what is the consequence ? We see women of the present age hav- 
ing full and large chests, spines undeformed, and a much fuller develop- 
ment of their physical frames than was possessed by those who wore these 
horrid contrivances. This is a happy change, and we may well excuse 
the ardor of the aspirant for poetic fame, who, in view of this long de- 
sired reformatiom, thus gave vent to his feelings of enthusiastic delight — 

Sound the loud trumpet o'er valley and sea, 
The tape-strings are broken and women are free. 

Women in our country do not, generally speaking, dress warmly 
enough — they do not sufficiently guard against the sudden changes of 
temperature which so frequently occur. Professor C. D. Meigs, who has 
studied the diseases of females with great care, says, (referring particu- 
larly to the women of our country,) " women are rarely clothed as warm- 
ly as they ought to be, custom, bienseance, the power of fashion, cause 
them to clothe the pelvic regions of the body and thighs too lightly ; and 
the women who live in what is called the better class of society are 
constantly exposed to the morbific influence of cold and damp, applied to 
the lower extremities." This is the language of one who has paid much 
attention to the investigation of the diseases of females, and, as such, is 
entitled to our confidence. 

Very few people take as much exercise as they should, and without 
this no one can be healthy Active exercise is absolutely indispensible 



1853.] Corson,-— Health vs. Fashion. 277 

to a healthy condition of our various functions. It aids digestion, devel- 
opes the muscles, prevents a torpid and sluggish state of the liver and 
bowels, and invigorates the whole system. Every one should walk seve- 
ral miles every day, if he wishes to be in a perfectly healthy state. Walk- 
ing is the best exercise that can be taken. It calls into action a vast 
number of muscles ; excites the functions of digestion, respiration, and 
circulation ; and in various ways does very much towards improving the 
state of the whole system, obviating the tendency to many diseases which 
but for this prophylactic course of action, would develope themselves. 
Professor S. Jackson says, in speaking of this subject, " exercise of the 
muscles is the most effective of the resources of hygiene, when directed 
on proper principles, and alternated with repose. The general effects on 
the health accord with the number of the muscles brought into action, 
and the energy of their exercise. The excitation of the organic actions 
is extended throughout the economy, and all the nutritive functions ex- 
perience an evident invigoration." The beneficial effects of exercise on 
the general health are universally admitted, yet many are found who, 
" falsely luxuriant," refuse to obey the dictates of common sense, and 
who will not overcome their slothful habits ; but such must suffer the pe- 
nalty due to this neglect of nature's laws. What remedy is more effect- 
ual in the treatment of anaemia than exercise in the open air ? In the 
treatment of this disease, exercise is of paramount importance to restore 
the healthy crasis of the blood. 

The habit of taking quack medicines might be here spoken of as one 
of the ways in which health is destroyed; but this is a subject, the full 
consideration of which would require more space than can be given to it 
in this place. ? Tis passing strange, that so many people will destroy 
themselves by gulping down these vile compounds, which are concocted 
by ignorant and uneducated charlatans, who know nothing of the nature 
of the diseases in the cure of which they represent their medicines to be 
so efficacious. Suicides without number are committed by persons who take 
these medicines from the vain hope of receiving benefit from them. But 
such is human nature, it will not know its own good. 

Much more might be said of the different modes in which the human 
system is morbifically influenced, but this essay has already attained an 
unreasonable length. 

And now it may be asked, how are these various causes which ruin 
the health of so many persons, to be obviated ? Simply by teaching peo- 
ple what promotes and what injures health. If we would obey the in- 
junction of the Grecian philosopher ymbl $swtov-, we would more fully 



278 Washington on Dry Cupping. [May 

appreciate the necessity of taking care of ourselves. Let physicians then, 
actuated by feelings of benevolence and kind-heartedness towards their 
fellow-creatures, instruct them in the laws of hygiene. Let them teach 
others how, by prudent care and watching, they may in a great measure 
keep themselves free from disease. A physician should not be a mere 
prescriber — his desire should be not only to cure disease already existing, 
but also to prevent the occurrence of disease. Let him by prudent coun- 
sel and wise advice endeavor 

"Delectando pariterque monendo, 
Prodesse quara conspici." 

If physicians would do all that they could to prevent disease, they 
would do an incalculable amount of good. Let them, by their knowledge 
of the human organism and the laws which govern it, give such advice 
as will secure to each person, when possible, "mens sana in corpore sano;" 
and although they may not as well fill their purses by thus doing, as if 
they were to leave disease to attack those iR whom it might have been 
prevented, surely they will feel happier from a conviction of having done 
their duty. 

The medical profession is a noble calling, and none should enter its 
ranks merely for the sordid purpose of making money from the sufferings 
of their fellow-creatures. Every medical man should be actuated by the 
purest benevolence, willing to sacrifice his own pleasure and comfort in 
order to alleviate the sufferings of the afflicted, and by so doing endeavor 
to succeed in " driving away the dark-winged fiend who is hovering over 
his promised victim, and scattering roses where the lily only drooped be- 
fore, and opening up in renewed freshness and copiousness, the fountains 
and streams of life, and hope, and enjoyment that always gush at Hy- 
geia's feet." 

Jeanesville, Luzerne Co., Pa., March 16, 1853. 



Remarks on Dry Cupping. By B. H. WASHINGTON, M. D. 

I was called to a child, get 7, (previously under charge of a "regular" 
physician and a steamer) presenting the following symptoms, sequelae of 
scarlet fever : pulse 140, remarkably hard and wiry ; an abscess on one 
side of the throat as large as a turkey egg, and one on the other not 
quite so large ; complete aphonia from condition of her throat ; an ab- 
scess on back of left hand, left arm partially paralyzed ; liver torpid, 
bowels irregular, sometimes costive, sometimes too loose, at that time cos- 



1853.] Washington on Dry Cupping. 279 

tive ) severe sciatic pain from left hip to the knee, could not bear any- 
thing heavier than a sheet ; excessive emaciation as in the last stages of 
cholera infantum : heavy night sweats, but skin remarkably harsh and 
scaly during the paroxysm, and altogether presenting a most pitiable 
wreck of humanity ; and her voiceless grief, as I inadvertently touched 
her sciatic leg, touched my heart deeper than the loudest groans. 

I was fairly run aground, never had seen, heard, or read of such a' 
case, and my only chance seemed to be, to do the best I could, and push 
off to Elkton, (Todd Co. Ky.,) and consult some experienced physician. 

In my historical reading, a statement that Napoleon's success was, in 
a great measure, owing to his bringing his forces from all quarters, and 
thus overwhelming the enemy, instead of endeavoring to succeed by one 
fierce charge, struck me with peculiar force ; thus will I do, said I, when 
I commence pract'e'ng. Some physicians arrange their forces incongru- 
ously, sometimes incompatibly, and then a helter skelter charge is made 
through the primae viae — merely to find themselves on the other side. 

With too many, the one engrossing idea seems to be, to make a suc- 
cessful charge through the primae viae, and all other points are neglected; 
the skin for instance, is frequently entirely overlooked. 

In pursuance of the plan of attacking the enemy from as many quar- 
ters as practicable, the following indications were laid down — 1st to re- 
duce the pulse to the natural standard : 2d, to arouse the skin to a pro- 
per discharge of its functions : 3d, to regulate the liver and bowels : 4th, 
to cure the abscesses : 5th, to relieve the sciatic leg and paralyzed arm. 
From the history of the case, it was very evident that the condition of the 
pulse was the result of excessive stimulation, the brandy was therefore 
directed to be given in half the quantity and at double the interval : the 
whole body was to be sponged in warm water three times per day : a mus- 
tard plaster was applied the whole length of the spine : compresses (first 
applied cold, but found useless) wrung out of warm water were applied 
around her throat, and a strong vol. liniment was rubbed on the spine ? 
after the mustard plaster had sufficiently drawn. On going to Elkton, 
was advised by a distinguished physician to stimulate with wine, or bran- 
dy, give a little quinine, and regulate the bowels by a grain or two of 
calomel, or blue mass : was told if her pulse was 120, she was bound to 
die. Fully believing she was " bound to die," concluded to omit the 
wine, as she was already over stimulated : calomel and quinine were ad- 
ministered as directed; the next day fever was high, and diarrhoea had 
followed the opening of the bowels : I quit all stimulants and purgatives 
with the determination to give nature as fair a . chance as possible ; had 



280 Washington on Dry Cupping. [May 

the patient put in warm bath twice per day, and continued the other re- 
medies. In the course of five or six days, commenced dry cupping the 
whole length of the spine, instead of the vol. liniment and mustard pre- 
viously used as a substitute : in the course of ten days, the patient had 
improved so much, I cautiously tried the mist, ferri. compos, and in less 
than four weeks from first visit, she was fat and rosy. 

The deductions drawn from the case were few, but valuable : hitherto 
I had only used dry cupping in strictly nervous cases, and it was to re- 
lieve the sciatica and paralysis of the arm, that it was tried ; but finding 
the stomach completely digesting her food, the liver acting finely, and in 
consequence, the bowels becoming regular, the kidneys aroused to such 
free action as to relieve the skin, my eyes were opened to the fact, sur- 
prising to me, that dry cupping was a powerful alterative, and that the 
different organs could be effectually regulated through the medium of the 
nervous system. The anatomical structure of the nervous system gave 
me a clue to the rationale of the modus operandi of dry cupping : through 
the intimate connection of the spinal marrow with the whole system, 
when an impression is made on the spinal marrow, it is transmitted to 
the different organs through the respective nerves arising from it. 

I had read much of nervous sympathy, but only a few isolated facts 

were found of any practical value, but that case was, to me, the " open 

'sesame" of the nervous system; and its intimate connections were studied 

with far more pleasure from the fact that almost every item was of direct 

practical value. 

Hence, for instance, if I find a pregnant female suffering with head- 
ache or cardialgia, I do not apply a mustard plaster or leaf of horseradish, 
nor administer alkalies, but I simply dry cup her spine, break tlie chain 
of nervous sympathy, and by regular repetition, accompanied with fre- 
quent sponging of the whole body, keep it broken, and unless she is ex- 
cessively imprudent, no inconvenience is felt from her situation. Or if 
she is suffering from irritability of the bladder ; from acrid urine, I calcu- 
late as certainly on a secretion of bland urine following dry cupping and 
sponging, as any other person would from the best diuretic known. Nei- 
ther is there, to my mind, however it may appear to others, a tithe of 
the incongruity in recommending dry cupping and sponging for leucor- 
rhea, amemorrhea, or dysmenorrhea, or their numerous sympathetic com- 
plications, that there is in the various plans recommended for those dis- 
eases, simply because the organ affected can be more easily reached and 
regulated through the nerves distributed to it, than by the indirect me- 
thods usually recommended. In conclusion, I will say, all I ask is a fair 



1853.] Johnson-— Prurigo Senilis. 281 

trial, and if any one finds my hobby does not ride well, let him stick to 
his own. 

Hannibal, Mo., March, 1853. 



Case of Prurigo Senilis. By William Johnson, M. D. 
Prurigo senilis is sometimes extremely persistent ; annoying to the pa- 
tient, and vexatious to the physician — setting at defiance the most judi- 
cious efforts for its removal. These considerations will be my sufficient 
excuse for presenting the following case to the readers of the Medical 
Beporter. 

E. B., aged 80, after having suffered from a very obstinate attack of 
erysipelatous inflammation of the lower extremities, involving the genita- 
lia, perineum and nates, became the subject of this most distressing af- 
fection — prurigo. The part selected for its attack was all the space be- 
tween the scapulae, and about four or five inches below them. The 
itching was of the most distressing nature, particularly during the night 
season, compelling the old gentleman to pass a considerable portion of 
the night out of the bed. Some idea may be formed of his sufferings 
from the strong language in which he expressed his feelings. " Doctor, 
(but perhaps I ought not to express myself so) my sufferings appear to 
me like the torments of the damned/' 

The appearance of the skin presented nothing abnormal — no papulae- 
no blush of inflammation, but some slight abrasion of the cuticle from 
involuntary scratching and rubbing; but this mode of relief he endeavor- 
ed carefully to avoid, finding by sad experience his sufferings increased 
thereby. The most distressing, burning sensation was produced by fric- 
tion of the affected parts. 

In the treatment of this case I should have commenced with the nit. 
argent, in solution, to the whole of the irritated surface, but it had been 
so freely used in the erysipelatous attack, that the patient objected to it. 
It had produced destruction of the cuticle and subjacent tissue on seve- 
ral spots on which it had been applied, and it had not afforded him the 
relief which the ung. hyd. nitrat. had done. I used therefore, this oint- 
ment to the surface affected by the prurigo, but with no benefit. I next 
applied ung. acid, sulphur, with no better success. I directed the parts 
affected to be washed with a mixture of prussic acid and water. It did not 
answer. I used an ointment prepared by boiling fol: digital: in hog's 
lard — -it did him no good. Fol. aconit. prepared and used in the same 
manner as the foregoing article, did afford some relief- — but the disease 
was not subdued. 
36 



282 Mason — Congenital Deformity. [May 

I had now been in attendance for a fortnight in this case, and the pa- 
tient was but little relieved. The foregoing, and a number of other ap- 
pliances both external and internal, had been employed, but still the dis- 
ease ran on. I consulted books, but got no help. In looking over Wat- 
son's Practice, I found that the doctor had himself been in a predicament 
similar to my own. He stated that he had by mere accident been induced 
to prescribe the aconitine with complete success. I now determined to use 
it in this case. Fifteen grains of the aconitine were rubbed up with one 
and a half ounces of lard. A small quantity of this ointment was direct- 
ed to be applied night and morning over the whole seat of irritation ; 
carefully avoiding every spot on which there was the slightest abrasion of 
the cuticle. In three or four days my patient was cured, and although 
two years and a quarter have elapsed, there has been no return of the 
disease. The aconitine in this case acted like a charm, and nothing but 
the exorbitant price of the article should prevent its general use in a dis- 
ease which I have myself in several instances seen protracted for years. 
Whitehouse Village, March, 1853. 



Singular Case of Congenital Deformity. By Wm. K. Mason, M.D. 

In April, 1851, I was called to attend Mrs. P., in her accouchement. 
After about an hour's natural labor and no difficulty whatever, she was 
delivered of a fine male child, of about ten pounds weight ; every thing 
natural except nearly all the small intestines, part of omentum covered 
with peritoneal coat, out of, and lying on, the external part of abdomen, 
and attached by adhesions up the umbilical cord for four inches, and 
around the edges of fche umbilical opening, which was about the size of 
half a dollar. There had nothing happened that would have had a tenden- 
cy of producing umbilical hernia. I immediately, after placing the mo- 
ther comfortably in bed, dissected and cleared the sack from the cord and 
around the opening, and carefully introduced them into the abdomen, 
and dressed the orifice with strips of adhesive plaster, so as to draw the 
edges together a little more at each dressing, with compress and bandage. 
The orifice kept contracting and adhesive inflamation went kindly on un- 
til it was closed. It now appears natural and the child is perfectly well. 
Now those intestines must have grown in the position in which we 
found them, r in utero. I have never seen such a case in forty years 
practice, and several thousand obstetrical cases. Have you ever had such 
a case ? I have seen such reported in medical authors, but believe they 
generally terminated fatally. 

Tuclcerton, April, 20, 1852. 



1853.] Day — -Quackery and the Clergy. 283 

Quackery and the Clergy. By J. Lawrence Day, M. D. 

With the question whether the Reporter is " hand in hand with quack- 
ery/ ' I will not interfere ; but will remark generally, that as professional 
men we cannot be too careful to avoid any and every thing that savors 
of quackery — we should neither become quacks ourselves nor should we 
give any quarter, and much less aid and comfort to the enemy. We 
should be, in fact, as the community esteem us to be, the uncompromi- 
sing enemies of all sorts of quackery, and every kind and style of quack 
medicine. Sometimes, indeed, we allow patent medicines as things that 
will do neither hurt nor good, merely to gratify the whims or preju- 
dices of patients. This, however, I esteem prejudicial to the dignity 
of the profession. While therefore, in respect to quack medicines and 
alliances with the uncommon popular humbugs of the day, we claim 
to be exclusive, are we not indirectly lending our countenance and sup- 
port to all the things we so much abhor? This question I intend to ex- 
amine, hoping the members of the profession will look a little at their ex- 
perience, and if they think I am right, second the suggestion I intend to 
make in the sequel of this article. 

The clergy are the especial friends and abettors of all patent pills, 
powders and pectorals, syrups and sarsaparillas, hydro, homoeo, and every 
other newfangled pathy — certified friends — walking advertisements from 
house to house, and practical supporters. From this charge we take 
pleasure in exempting very many, but a reference to quack advertisements 
will show how much dependence is placed upon this kind of influence. 
The shame of the medical profession in this business is, that we support 
the clergy in this course, by (to them) cheapening our skill and medicine 
to a gratuity. Your New Jersey code does not allow a regular practi- 
tioner to charge the ministerial brethren within his limits : and I have 
known some strife among rival physicians for the privilege of dispensing 
to a very large minister's family, their advice and medicine gratuitously- 
For this generosity, peculiar to our profession, they have been repaid in 
a few months or years, by having the recipient of their gratuity advise 
patients to use some of the innumerable patent nostrums, or by seeing 
him introduce to his own family the perfect stranger, who has " just come 
to town," to practice homoeopathy, or by knowing that the minister, or 
his wife or child, is at some famed hydropathic establishment. In doing 
this they do not intend any disregard to the profession, but are rather in- 
fluenced by the too common and very natural method of estimating the 
value of things according to their cost. The various nostrums so largely 



284 Day — Quackery and the Clergy. [MAY 

certified by the clergy, are not sold to druggists with directions to furnish 
ministers families gratis, nor does homoeopathy or any other pathy, send 
the minister a bill and receipt without the money fully paid. Patent 
medicines and patent advice, with sugar pellets dealt out by doctors pa- 
tent made at the shortest notice, all cost money — but our hard earned 
experience, our toiling study, our outlay of capital in tuition, books, and 
instruments, must yield no interest. We are not therefore just to our- 
selves , unless there be a reciprocal service. Where is it ? Did you 
ever hear of a doctor of medicine married without a wedding fee ? The 
doctor, in a congregation, must attend also the poor of the church with- 
out fee ; for there is no one to buy patent medicines. He is, too, ex- 
pected to do for the church and minister even beyond his means. He 
must subscribe liberally, and take an eligible pew, with an eligible salary 
attached — for who will employ an illiberal or mean doctor. Show me, 
Mr. Editor, in this, if you can, any reciprocity — any justice — any honor 
— any pay, or anything else belonging to the dignity of the medical pro- 
fession, and I will acknowledge I am mistaken. 

Having very briefly alluded to some facts, attested in the experience, I 
am free to say, of almost every country practitioner, I will only suggest, 
as promised, that we abandon the practice of not charging ministers. I 
will venture the assertion, that the average pay of the clergy is fully 
equal to the average of physicians — on no principle then, can I see the 
justice or the propriety of that article in your code of ethics, and much 
less any propriety in the practice arising under it. 

WilJcesbarre, Pa. } April , 1853. 

Note. The suggestions of our friend, Dr. Day, are certeinly worthy 
of notice, and while we would recommend them to the profession, and 
especially to the clergy, we would remark with reference to the N. Jersey 
rule in this respect, that it has not had the effect upon our clerical friends, 
that is complained of in some other places. We do not know of a 
single clergyman in our own vicinity who recognizes any other sys- 
tem of medicine than that acknowledged by the New Jersey Medical 
Society, though we have no doubt at all, that such may be found. 
■4nd, we may mention that at a recent meeting of the New Jersey 
Conference of the Methodist Episcopal Church, held at Bridgeton, 
one of its members was arraigned for practicing Quackery. He came 
very near losing his connection with the Conference, on this ac- 
count ; and had he not entered into a written obligation to abandon 
the practice, would no doubt have lost his ministerial relation to the 



1853.] Day — Quackery and the Clergy. 285 

Church ; and in order to establish, the principle that quackery in 
any form is unworthy the support of an enlightened ministry, one 
of the members of the Conference presented the subject,in such a lucid 
manner, as clearly to enable all who would, to distinguish between the 
true and false in the various systems of medicine : and many reasons were 
offered why hydro and homceo-pathies, and other equally unreal forms of 
medicine, should be disregarded by a lofty, and religious public sentiment. 

While we suppose the offence was in practicing medicine under any 
name, the history of its investigation proves that it was greatly aggrava- 
ted in the judgment of the Conference, by the fact that the course pur- 
sued was not in accordance with acknowledged, and authorized medicine. 
The clerical brother was in the habit of " puking" his parishioners with 
lobelia, and of evaporating latent morbific influences by the steaming 
system of Thompson. This was the " head and front" of his offending, 
and, for this he received an active alterative dose, which, we trust, may 
prove entirely restorative. 

Now we would not presume to assert that the medical profession of New 
Jersey is entitled to all the credit of having created such a healthy pub- 
lic feeling, lest our professional brethren across the Delaware, and among 
the mountains of our sister State, would compare unfavorably with us, 
we would be very modest on this point ; neither would we claim for our 
brethren of the ministry, that they are either more enlightened, or less 
inclined than others of the same profession elsewhere, to run after the 
empty bubbles of imagination which rise about us with every breeze, and 
break by contact with every solid truth ; or give more praise to the de- 
nomination already named, than to any other — but we would honestly 
say, that the medical profession of this State, having maintained its or- 
ganization effectively and honorably, for well nigh a hundred years, has 
gained, not by superior merit perhaps, as by the general award of esteem 
that is bestowed by all upon the aged, the respect and confidence of the 
learned, and the influential, as well as of the people generally. Our Me- 
dical Society has recorded upon its minutes a goodly portion of the his- 
tory of the State. Having existed before the Revolution, and number- 
ing among its members, many of the actors in the scenes of those times, 
it forms an important link in the great chain of events which mark our 
early progress as a struggling province, and subsequently as a prosperous 
commonwealth; and its continuance is necessary to the completion of the 
same course of history. Hence it has become one of our State Institu- 
tions, and we may say a " peculiar institution" in the support of which, 
the people are interested ; again, most of its members residing in small 



286 Bibliographical Notices. [Mat 

towns and villages, from their relation to the people, and their position 
in society, acquire a controlling influence over public sentiment, especial- 
ly in matters relating to the profession, and are generally enabled to 
maintain it. 

These may be presented as some of the reasons why physicians in N. 
Jersey have kept above the tide of empiricism, and carried with them, to 
a good degree, the popular sentiment. True, some of the people have 
consented to be caught, but the general fact is admitted (even by their 
advocates) that these various pseudo-systems, are but play things to amuse 
the fancy — that may be safe to indulge, in cases of trifling sickness, but 
that are not to be trusted in grave diseases, which require real treatment. 

Ed. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES. 



Quarterly Summary of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia, from 
February 2, 1853, to April 6, 1853, inclusive. 

It is well known to our readers that we are in the habit of making 
large extracts from this periodical, and in the present instance we feel 
more inclined than ever to do so ; but owing to the crowded state of our 
columns, we must defer the notice of Biographical Sketches of Drs. Isaac 
Parrish and William R. Grant, of Philadelphia, both of which are inter- 
esting and useful, till our next issue, and confine ourselves at present to 
a summary of a case reported by Prof. Wood, under the following caption. 

Case of Peritonitis with probable Intestinal Perforation. — The case, 
when first seen by Dr. Wood, presented the symptoms of a mild case of 
enteric fever, at the close of the first, or commencement of the second 
week ; but there were no sudamina, or red spots any where on the sur- 
face, and no diarrhoea ; but little change was noticed in the progress of the 
case till symptoms of severe peritonitis were observed on the ninth day — 
the abdomen was swollen, tense and painful; the pulse was small, thready, 
and frequent; the skin hot, and the countenance expressive of great anx- 
iety. Under the impression that perforation had occurred, a blister was 
applied over the whole abdominal surface, and the patient kept under the 
decided influence of morphia, and the gums affected by the hourly admi- 
nistration of one grainof mercurial pill. The diet farinaceous. The object 
of the morphia was to keep the bowels at rest, of the blue mass and blister, 
to obviate inflammation, and of the diet to support the strength. The 
amount of morphia used, was equivalent to from twelve to twenty grains 
of opium daily, and while it maintained a state of semi-insensibility, it 
produced and sustained a steady perspiration ; amendment of most of the 
symptoms soon became apparent, and the bowels, which had not been 
moved from the commencement of the peritoneal attack, were opened 
spontaneously ; but the tongue remained dry, and there was some febrile. 



1853.] Editorial 287 

excitement. At this stage of the attack, believing that the perforation 
was closed by adhesions, Dr. W. commenced the use of oil of turpentine 
in the dose of ten drops every two hours, combined with emulsion;, the 
morphia and blue mass being continued. In two days the tympanites 
was decidedly diminished, and all the symptoms ameliorated. The mer- 
curial was here omitted, though the oil and morphia were continued, in 
quantities proportionate to the symptoms, and in five or six weeks the 
patient was restored to tolerable health. 

The case, whether one of perforation or not, is therapeutically inte- 
resting, as showing the advantage of the opium treatment, conjoined with 
mercurialization, under circumstances which did not permit a recourse to 
the lancet : as well as elucidating the value of oil of turpentine as a re- 
medy, in typhoid or enteric fever, after the subsidence of peritoneal in*- 
fiammation. 



EDITORIAL. 

Postponement. 

There are several subjects noticed in the Transactions of the American 
Medical Association, upon which it becomes us to remark, but the unu- 
sual space occupied by the Transactions in the present issue, and the ac- 
cumulation of original communications, renders a postponement expedi- 
ent. This will therefore be received by our readers as a reason for not 
enlarging now, upon some subjects of interest, of which it will be expect- 
ed that we should express ourselves, as the Reporter has already taken a 
position, which not to reassume would have the appearance of a retreat. 



Practical Pharmacy. 

We publish in the present number of the Reporter, the announce- 
ment of E. Parrish's School of Practical Pharmacy, located in Philadel- 
phia, and which we commend to the favorable notice of our subscribers. 
There is no institution that we know of, which with so little pretension 
is doing so much substantial service in the way of medical instruction. 
As appears by the catalogue, 154 students and graduates have been in- 
structed therein, in the art of preparing and prescribing medicines ; some 
of whom have taken two* courses. 

There has been but one testimony, as far as we have been informed, 
in relation to the value of this course. Including Clinical instructions 
as well as lectures and examinations, it presents advantages to the stu- 
dent not attainable elsewhere, and which we hope will be more widely 
appreciated and extended. * 



288 Editorial [May 

Our Present Number. 
It will be observed that this number of the Reporter is pretty much 
taken up with a report of the proceedings of our National medical organ- 
ization, recently held. We have succeeded in compiling a very complete 
account of them including abstracts of some of the excellent re- 
ports which were read on that occasion, and we very much mistake the 
character of our readers for intelligence, and the interest they possess 
in the welfare of their chosen profession, if any apology is needed for the 
space occupied with these details. If we rightly judge, there is 
nothing that would be more acceptable to the majority of them. 
Much other matter has necessarily been crowded out by this extended 
report, and we have, besides, been obliged to add a number of pages, as 
well as to print in very small type. 

The original communications in this number are varied and interest- 
ing, and will repay attentive perusal. "We trust that correspondents will 
continue to favor us, and that our table will groan with the weight, not 
only of papers, but the useful and practical ideas they may contain. On 
this subject we beg to refer to the strictures of Dr. N. S. Davis, Chair- 
man of the committee on Medical literature, on a subsequent page. 

The Reporter stands committed to a hearty support of our medical or- 
ganizations, and we trust that our readers will encourage us in our ef- 
forts to keep the profession apprized of all that transpires, which is of in- 
terest to it. The best support and encouragement we can have, is ex- 
tended means by which we may avail ourselves of the various sources of 
acquiring information, and this can be afforded us, first, by those 
who are in arrears paying their dues — and second, by an increase in our 
subscription list. 

We feel flattered and encouraged by the notice taken of the Re- 
porter in a recent meeting of the Somerset District Medical Socie- 
ty. Let all our District Societies manifest the interest in the welfare of 
the Reporter that two or three have, and our circulation would very soon 
be much extended in our own State. Each of our readers might, we 
should think, send us one additional name. Will they not try? * 



Proceedings op Medical Societies. 

Somerset County, N. J. — The District Medical Society of the county 
of Somerset, held its annual meeting at Somerville on Thursday, April 
28, 1853. 



1853.] Editorial. 289 

Members present, Drs. H. H. Vanderveer, President; J. W. Craig, 
C. C. Suydam, F. S. Schenck, E. S. Smith, A. Skillman, P. D. Mc- 
Kissack, and S. K. Martin. The Secretary being absent, Dr. S. K. 
Martin was appointed Secretary pro tern. 

Dr. Craig announced the decease of Dr. William D. Mc Kissack, and 
moved that a committee be appointed to draught resolutions expressive 
of the sense of the Society relative to his decease. Drs. Craig, Smith, 
and Schenck were appointed, and reported as follows : 

Resolved, That this Society have learned with profound regret, the 
death of their much esteemed and respected friend, Dr. William D. Mc- 
Kissack, an honored and highly respected member of this Society, and 
that in his death, the Medical Society of Somerset feel deeply the loss of 
one of its most valuable and distinguished members, and its members, in- 
dividually, a warm and sincere friend and associate. 

Resolved, That this Society offer to his afflicted family, in this severe 
bereavement, the expression of their heartfelt sympathies. 

Resolved, That the Secretary be directed to forward the foregoing re- 
solutions to the family of the deceased, and that they be published in the 
Somerville papers and the New Jersey Medical Reporter. 

The Committee further say, that as the highest inducement to a faith* 
ful performance of the varied duties of the profession of medicine, and of 
social life, which can be offered to the young and ardent, is to be found 
in the respect paid to the memory of the useful and virtuous, after death, 
Therefore, they recommend, that the President propose some member of 
this Society, to write a Biographical Memoir of our lamented friend and 
colleague, and cause the same to be published in the New Jersey Medi- 
cal Reporter. 

Communications were received from Drs. L. H. Mosher, J. B. Van- 
derveer, and J. Alfred Gray, expressing their desire of becoming mem- 
bers of this Society. 

The application of Dr. J. W. Moore having been received at a previous 
meeting of the Society, was acted on, and he was admitted as a member. 

The following resolutions were passed: — 

Resolved, That the members of this Society are requested to report 
verbally, such cases of disease and mode of treatment, as may come un- 
der their observation ; which when reported, shall be open to the Society 
for debate and conversation. 

Resolved, That in future, including the minutes of this day, the Se- 
cretary be required to prepare a synopsis of the proceedings of this So- 
ciety, for publication in the New Jersey Medical Reporter. 

Dr. Suydam was appointed reporter, to observe and note the medical 
history of the ensuing season, within the range of his observation. 

Dr. J. W. Craig was appointed by the President, to prepare a Bio- 
graphical Memoir of the late Dr. W. D. McKissack, for publication in 
the New Jersey Medical Reporter. 

Delegate to the American Medical Association, Dr. J, W. Craig. 
37 



290 Obituary, [May. 

Delegates to the State Medical Society — J. W. Craig, Peter D. Mc- 
Kissack, H. F. Vanderveer, and S. K. Martin. 

S. K. Martin, Sec. pro. tern. 

The following brief summary of the proceedings of the District Medi- 
cal Society for Cumberland Co. we cut from the West Jersey Pioneer. 
The Society met in Bridgeton on the 5th ult. 

Drs. B. R. Bateman, of Cedarville, and C. Butcher, of Maurice-town, 
were appointed Delegates to the American Medical Association, to meet 
in the City of New York on the 1st Tuesday in May. 

After dinner the Society was called to order, and listened to an ad- 
dress from Dr. E. E. Bateman, of Cedarville, upon the life and character 
of Dr. E. M. Porter. For which the thanks of the Society were return- 
ed, and a copy of the address ordered to be placed on file. 

The following resolutions were adopted : — 

Resolved,Thsit this Society has heard with deep regret of the decease, 
since our last meeting, of an esteemed fellow member, Dr. E. M. Porter; 
one whose course though brief, was yet brilliant, and gave evidence of 
medical genius of high order. 

As a tribute of respect, and to manifest our heartfelt sorrow for the 
loss we have sustained : 

Resolved, That we deeply sympathize with, and tender our condolence 
to, the family and friends of the deceased. 

Resolved, That the Secretary append the above resolutions to the ad- 
dress delivered to-day by Dr. E. E. Bateman. 

Very few epidemic diseases were reported for the last six months, save 
catarrhal affections. 

The past Winter has been remarkable for mortality among the aged. 
In Bridgeton, death has well nigh severed the links that connect the pre- 
sent with the past, and left but few who can recite the early history of 
our town, or whose eyes have witnessed Revolutionary blood. 

The discussions at this meeting were spirited and profitable, and doubt- 
less caused all present to feel the advantages of social intercourse. 

OBITUARY. 

Since our last, death has made sad inroads into the ranks of our pro- 
fession. Aside from those which have occurred from natural causes, we 
have to record, — as we do at the close of the Transactions of the Ameri- 
can Medical Association — a wholesale destruction of some of the most 
valuable lives in our ranks, in the New England states, by the horrible 
catastrophe on the New York and New Haven railway. 

Died — In Paris, March 12th M. Orfila aet. 66. He was well known 
as the author of works principally on Toxicology and Forensic medicine. 

In Dublin, March 29th, Robert James Graves, M. D., get. 56. 

In St. Louis, Mo., March 25th, Dr. William Beaumont, who 

has become extensively known through his researches into the Physiolo- 



1853.] American Medical Association. 291 

gy of Digestion, and Experiments on the G-astric juice in the case of 
Alexis St. Martin. It is said that Dr. B. has within a few months en- 
deavored to re-engage St. Martin for the purpose of resuming his experi- 
ments. 

In London, about the 1st of April, Dr. Richard Chambers, a 

physician of worth and distinction. 

In Southold, N. Y., April 6th, Dr. Ira Corwin, get. 70. 

In Mercer, Pa., on the night of Friday, April 8th, G. W. Bas- 

kin, M. D. Dr. B. was assassinated as he was about entering his house, 
by whom, or for what cause, is unknown. 

In Brooklyn, April 13th, S, B. Willey, M. D., set. 46. 

In Albany, N. Y., April 21st, Lewis C. Beck, M. D., Professor 

of Chemistry in Albany Medical College, and of Chemistry and the Na- 
tural Sciences, in Rutger's College, New Brunswick, in this State. 

~ At Dubuque, Iowa, April 22d, Dr. George W. Richards, a 

practitioner of eminence, and formerly Professor in Rush Medical Col- 
lege, Chicago. 

At Portsmouth, Va., May 2d, Dr. Cook, well known as a Sur- 
geon in the last war. 

— — In Chambersburg, Pa., Dr. Lane. 



AMERICAN MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 
Proceedings of the Sixth Annual Meeting, held in the City of New York, 

May 3, 4 and 5, 1853. 

[We had made provision to obtain an account of the proceedings of the 
Association for the New Jersey Medical Reporter, as we did at Richmond 
last year, but finding that the Reporters of the New York press were pro- 
curing a full report, we have relied upon that. The following abstract is 
compiled principally from the Daily Times and the Herald. — Ed. N. J. 
Med. Rep.] 

The American Medical Association held their Sixth Annual Meeting in the Presby- 
terian Church, Bleecker Street, the President, Dr. Beverly R. Wellford, ofVa., in the 
Chair. The morning was occupied by the Committee of Arrangements, in receiving De- 
legates from the several States. At ll£ A. M., the meeting organized, and the Presi- 
dent congratulated the members of the Association upon the happy return of the anni- 
versary, the thronged attendance of delegates from all parts of the Union, and the 
flatten ng prospects and advancement of the profession generally. 

Dr. F. Campbell Stewart, Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements and Recep^ 
tion, before reading the list of Delegates, congratulated the Association upon the recur- 
rence of its anniversary. Seven years had elapsed since the preliminary meeting of 
the Convention, which recommended the organization of this National Congress; and, 
as New Yorkers, the Committee indulged in feelings of proud satisfaction at the trium- 
phant success which had attended so important a movement, originating in their State, 



292 • Proceedings of the [May 

The labors of the learned body had been most arduous, but the result had not disap- 
pointed the expectations of the friends of reform and of progress in their profession. 
Mighty objects were aimed at ; important achievements had already been accom- 
plished ; and a guarantee was afforded of the eventful fulfilment of the desires of 
those whose aspirations for the advancement and perfection of medicine, led them to 
propose the formation of this Association, which, representing the whole fraternity 
throughout our wide spread country, assembled annually, for scientific discussion, and 
to consult upon matters pertaining to the general welfare of the entire faculty. The 
five published volumes of their Transactions afforded abundant and conclusive evi- 
dence of the zeal by which they were actuated, and the ability which characterized 
the scientific labors of members. The meeting for this year had been generally anti- 
cipated with peculiar interest. An unusually large attendance had been expected. 
Numerous papers would be presented, and valuable reports were to be rendered ; 
much of their time would be required for the consideration of subjects of grave impor- 
tance. He assured them that their advent had been looked for anxiously, and thehr 
colleagues had been desirous to manifest their appreciation of the cause in which 
they were engaged, and their estimation of the favor conferred by the Association in 
selecting this metropolis as the place for holding the present session. In the name 
of the united Profession of New York the Committee tendered them a sincere, hearty, 
and cordial welcome to our City. 

Dr. S. then called over the list of delegates, and announced that a majority were 
present. 

The following table exhibits the representation of the States at this period of the 
proceedings: 

States and Districts. No. of Delegates. 

New York, 132 

Massachusetts, ... 44 

Pennsylvania, ... 40 

Maryland, - - - 17 

New Jersey, - - - 15 

New Hampshire, - - 11 

Virginia, - - - 14 

Rhode Island, 12 

Connecticut, - 29 

Kentucky, ... 5 

Michigan, ... Q 

Illinois, ... 6 

Tennessee, ... 3 

Total number of delegates, ... 390 

The Secretary announced that the following States were not represented : 

States Unrepresented — California, Florida, Louisiana and Mississippi. 

The Vice Presidents and Ex-Presidents of the Association were requested to take 
their seats on the platform with the President. 

On motion, a recess of fifteen minutes was taken to allow the Delegates to select 
one of their number from each State, as a Committee to nominate officers for the en* 
suing year. 

Dr. Atlee, of Pennsylvania, moved that immediately after the report of the Nomi- 
nating Committee, the President be called upon to read his address, but, at the request 
of Dr. Condie, withdrew his motion until the report of the Treasurer should be read. 

Dr. Pope of Missouri, extended an invitation to the Association to hold their next 
Annual Meeting, for 1854, at St. Louis. 

Dr. Condie. of Pennsylvania, said he was instructed to invite the Association to hold' 
their next Annual Meeting in Philadelphia. 

Dr. Hays, of Pennsylvania. — Sir, although I am acting, in some measure, contrary 
to the general sense of my delegation, I would say, and do now move, "that the No- 
minating Committee be instructed to report the city of St. Louis as the most fitting 
place for the next Annual Meeting. In doing this, however, I am far from forgetting 
the claims of Philadelphia, and I would beg of gentlemen to recollect the fact of my now 
voting in favor of St. Louis, and the early notice which I make in behalf of Philadel- 
phia being selected as the city in which the Association will meet the succeeding 
year. (Applause.) . . 

It was unanimously voted that the next meeting of the Medical Association be nela 
in St. Louis, Missouri. 



States and Districts. 




No. 


of Delegates. 


Ohio, 


- 




7 


Indiana, 


. 




8 


Missouri, 


• 




6 


North Carolina, 


- 




2 


South Carolina, 


- 




10 


Georgia, 


• 




3 


Alabama, 


- 




2 


Iowa, 


- 




1 


Delaware, 


- 




2 


Maine, 


. 




4 


Vermont, 


• 




6 


District of Columbia, 


- 




5 



1853.] American Medical Association, 293 

Dr. Condie, of Pennsylvania, as Chairman of the Committee of Publication, reported 
upon the sale and disposal of the first, second, third, fourth, and fifth volumes of the 
printed record of the Transactions of the Association, the number presented to kindred 
societies, the number sold, and the number remaining on hand. He wished to ob- 
serve that the implied, and sometimes open censure, cast upon the Committee on ac- 
count of a tardy issue of the books from the press was not deserved. The records 
were now voluminous, and much sought after. Under these circumstances, the pre- 
sent assessment of three dollars per annum was insufficient to have a work of such 
importance printed as speedily as the Committee would wish. To meet the emergen- 
cy, he would move the following resolutions: — 

First — That the assessment for the present year be increased from $3 to $5. 

Secondly — That the Committee on Publication be authorized to decide upon what 
terms the printed record of the Transactions of the Association shall be furnished to 
memhers and others. 

Both resolutions were read and adopted. 

The Treasurer read the following Report — 

Cash received from all sources during the year, - $1,905 

Cash paid away during the year, ... 2,015 

Balance due Treasurer, - - - $110 

Dr. Condie — At other meetings of this body we have had a balance of cash in the 
treasury, but the present account shows a deficit. It is absolutely necessary that mo- 
ney be forthcoming. One of our mos>t talented members, one of the highest orna- 
ments of the profession, will read a paper which he has spent years in compiling, and 
which will do honor to the author and the country. The proper illustration of the pa- 
per, so as that it may be published as it should be, will cost one thousand dollars. If 
it were sent forth in any other style, it would be a disgrace to the Association. I had 
this matter in view when I proposed the increase of assessment. I would move that 
the Publication Committee furnish extra copies of the printed transactions of the Asso- 
ciation to the chairmen of the different committees on epidemics, at the expense of 
this body. I am certain that the members will not object to give $5 for a volume 
which could not be bought by a private person or of a bookseller for that sum. 

The Secretary read communications inviting the Association to visit University 
Medical College, the Anatomical Museum, and Bloomingdale Lunatic Asylum. 

Dr. F. C. Stewart presented a report, recommending the admission of Dr. Marshall 
Hall of London, Surgeon Mower, U. S. A., Surgeons Bache, Pinckney, Brownell and 
Simpson, U. S. N., Drs. Leonard and Betton, Florida, Hon. Dr. Bartlett, N. Y. Senate, 
Dr. Harris, Canada, Dr. Rodder, Canada West, Drs. Mcllvaine and Pittman, Ameri- 
can Medical Society, Paris, to participate in the proceedings by invitation. 

On motion of Dr. Cox, a Committee was appointed to wait on Dr. Marshall Hall, and 
conduct him to a seat on the platform. 

DR. WELLFORD'S ADDRESS. 

The President then read a lengthy and very able address. It was an eloquent ex- 
position of the objects of the Association — a rehearsal of the good it had done, and an 
indication of certain modes by which it may do still more. The Society has been in 
existence some seven years. It grew out of a severely felt want of an organization 
of the scattered medical forces. A Convention assembled in this City, at the sugges- 
tion of the New York Medical Society, to take into consideration the condition of the 
profession, and to adopt some concerted action. Although the call was imperfectly 
circulated, about one hundred delegates from nineteen States of the Union responded 
to it by their personal presence. And they resolved to institute a National Associa- 
tion for the protection of their interests, the maintenance of their honor and respecta- 
bility, the advancement of their knowledge, and the extension of their usefulness. In 
the untried circumstances of their early history, imperfections in the plan of organiza- 
tion were inevitable. The President advises careful and gentle revision, but depre- 
cates all desultory innovations or sudden and radical changes. 

There are those who affect to believe that the Association has hitherto effected no- 
thing. In answer, the Doctor refers to the fact that it has aroused attention to the im- 
perfections of medical cultivation — that it has demonstrated the necessity of raising 
the standard of medical acquirements, and done much through its potent leverage to 
raise the profession to its proper level. It has secured in many Colleges a lengthened 
course of lectures, encouraging the well-disposed to require of the candidates for gra- 



294 Proceedings of the [May 

duation higher attainments in general and professional knowledge. It has stimulated 
professional ambition, and drawn out from quarters whence no other means would 
have elicited, it, highly important contributions to medical science. It was the action 
of the Association, in its early days, which directed the attention of the Legislatures 
of several States to the high importance of collecting and measuring their vital statis- 
tics. Following its suggestions, laws have been passed in New York, Massachusetts, 
Rhode Island, Connecticut, Michigan and Illinois, and we believe, in several of the 
Southern States — not always of the most practicable sort, or the best that could be 
devised, yet in every case highly honorable to the intentions of their tramers, and like- 
ly to lead to more perfect systems — laws which provided for the registration of all the 
births, deaths and marriages within their several borders. In obedience of this recom- 
mendation of the Association, and in consequence of it, the Convention which recent- 
ly sat in Virginia, for the purpose of amending the State Constitution, made the pas- 
sage of a registration act obligatory on her Legislature. In compliance with that re- 
quisition a law was passed at its late session, the first under her new Constitution. 

Another tangible and note-worthy result of the efforts of the Association, is the ac- 
tion of the Federal Government with reference to the adulteration of drugs. At the 
meeting in Baltimore in 1848, its attention was directed to the immense amount of 
adulterated and sophisticated drugs prepared in foreign countries, and imported into 
our own. Congress promptly responded to the recommendation of the Association, 
and in an act, approved June 26th, 1848, Inspectois were appointed, and the passage 
of any drug or medicine so adulterated or deteriorated as to be inferior in strength and 
purity to the standard established by the United States, London, Edinburg, French, 
and German Pharmacopeias and Dispensatories, positively prohibited. The Examiner 
of Drugs in the New York Custom House, within five months after this law went into 
operation, had condemned and rejected no less than 13,000 lbs. of rhubarb, 2.500 lbs. 
of opium, 7,200 lbs. of jalap, 1,414 lbs. of gum gamboge, 1,400 lbs. senna, 30,000 lbs. of 
spurious yellow bark, 3,000 lbs. iodine, and 1,700 lb-, of myrrh, all of which, but for this 
law, would have found its way throughout our extensive country, and to the bedsides 
of the sick and the suffering, to mock them with then inertness, or poison them with 
their unsuspected strength. A Senator in Congress well remarked that, if the Nation- 
al Medical Association had advised no other reform than this, its labors would entitle 
its members to the gratitude of its country. Dr. Edwards, who was employed by the 
Secretary of the Treasury to visit the principal ports and ascertain the working of the 
law, found them to be: 1. An elevation in the quality and purity of the medicinal 
agents imported. 2. An entire prevention of adulterated and deteriorated drugs, &c, 
from entry and use. 3. No embarrassment to the honest importer and dealer. 4. An 
increased revenue. 5. Protection to the medical profession and community, and in- 
creased confidence and a desire for the continuance and faithful application of the law. 
Spurious and adulterated articles are now almost entirely excluded from our markets, 
with the exception of home manufacture. Nor have these increased. Attention hav- 
ing been thoroughly aroused to the whole subject, adulterations cannot be practiced 
with impunity as formerly. 

Much has been done, and yet it is only a beginning. The learned President next 
addressed himself to the task of indicating the points demanding immediate action. 

The city affords advantages which the country practitioner cannot enjoy. In the city, 
professional men meet daily ; every day they taJk over affairs pertaining to their pro- 
fession. The spirit of their company is kept alive; the ambition of the zealous is 
never permitted to flag. In the country it is otherwise; a professional consultation is 
only an occasional event, and anything like daily contact with friendly brethren is out 
of the question. Yet physicians are but men, and when all the talk of a village is of 
cattle and rich acres, and of politics, the physician talks of such things, too — grows 
rusty on medical matters, and becomes mi fait on politics and farming. In some 
sma'l degree to remedy this, let local medical societies be planted; and to facilitate 
their growth, the President advises the appointment of a committee to prepare a form 
of organizatien of both local and State Societies, and that its adoption be earnestly re- 
quested. 

He calls attention to the very unsatisfactory state of things which allows a diploma to 
be considered equivalent to a license to practice, and indeed tolerates anybody as a 
practitioner who chooses to dub himself a doctor — favors the invocation of State legis- 
lation on the subject, and the establishment of Licensing Boards to be entirely distinct 
from all bodies that grant diplomas. 

He invites a recommendation to the authorities charged with the duty, for such ac- 



1853.] American Medical Association. 295 

tion as will shield the public from the home production of adulterated medicines. All 
that could be done to prevent the importation of these nuisances, the Federal Govern- 
ment has done; but there remains necessary such enactments by the several States 
as will make disreputable and unprofitable the business of preparing for the market 
inert medicines or drugs of a strength inferior to the officinal standard. 

Dr. John A. Lamb, of Pennsylvania, is the only one who has been appointed under 
power of the resolution adopted in 1852, to travel in Europe, and report upon f>reign 
medical affairs. With a touching tribute to the memory of Drs. Drake and Horner, 
members who have deceased during the twelvemonth, and a word of advice fitly spo- 
ken, the President concluded his Address. 

Dr. Hays, of Pa., moved the thanks of the meeting be presented to the President lor 
his elegant, appropriate and eloquent address, and requesting a copy for publication in 
the Transactions of the Association. Carried. 

The Secretary read a resolution passed by the Medical Society of Virginia, recom- 
mending the appointment of a well qualified chemist to analyze the most prominent 
nostrums of the day, and publish the results monthly in the leading newspapers of 
each State. Also, a communication from the President of the American Medical So- 
ciety at Paris, appointing Drs. Pittman, Walton and Mcllvaine to attend this meeting. 

On motion of Dr. Atlee, the Committee on Publications were directed to send a full 
set of the Transactions of the Association to the Society at Paris. 

A communication was received from Dr. Ramsay, of Georgia, inclosing documents 
on personal matter, which were laid on the table. 

The Committee on nominations reported the following officers for the ensuing year: 

For President — Dr. Jonathan Knight, of Connecticut. 

Vice President — Drs. Usher Parsons, of R.I. ; Lewis Condict, of N. J. ; Henry R. 
Frost, ofS. C.; R. L. Howard, of Ohio. 

Secretaries — Drs. Edward L. Beadle, of N. Y. ; and Edwin L. Lemoine, of Missouri. 
. Treasurer — Dr. D. Francis Condie, of Penna. 

The Committee reported St. Louis, Mo., as the place to hold next annual meeting. 

The report was adopted. 

Drs. Couch, Watson and Atlee were appointed a Committee to conduct the Presi- 
dent elect and other officers to their seats. 

Dr. Knight on taking the Chair, returned thanks for the honor conferred on him. 

Dr. Atlee, of Pa., moved a vote of thanks to the late President, Dr. Wellford, for his 
dignified, courteous, and efficient manner in the Chair. Carried unanimously, the 
members rising. 

A vote of thanks was also passed to the retiring Secretary, Dr. Gooch. 

On motion of Dr. Hopkins of Maryland, it was resolved that no member speak more 
than ten minutes on any subject at one time 

Dr. Campbell Stewart moved that the Association do meet at 9 o'clock to-morrow 
morning and sit until 12, that a recess of an hour be then taken, and, aAer re-assem- 
bling, that the members sit from 1 to 4 o'clock in the afternoon. Carried. 

Doctor Stewart submitted the following 

, PROGRAMME OF PROCEEDINGS. 

Tuesday, May 3. — The Association will meet in the Presbyterian Church, Bleecker 
Street, East of Broadway and fronting Crosby Street, at 9 o'clock, A. M. Delegates 
will be received in the evening, at the houses of the following gentlemen : — 

Governor Hamilton Fish, Stuy vesant Square, Corner of Second Avenue and Seven- 
teenth Street; Dr. Isaac Wood, 68 East Seventeeth Street; Dr. Willard Parker, 195 
Twelfth Street ; Dr. G. P. Cammann, 109 Fourteenth Street ; Dr. James R. Wood, No. 
2 Irving Place, near Fourteenth street. 

Wednesday, May 4. — Evening receptions by the following gentlemen: 

Ex-Mayor A. C. Kingsland, No. 114 Fifth Avenue; Dr. Edward Delafield, No. 2 
East Seventeenth Street; Dr. James Anderson, 30 University Place; Dr. William 
Detmold, 103 Ninth Street; Dr. Isaac E. Taylor, 828 Broadway. 

■ Thursday, May, 8. — Delegates are invited to a public dinner, to be given to the As- 
sociation by the medical profession of the City of N. Y., at Metropolitan Hall, at 7 P.M. 

Friday, May 6. — Visit to the State and City Hospitals, and other public Institutions 
at Staten Island, Randall's Island, Ward's Island, and Blackwell's Island, per Steam- 
boat Hero, from Pier No. 3, North River; near the Battery. The boat will leave punc- 
tually at 9 o'clock, A. M. The Association will be entertained by the Governors of 
the Almshouse, at Blackwell's Island. Evening receptions by the followinggentlemen: 



296 Proceeding & of the [May 

Dr. John C. Cheeseman, 473 Broadway; Dr. John Watson, 117 Tenth Street; Dr. 
Horace Green, 12 Clinton Place ; Dr. Lewis A. Sayre, 705 Broadway. 
It was was adopted. 
The meeting then adjourned. 

SECOND DAY — MORNING SESSION. 

The Delegates met precisely at nine o'clock, in the Bleecker Street Presbyterian 
Church, pursuant to adjournment. The President, Dr. Jonathan Knight, was called to 
the Chair, and Drs. Beadle and Lemoine (newly elected,; acted as Secretaries. Dr. 
Beadle read the minutes of the meeting held upon Tuesday, the 3d inst., which were 
approved. The record showed that the name of Dr. Stephen H. Harris, California, 
had been omitted in the reported list of gentlemen invited by the Committee of Ar- 
rangements to occupy seats in the Association. 

Dr. Cox, of Md., moved for a reconsideration of the vote adopting the minutes, to 
allow of a correction in the Special Report of Committee ot Arrangements, inviting 
Drs. Pinckney and Bache, U. S. N., to take part in the proceedings. These gentlemen 
had a right to sit as delegates from the Army and Navy. 

Dr. Stewart explained, and read from the 2d article of the Constitution relating to 
delegates 

Dr. Watson, of New York, stated they had always been received as delegates. 

The motion to reconsider was put and lost. 

Dr. Cox hoped the Association would not take any action that would give offence 
to the Army and Navy Medical Institutions. He moved that Drs. Pinckney and 
Bache be received as regular delegates. 

Dr. Pinckney, U. S. N., asked to be heard, and claimed his right to a place as dele- 
gate, having been formerly received as such and signed the Constitution. 

Dr. F. C. Stewart offered the following as an amendment to Dr. Cox's motion : 

Resolved, As the sense of this Association, that under the present Constitution dele- 
gates can be received from the U. S. Army and Navy Medical Bureaus, when appoint- 
ed by the Chief of the Army and Navy Medical Bureau. 

The amendment was adopted. 

Dr. Stewart from the Committee of Arrangement, reported that several membert 
had registered their names since the report of yesterday. 

Dr. Cox, of Md., proposed Dr. Borland, of Arkansas, as a member by invitation. 

Dr. Spencer proposed Dr. Hurd, of New York, but on explanation from the Chair, 
withdrew the proposition. 

The President stated that the next business in order was the reading of 

STATED REPORTS FROM STANDING COMMITTEES. 

Dr. C. D. Meigs, of Philadelphia, presented a report on " Acute and Chronic Dis- 
eases of the Neck of the Uterus," with a request that it should be referred to Committee 
on publication without reading. 

The report was adopted without reading. 

Dr. Coventry, of New York, moved for a suspension of the order of business, to take 
up the subject of proposed amendments to the Consitution. 

Dr. Cash, of New York, moved that the resolution be laid on the table, and the regu- 
lar order of business be proceeded with. Carried. 

The following reports were then called — 

Report — On the Causes of Tubercular Disease — Doctor D. F. Condie, of Pa., said 
that the Committee was not prepared to report at the present Convention meeting. — 
They had considered the subject very attentively, and the more they did so the more 
a new light broke upon them, until they began to doubt the orthodoxy of many of the 
received opinions regarding tuberculosis, its causes, and the proper course of medical 
treatment to be pursued. An abundance of material was furnished — in fact, the re- 
port was almost ready ; but he had such onerous duties to perform during the year, 
both as Chairman of the Committee and Treasurer of the Association, that it was utter- 
ly impossible that he could compile it in proper shape. He made this explanation, lest 
the Committee should be accused of indolence in the matter. 

Dr. Atlee, (Pa.,) moved that the explanation be accepted, and the Committee con- 
tinued to the next session of the Association. 

A delegate inquired if they would then report? 

Dr. Condie thought so, but could not make a positive promise. If he did so, and 



1853.] American Medical Association. 297 

and were prevented from performing it, he should feel mortified before the conven- 
tion. The Committee was continued. 

Report — On the Mutual Relations of Yellow and Bilious Remittent Fever; by Dr. 
James Jones, of New Orleans. Committee not prepared. 

Report — On Epidemic Erysipelas ; by Dr. R. S. Holmes, St. Louis, (Mo.,) Dr. Holmes 
not present. 

Report — On Acute and Chronic Diseases of the Neck of the Uterus ; by Dr. Charles 
D. Meigs, Philadelphia. 

Professor Meigs presented a voluminous report, which he said he did not wish that 
the Association should give to the newspapers, as then it would get out of the ''fami- 
ly." The report was received and referred to the Committee on Publication, 

Report — On the Agency of Refrigeration produced by the upward Radiation ot 
Heat as an Exciting Cause of Disease; by Dr. G. Emerson, of Philadelphia. 

Dr. Emerson gave a synopsis of the report of the Committee relative to their view 
of the theory of diseases caused by exposure to wet, damp, cold, malaria, and other 
agencies of this class; the different susceptibilities of the system when the body is en- 
tirely exposed to their action, or when radiation is interrupted by ever so thin a 
shade ; the fallacy of lunar influences in exciting diseases ; the extent of radiation 
Upon clear nights ; the reasons of the difference in the amount of diseases from the 
above causes in the city and country. The Doctor explained the tendency of the 
ideas of the Committee, when the report itself was accepted, and referred to the Com- 
mittee on Publication. 

Report — on Typhoid Fever ; by Dr. F. H. Campbell, of Augusta, (Ga.) 

Dr. Campbell said he was not aware, until too late an hour to do so, of the fact that 
a written synopsis of each report was required by the rules of this Association. If per- 
mission were granted, he would make a verbal one, and explain to the convention the 
views he had taken regarding this class of fever. The permission was granted. 

Dr. Campbell — I have, sir, little experience in the actual treatment of typhoid fever, 
as it rarely prevails in the district where I am located. I have therefore given a con- 
densed history of the existing pathology regarding it, set forth by other writers, accom- 
panied with my own opinion that the disease lies and has its origin in the ganglionic 
system of nerves. If you divide some of the superior branches of these nerves, there 
is an immediate eccymosis of the eye different from the ganglionic congestion observa- 
ble during typhus fever. I have called attention to the existence and causes of the 
maculated spots which appear upon the surface in the one variety of fever and extend 
through the alimentary canal in the other ; and reason that the latter morbid appear- 
ances are the result of* the diseased ganglionic plexus extending from the superior cer- 
vical vertebrae through the vertebral column to the ganglions of the sacrum. In re- 
referring typhoid fever to this cause, I have recorded the appearances presented in 
the pharyngeal plexus the larynx, oesophagus, stomach and duodenum, (which is sepa- 
rated in a great degree from the influence of the cerebro-spinal system), and I have 
then pointed out the existence of the ulcerations of the lower portion of the illium, and 
to a great extent, as a reason for my belief. I have traced the different appearances 
observed in typhus fever. I have examined the theory of Woods upon the deficiency 
of fibrin in the blood, and endeavored to show that typhus and typhoid fevers are 
quite distinct diseases. 

The synopsis was received with loud applause, and the report referred to the Com- 
mittee on Publication. 

Report — On the Epidemics of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware and Maryland; 
by Dr. John L. Atlee, Lancaster, Pa. Dr. Atlee could not report, from the want of 
personal practice in his district since the Convention met last, and also from the fact 
that gentlemen residing in different sections of the States named had not sent the re- 
sult of their experience to him. New Jersey was so healthy that they had no epidem- 
ics since the Richmond Convention. He found that you may as well attempt to move 
the iron mountain of Missouri as endeavor to get medical men to commit their re- 
marks to writing. There was, therefore, a lack of material. He hoped the Committee 
would be excused. Committee excused and continued. 

Prof. Palmer, Chicago, moved the following: 

Resolved, That this Association earnestly recommend to the local Societies in differ- 
ent portions of our country, to appoint Committees, whose duties it shall be to record 
the prevalence of epidemic or other diseases, and the general state of healih in their 
respective localities, and to transmit said reports to the Committees of the Society on 
epidemics, through the State Societies where they exist. 

38 



298 Proceedings of the [MAY 

Resolved, That the Secretaries be requested to secure a wide publicity to the above 
resolutions, by such means as they may deem proper. 

The resolutions were adopted. 

Dr. Wellford announced that Dr. Haxall, of Virginia, Chairman of Committee on Epi- 
demics in Virginia and North Carolina, and Dr. Boiling, of Alabama, on Epidemics in 
South Carolina, Georgia, Florida and Alabama, had resigned their seats as Chairmen 
of such Committees. 

Report — On the Epidemics of Tennessee and Kentucky; by Dr. W. L. Sutton, of 
Georgetown, Kentucky. 

Dr. Sutton sent in his synopsis, which was read. Cholera, bilious fever, dysentery, 
typhus and typhoid fevers, cholera infantum, and other diseases appearing in the dif- 
ferent districts of the two States periodically, were treated under ten different heads. 

Report referred to the Committee on Publication. 

Dr. Pitcher, of Michigan, presented a report on the subject of Medical Education, 
which he was requested to read at length. The report was a long and able docu- 
ment, containing many valuable suggestions to prevent the spread of quackery, and 
on the best means of training the medical student. The Committee proposed that all 
candidates for degrees shall have studied at least three years, and recommend the ex- 
tension of lecture seasons to six months. The Committee repeated their high opinion 
of the benefits to be derived by students from bed-side experience, as superior to lec- 
tures and flitting Hospital visits, and suggested a supplementary school of practice. 
The Committee asked leave to conclude their report by presenting the following re- 
solutions: 

Resolved, That the Association re-affirm its formerly expressed opinions, on the va- 
lue and importance of general education to the student and practitioner of medicine, 
and that it would gladly enlarge its rule on this subject, so as to include the Humani- 
ties of the schools, and the Natural Sciences. 

Resolved, That in the opinion of this Association, a familiar knowledge with the ele- 
ments of Medical Science should precede Clinical instruction. 

Resolved, That in order to accomplish the latter, the Hospitals when elevated to the 
rank of Schools of Practice and the intelligent private preceptor, are the most efficient 
instrumentalities to be used for that purpose. 

On motion of Dr. Atlee, the report and resolutions were adopted. 

The Committee on Volunteer Communications reported, through Dr. Joseph M. 
Smith, of New York, upon the number of contributions received. Dr. Smith said that 
the committe had awarded one prize of $100 to Dr. Waldo J. Burnett, of Boston, 
Mass., for his treatise upon " The Cell; its Physiology, Pathology, and Philosophy" — 
adding: " Nattira in mini/mis maxima esset^ (Cheers.) 

Another prize of $100 had been awarded to Dr. Washington L. Atlee, of Philadel- 
phia, for his treatise upon " The Surgical Treatment of Fibrous Tumors of the Uterus." 
Dr. Smith added: " Palmam qui meruit ferat? (Cheers.) 

Dr. Alden March, of New York, made a verbal abstract of his paper on " Diseases 
of the Hip Joint," which was favorably reported on by the Committee; and on motion 
of Dr. L. A. Smith, he was requested to read the paper, during recess to-day, in 
Crosby street Medical College. 

Dr. Atlee, of Pennsylvania, called the attention of the delegates to the following 
preamble and resolution, passed at his instance, upon the 7th of May last, in the Rich- 
mond Convention. 

Whereas it is the duty of patriotism to do homage to those who have been bene- 
factors to their country; and whereas the medical profession in the United States, 
heretofore not wanting in patriotic feeling or action, desire to co-operate with the other 
public bodies and institutions of the country in rendering their profound reverence to 
the memory of him who was ' first in peace, first in war, and first in the hearts of his 
countrymen.' 

Be it therefore resolved, That a Committee of five be appointed, whose duty it shall 
be to solicit subscriptions from members of the American Medical Association, for the 
purpose of procuring a suitable stone, with an appropriate inscription, for insertion, in 
the name of this association, into the National Monument to the memory of Washing- 
ton, now in progress of erection at Washington city. 

The resolution was re-affirmed with applause, and many subscriptions will be paid 
to the Treasurer for the purpose. Here the delegates took a recess until half past one 
- Vloek in the afternoon. 

Dr. Blatchford, of New York, offered the following: 



1853.] American Medical Association. 299 

Resolved, That the suggestions in the President's Address, touching the licensing 
power, be referred to a Committee of five, of which Dr. Wellford shall be the Chair- 
man, to prepare some plan whereby the subject may be brought fairly before the Pro- 
fession, and, if deemed advisable, that the Legislatures of the several States may be 
memorialized to carry out the recommendations of this Association — the Committee to 
report at the next meeting of the Association. 

Dr. Garrett, of Washington, D. C, proposed the following as an amendment ; 

Resolved, That a Committee of five be appointed by the President of this Associa- 
tion, to prepare a Memorial to the Legislative bodies of the several States of the Uni- 
on, praying that a law be passed prohibiting the Faculty of any Medical Institution 
which may at present exist, or which may hereafter be established within the limits of 
said States, from conferring the degree of Doctor of Medicine upon any candidate for 
graduation who has not previously graduated at some literary institution, or who, up- 
on examination by a competent Board, is not found to possess a good English and 
Classical education. 

Resolved, That regarding the present term of preparatory study adopted by the Me- 
dical Colleges of the United States, too limited to enable students of medicine to ac- 
quire such a competent knowledge of the profession as should entitle them to receive 
the degree of Doctor of Medicine, a recommendation be incorporated in said Memori- 
al, that some Legislative action be also had upon this subject. 

Resolved, That it be the duty of the President and Secretary of this Association, to 
transmit, through the Executive heads of each State, a copy of said Memorial to their 
respective Legislative Assemblies, and that a Circular be addressed to the members 
of the Medical Profession, resident at, or convenient to the seats of Government of 
the several States, requesting them to use every practicable exertion consistent with 
the honor, dignity, and good repute of the Profession, to procure the passage of a law 
in accordance with the foregoing resolution. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

Dr. Jonathan Knight in the Chair. The business of the afternoon session was com- 
menced by the reading of a communication from Dr. Griscom, of the New York Hospi- 
tal, inviting the members of the Convention to visit that institution this morning, at 
10 o'clock. 

The Chairman of the Committee of Arrangements then being called upon to report, 
stated that seventy additional delegates to the Convention had arrived this day, whose 
credentials had been examined and found to be correct. 

The following gentlemen were then, upon motion of the Chairman of the Commit- 
tee of Arrangements, elected members of the Convention by invitation :— Dr. Robert 
R. Hadley, of Bey root, Syria; Dr. James G. Cooper, of Washington Territory, U. S., 
and Dr. H. Williams, from Southern Illinois. 

Dr. Charles A. Lee, then offered the following resolutions: — 

Resolved, As the sense of this Association, that those Medical Colleges which give 
two courses of lectures annually, each of which counts as a separate course, have 
virtually violated and forfeited their Charters, which do not contemplate but one an- 
nual session, (thus making two Colleges out of one.) 

Resolved, That the practice in question is calculated to lower the standard of attain- 
tainment in the Profession, and subjects those who countenance it to the imputation 
of acting from mercenry motives. 

Resolved, That no Delegates shall hereafter be received by this Association, from 
any Medical Schools which give two courses of lectures annually; each of which 
eounts towards a degree. 

On motion of Dr. Atlee, of Pa., the resolutions were laid on the table. 

Dr. Stewart read the following resolutions, offered by Dr. Stephen W. Williams, of 
Mass., a permanent member. 

Resolved, That the thanks of this Association be presented to Dr. Winslow Lewis, 
of Boston, a member of the Massachusetts Legislature, for the bill which he has pre- 
sented and endeavored to sustain, providing that " no druggist, apothecary, or person 
engaged in manufacturing medicines, or compounds to be administered as medicines 
(except such as are published in standard works of chemistry, materia medica, or 
pharmacopoeia,) shall offer the same for sale in anyway, till he has filed a complete re = 
cipe in English, sworn to before a legal authority constituted for snch purpose." 

2. Voted, That a Committee be appointed by this Association for the purpose of pe- 
titioning Congress and Slate Legislatures to enact regulations and laws similar to the 
above. 



800 Proceedings of the [May 

Also, as we are constantly called upon to deplore the ravages of death among the 
illustrious and worthy members of our profession throughout the United States, 

Resolved, That a Standing Committee be appointed by this Association, to procure 
memorials of the eminent and worthy dead among the distinguished physicians of our 
country, both in and without the pale of this Association, for publication in their trans- 
actions. 

The first resolution, relating to Dr. Lewis, was adopted. 

To the third, Dr. Cox, of Mo., moved an amendment, confining the memoirs to dis- 
tinguished members of the Association. 

Dr. Morgan, of Washington, thought the Association would not be able to meet the 
increased expense such an addition to their transactions would cause. He moved_tO' 
lay on the table. Carried. 

Dr. Buck, N. Y., read a paper on morbid growths within the larynx, and exhibited 
a specimen, with report of the case. Referred to Committee on Publications. 

Dr. Mitchell here proceeded to speak of the various difficulties and grievances un- 
der which the physicians and surgeons in the navy labored, and recommended the 
Convention to take some measures for their relief. Although they occupied an impor- 
tant position in that branch of the service, yet he did not think they received that con- 
sideration to which they were justly entitled. He thought the faculty were bound to 
protect their medical brethren in the navy. He concluded by presenting the following 
resolution, which was, after considerable discussion, adopted : — 

Whereas, the claim of naval medical officers to defined rank, assimilated with the 
grades of officers of the line of the navy, has not yet been decided upon by Congress; 
therefore, 

Resolved, That the President of this meeting appoint a Committee of three, which is 
hereby instructed to communicate to Congress, through the presiding officer of each 
House, at the commencement of the next session, an expression of the interest felt by 
the American Medical Association of the United States for their professional brethren 
employed in the navy, as set forth in the resolutions unanimously adopted at several 
sessions of this body. 

The Committee appointed consisted of the President, Dr. Mitchell, and Dr. Stevens. 

The following resolution was presented by Dr. Hooker, of Connecticut, and adopted 
unanimously : — 

Resolved, That the delegates from the several States be requested to appoint Com- 
mittees, who shall aid the Committee of Publication in procuring subscribers, and in 
distributing the annual transactions of this Association. 

Dr. Holton presented the following resolution : 

Resolved, That the medical department of the University of Michigan, by its co-ope- 
ration with the efforts of this body to elevate the standard of medical education, espe- 
cially in regard to its preliminary studies, and an extended term of instruction, has en- 
titled itself to our warm commendation and hearty support. 

A discussion ensued in which Drs. Palmer and Bolton, contended for the resolution, 
and Dr. Hooker, Connecticut, and others, against it. 

Dr. Cox, in reply to the above resolution, said he did not wish to cast the slightest 
imputation upon any school ; neither did he desire to make invidious distinctions be- 
tween any schools. He hoped that no such action would be taken as that proposed 
by the resolution. 

Dr. W. Hooker said, in regard to the resolution, he believed that the University of 
Michigan had a high vocation in promoting the learning of medical science in this 
country ; but he thought they would succeed better without the assistance of the As^ 
sociation. It would be to their credit and advantage to keep themselves from com- 
petition with the medical faculty thioughout the land. If they are capable to form this 
high vocation of themselves, then they need no advertisement from the Association. 

The resolution was withdrawn. 

Dr. Mauran presented the following report, in relation to the necessity of each emi- 
grant ship being provided with a surgeon : — 

The undersigned, Chairman of a Committee appointed by the American Medical 
Association, to memorialize Congress upon the importance of enacting, as an act of 
duty and humanity, a law making it obligatory upon all vessels conveying emigrants 
to have a regular surgeon on board, respectfully reports: That the memorial signed 
by all the members of the Committee, the President and Secretaries of the Association, 
was, through the medium of the Hon. A. P. Butler, Senator from South Carolina, pre- 
sented in May, 1S52, and was referred to the Committee on Commerce. It is with 



1853.] American Medical Association. 301 

much regret that the undersigned has to report that the Committee on Commerce, 
having, it is presumed, other subjects of a much graver import in a pecuniary point of 
view, but surely not in a humane and philanthropic one made no report. It was not 
contemplated that any action would have been taken on the subject, at the late period 
of the session of 1851 ; but sanguine hopes were entertained that some report would 
have been made in the session of 1852. The undersigned, in common with every 
good citizen, has a respectful consideration for their legislators and public functiona- 
ries, but must honestly confess that the legislation growing out of outward pressure, 
for ulterior purposes of individual or political aggrandizement, renders it difficult to 
have such prompt and efficient action as should be reasonably expected upon ques- 
tions involving sacrifice, advancement or objects of Hygienic improvement. The un- 
dersigned, however, is fully impressed that no intentional disrespect was meant by 
the Committee on Commerce in allowing the memorial to remain in their archives un- 
noticed ; and now that the presidential election, and other collateral subjects, inciden- 
tal or having a bearing thereto, are settled, it is but reasonable to suppose that the Se- 
nate and House of Representatives would consider any measure as regards science 
or medical association ; and likewise, if possible in legislation, adopt the same. There 
has been every assurance given to the undersigned, that the measure will have a pro- 
per consideration at the next session of Congress, and therefore he asks that the Com- 
mittee be continued, and considered as reporting progress. 

THOS. Y. SIMONS, M.D., Chairman. 

The foregoing report was accepted, and the Committee directed to prepare a me- 
morial to Congress. 

The following report was then presented : — 

The undersigned, Chairman of a Committee of the American Medical Association 
to memorialize Congress in accordance with a resolution of Dr. Fulton, of Georgetown, 
Kentucky, to have the medical statistics of the United States census printed separate- 
ly, for the use of the medical profession, respectfully reports ; — 

That a memorial was drawn up, and signed by the Committee and the President 
and Secretaries of the American Medical Association, and was placed in the charge 
of the Hon. Dr. Jones, a member of the Association, and of Congress, to be presented 
to the House of Representatives. From information received from him, it seems, 
among other objections, a grave one was offered, viz : — the want of scientific arrange- 
ments, and the unreliability of the returns in general. In other words, that they were 
of such a character as to add little to the usefulness of the profession or the honor of 
the country. The undersigned, respectfully, on the present occasion, calls the atten- 
tion of the members of the Association to the great importance of using their best in- 
fluence to induce the legislatures of their respective States to establish a registration 
of births, marriages and deaths; a measure of incalculable value as regards vital sta- 
tistics. The experience and gradual progressive improvement in the reports of Mas- 
sachusetts, clearly demonstrate that while at first they were comparatively imperfect, 
yet much information was obtained, and every year the reports have become more 
satisfactory. THOS. Y. SIMONS. M. D., Chairman. 

This report was also accepted, and the Committee requested to prepare a memorial 
to Congress on the subject. 

Dr. Peaslee, of New Hampshire, offered the following resolution, which he accom- 
panied with a few brief and appropriate remarks : — 

Resolved, That it is the duty of the faculties to refuse to admit to examination, for 
the degree of Doctor, all persons who intend to engage in any other than the regular 
practice, and to give notice of this in their annual course of lectures. 

Dr. Sayre said he thought the resolution was not calculated to effect the object it 
had in view. The best way, in his opinion, was to withdraw the diploma after it had 
been given, and in the event of its being used for the advancement of quackery. In 
conclusion, he moved the following resolution as an amendment : — 

Resolved, That a Committee be appointed to memorialize the several State govern- 
ments, in reference to the subject of diplomas to medical men, and to petition them, 
in the name of the Association, for the passage of a law granting chartered medical 
colleges the privilege of retracting publicly the diplomas of any of their graduates, 
when, in the judgment of the medical faculty of the college or school granting such di- 
plomas or certificates, they may have forfeited a right to the same. 

A warm discussion ensued, in which Drs. Hooker, Conn., Atfee, Pa., Peaslee, and 
others, took part. 

On motion of Dr. Gooch, the resolution and amendment were laid on the table, an^ 
the Association adjourned to Thursday morning, at 9 o'clock. 



302 Proceedings of the [May 

THIRD DAY — MORNING SESSION. 

Dr. J. M. Smith, New York, Chairman of the Committee on Nominations, requested 
the Committee to meet at his residence, No. 65 Bleecker Street. 

Dr. Stewart, Chairman of Committee on Arrangements, reported the names of seve- 
ral delegates who had registered since last report. 

Dr. W. Hooker, Connecticut, offered the following, which was adopted : 

Resolved, That a Committee of Five be appointed, whose duty it shall be, in compli- 
ance with the suggestions of our late President, Dr. Wellford, to report our plans of 
organization for State and County Societies, and that the Committee be requested to 
report, if possible, during the present meeting of the Association. 

Dr. Ziegler, of Pa., offered a preamble and the following Resolutions, which were 
referred to Committee on organizing State and County Societies. 

Resolved, That the American Medical Association hereby reiterate the repeatedly 
previously expressed desire for the immediate formation and organization of County 
and State Medical Societies in every part of the country in which they have not yet 
been established. 

Resolved, That every County Medical Society be and is hereby recommended to 
dispense with the present system of acquiring members by the previous pro-formal 
manifestation of personal desire on the part of applicants for such association, and to 
substitute therefor that of the immediate and voluntary election to membership there- 
in, of every unassociated eligible physician. 

Resolved, That all physicians thus voluntarily elected, and subsequently neglecting 
or declining to respond to and unite themselves with the general profession, shall be 
considered as estimating their own personal views, and private relations and interests, 
above and in opposition to those of the profession generally, and, as thus antagonistic 
to its exalted objects, cannot therefore consistently expect the continued enjoyment of 
the usual rights and privileges of professional intercourse and fellowship. 

The Secretary read a notice, requesting delegates from any States which were not 
represented on the Committee on Nomination, to elect representatives, to sit with the 
Committee at 56 Bleecker Street. 

Dr. N. S. Davis, of Illinois, reported at length, and lucidly, on the Medical Litera- 
ture of 1853. There are now published in the United States twenty-eight medical pe- 
riodicals, of which four are issued quarterly, six bi-monthly, fifteen monthly, two semi- 
monthly, and one weekly. One of the monthlies is published in the German, at New 
York, and one in French, at New Orleans. Of the aggregate number of pages pub- 
lished, about one-half were original matter. This aggregate consists of the record of 
.cases occurring under the observation of their writers, of which a very large propor- 
tion lose their value for lack of that fullness of detail and scope, which are essential 
to make them reliable data for the abstraction of practical deductions — articles embo- 
dying the statistical results of certain diseases and surgical operations, and Essays on 
special subjects, and the details of experimental inquiries — of all which classes, some 
of the more important specimens were named in the report. It is believed that a de- 
cided improvement has taken place in this department of medical journalism during 
.the past year. It is shown most distinctly in the most frequent reports of the use of 
the microscope and its application to physiological and pathological researches. But 
the report scores the journals for an abundance of material furnished of another order 
— crude, ill-digested essays, illogical, incomplete and consequently mischievous arti- 
cles — which serve to advertise their writers' names and residence, and, unwittingly, 
their ignorance. 

The Review department of our medical periodicals is of all the most defective. 
There are a few honorable exceptions, but the large majority afford little more than a 
few meagre pages of bookseller's notices, serving to advertise the work whose title is 
given, and seldom affording any impression whatever of the character and contents of 
the book named. 

The number of journals in this country is greater in proportion to the population 
than in any other. Whether we are gainers in their quality from this fact is very 
questionable, but this at least, it secures a greater number of professional readers. A 
very copious contribution to our medical literature is made in the form of the transac- 
tions of the State, County, and other Medical Societies ; the report hints that their 
character is decidedly superior to that of the average of the original papers contributed 
to the journals. 

Among the more valuable monographs that have issued from American authors 
during the year, are the treatises of Dr. Swett on the Chest ; Dr. Flint on Continued 



1853.] American Medical Association, 303 

Fever; Dr. Edward Coale, on Uterine Displacements; Dr. H. H. Smith's Operative 
Surgery ; Dr. Piper's Illustrated Surgery ; Dr. Horace Green's Polypi of the Larynx 
and (Edema of the Glotis; Dr. Biddle's and Dr. Tully's Materia Medica; Dr. Dickson's 
Life, Sleep and Death, and Dr. Mackall's notes on Carpenter's Phisiology. Besides 
these, many new editions of standard American works, and the revision and transla 
tions of many of foreign origin, shows that there is no lack of patronage of our home 
literature, nor a lack of readers for professional works, either domestic or foreign. In 
matters of minutee, in the details of analysis and of nice scientific discrimination, we 
have looked abroad for our medical teachings. But in the details of practice, in bold, 
independent invective, and energetic thinking on medical topics — we are not copyists 
—nor in any respect imitators. 

The defects of our medical literature are very obvious, and readily traceable to their 
causes; to wit, a lack on the part of medical writers, of sufficient preliminary educa- 
tion, the absence of clear and definite perceptions of the fundamental principles of 
physiology and pathology, defective modes of investigation, and the epidemic haste 
shared by them with all other writers in our country, with which their productions are 
surrendered to the press. These difficulties will be remedied when the public senti- 
ment of physicians has become what it ought to be ; when medical critics are honest 
in expressing their convictions, and medical men avail themselves of the benefits that 
must accrue from the organization of their forces into local, State and National Associ- 
ations. 

The following he indicated as the principal means of advancing the standard of Me- 
dical Literature : 1. To adopt such means as would be calculated to encourage 
preliminary study on the part of students. 2. Greater strictness on the part of Medi- 
cal Colleges in their examinations. 3. Offering premiums for the best original Medical 
Essays, by State and County Medical Societies. 4. Formation of Medical Libraries. 
5. To labor for an International Copyright. The future is bright for us, the past full 
of eloquent lessons. If we heed them and do for the future what we ought, Ameri- 
can Medical Literature will yet attain to an elevation corresponding with our coun- 
try's social and political destiny. 

The Secretary read a communication from Robert Kelley, Esq,, inviting the Associ- 
ciation to visit the House of Refuge, for reformation of juvenile delinquents. 

Dr. S. Jackson, of Pennsylvania, stated that he had received a paper from a gen- 
tleman, on Electricity, as applied to predictions of meteorological changes. 

Dr. McNorton moved to refer to Committee on Spirit Rappers. [Laughter.] Laid 
on the table. 

Dr. Yandell, of Kentucky, offered the following, which was adopted : 

Whereas, By the dispensation of an inscrutable Providence, Dr. Daniel Drake has 
been removed since the last annual meeting of this Association from the scene of his 
earthly labors — 

Resolved, That in the death of Dr. Drake the American Medical Association has lost 
one of its most honored members, and the American Medical profession one of its 
brightest ornaments. 

Resolved, That his steady devotion to his profession through a long life, his zeal, ac- 
tivity, and unceasing efforts to advance its interests, afford an example worthy of the 
imitation of every young physician. 

Resolved, that this Association will cherish the memory of Dr. Drake for his many 
virtues, and for his labors which have adorned and elevated our profession. 

The resolutions were adopted by a rising vote. 

The President read a resolution, offered by Dr. Cleveland, of Vermont, calling for 
the appointment of a Committee to investigate the value of Galvanism as a therapeu- 
tic agent. 

On motion of Dr. Gooch, the resolution was referred to Committee on Nominations. 

Dr. Wellford, of Virginia, stated that the State of Louisiana, was not represented, 
and moved that Dr. Douglass, of Louisiana, who was present, be invited to take his 
seat as a delegate from that State. Carried. 

On motion of Dr. Palmer, of Virginia, the resolution offered yesterday from the Vir- 
ginia Medical Society, recommending the appointment of a Chemist, and laid on the 
table, was taken up for consideration. 

Dr. Parker, of Virginia, offered the following as an amendment. 

Resolved, That this Association recommend Congress to consider the propriety of 
passing a law compelling all importers of nostrums to state upon all compounds thus 
imported their true constituents, and in English. 



304 Proceedings of the [MAlf 

Resolved, That the Secretary be instructed to forward a copy of these resolutions to 
the Executive of the general Government. 

An amendment to strike out the word "English," was accepted. 

The first resolution was read by the Secretary. 

Dr. Bond, of Baltimore, objected to the resolution, because it could do no good, and 
was likely to do a great deal of injury. He moved to lay on the table, but withdrew 
it to allow discussion. 

Dr. Hooker, of Connecticut, said the facts from the State of Maine would answer 
the objections of Dr. Bond. An act had been passed there, which was found to be a 
death-blow to this system of quackery. But on petition of the people and clergy who 
were in favor of encouraging it, the law was repealed. He wished parties to know 
what they swallowed. 

Dr. Sayre, of New York, said that every notice that was taken of any such quacke- 
ries only tended to advertise them, and could accomplish no useful purpose. He pro- 
posed to lay on the table. Lost. 

Dr. Cox, of Maryland, never knew any good to follow prohibitory measures against 
Quackery. In the State of Maryland a set of quacks known as Thompsonians, flour- 
ished under prohibitory legislature, and died away when given every freedom and lati- 
tude. He believed the surest death blow to Quackery was to treat it with contempt 
and silence. It was unworthy of any grave notice from this Association. He believed 
the true remedy against Quackery was to be found in attention to their Association. 

Dr. Bolton, of Virginia, drew the attention of the Association to a resolution passed 
yesterday, thanking Dr. Winslow Lewis for his efforts in supporting a bill before the 
Massachusetts Legislature. There was a mistake in thinking that the resolution pro- 
posed to prohibit the sale of these quack medicines ; it only proposed that the ingre- 
dients of which they were composed should be set forth on the label. This would di- 
vest the medicine of the great charm of mystery, which gave them such importance in 
the minds of the public. They would see that for a few pence they could procure 
some simple medicine; which was the chief ingredient in the expensive bottle. 

Dr. Richards, of Ohio, and Dr. Jackson of Massachusetts, followed in opposition to 
the resolution. The analyzing of these nostrums, by order of the State, would be 
giving a sanction to their sale. 

The reading of the resolution was called for, and a vote taken. 

President. — The nays are the loudest; whether they are the more numerous, I can- 
not say. 

The House was counted and the resolution laid on the table. 

Dr. Condie, of Pennsylvania, and Dr. Cox, of Maryland, offered the following resolu- 
tions, which were adopted by a rising vote. 

Resolved, That we have heard with sincere regret of the death of our late fellow 
member, Dr. Isaac Parrish, of Philadelphia, who was distinguished by his early and 
earnest advocacy of the establishment of this Association, by his ardent interest in its 
proceedings, and by his valuable contributions to its published proceedings. 

Resolved, That in the demise of Dr. William E. Horner, which has occurred since 
the last annual session of this body, the American Medical Association has lost one of 
its illustrious and useful members ; and the science of medicine, an indefatigable stu- 
dent and most distinguished teacher. 

Resolved, That the memory of the gifted subject of the resolutions, dear as it must 
ever be to the lovers ot medical science universally, will be especially cherished by 
this Association, to whose great objects and aims, his last efforts were during life, 
promptly and liberally bestowed. 

Dr. Condie, of Pa., replied to inquiries received, in reference to back numbers of the 
Transactions. 

Dr. Yandell, of Ky., presented a report received from Dr. S. D. Gross, Ky., on the 
results of Surgical operations for the relief of Malignant diseases, which was referred 
to Committee on Publication. Dr. G. read a brief abstract. 

From the facts and statements which have now been presented, embracing the 
opinions of many of the most intelligent, experienced and distinguished practitioners 
in different ages, and in different parts of the world, the following conclusions may be 
legitimately deduced : 

First — That cancerous affections, particularly those of the mammary gland, have 
always, with a few rare exceptions, been regarded by practitioners as incurable by the 
knife and escharotics. This opinion, commencing with Hippocrates, the father of me- 
dicine, has prevailed from the earliest records of the profession, to the present mo- 



1853.] American Medical Association. 305 

ment. Nature never cures a disease of the kind ; nor can this be effected by any me- 
dicine, or internal remedies known to the profession. 

Secondly — That excision, however early and thoroughly executed, is nearly always, 
in genuine cancer, followed by relapse, at a period varying from a few weeks to seve- 
ral months, from the operation. 

Thirdly — That nearly all practitioners, from the time of Hippocrates to the present 
day, have been, and are still averse to any operation for the removal of cancerous tu- 
mor?, after the establishment of ulceration, rapid growth, firm adhesion, organic change 
in the skin, lymphatic invasion, the cancerous dyscracy, or serious constitutional de- 
rangements ; on the ground that, if had recourse to, under these circumstances, the 
malady almost inevitably recurs in a very short time, and frequently destroys the pa- 
tient more rapidly than when it is permitted to pursue its own course. 

Fourthly — That in all cases of acute carcinoma, or, in other words, in all cases of 
this disease, attended with very rapid development and great bulk of the tumour, ex- 
tirpation is improper and unjustifiable, inasmuch as it will only tend to expedite the fa- 
tal result, which, under such circumstances, always takes place in a very short time. 

Fifthly — That all operations performed for the removal of encephaloid cancer and its 
different varieties, are more certainly followed by rapid relap&e than operations per- 
formed upon schirrus or hard cancer. 

Sixthly— That in nearly all the operations for cancerous diseases, hitherto reported, 
the history has been imperfectly presented, being deficient in the details which are 
necessary to a complete and thorough understanding of the subject in each case. 
This remark is particularly true in reference to the diagnosis of the malady, the mi- 
nute examination of the morbid structure, and the history of the case after the opera- 
tion, as to the period of relapse, the time and nature of the patient's death, and the re- 
sult ot the post-mortem examination. 

Seventhly — That cancerous affections of the lip and skin, now usually described 
under the name of cancroid diseases, are less liable to relapse after extirpation than 
genuine cancerous maladies, or those which are characterized by the existence of the 
cancer cell and cancer-juice. 

Eighthly— That, although practitioners have always been aware, from the earliest 
professional records, of the great liability of cancer to relapse after extirpation, a great 
majority of them have always been, and still are, in favor of operation in the early 
Stage of the disease, especially in schirrus, before the tumor has made much progress, or 
before there is any disease of the lymphatic ganglions, or evidence of the canceroui 
cachexy. 

Ninthly— That many cases of tumors, especially tumors of the breast and testicle, 
supposed to be cancerous, are in reality not cancerous, but of a benign character, and 
consequently, readily curable by ablation, whether effected by the knife or by escha- 
rotics. It is to this circumstance that we must ascribe the astonishing success which, 
is said to have attended the practice of Hill, of Scotland, Nooth, of England, and Fla- 
jani, of Italy. 

Tenthly— That all operations insist upon the most thorough excision possible j re- 
moving not merely the diseased mass, but also a portion of the surrounding and appa- 
rently healthy tissues, as well as the enlarged and indurated ganglions. 

Eleventhly — That the practice has always prevailed, and still obtains, to save, if 
possible, a sufficient amount of healthy integument to cover the wound, and if possible, 
to unite it, by the first intention; on the ground that these precautions will tend 
much to retard, if not to prevent, a recurrence of the disease. 

Twelfthly— That much stress i<* laid by writers upon a properly regulated diet, and 
attention to the bowels and secretions after operation, as means of retarding and pre- 
venting relapse. 

Thirteenthly — That there is no remedy, medicine or method of treatment which has 
the power, so far as we are enabled to judge of its virtues, of pre venting the reproduc- 
tion of the morbid action after operation, no matter how thoroughly it may be per- 
formed. 

Fourteenthly — That life has occasionally been prolonged and even saved by opera- 
tion after relapse, as in some of the remarkable cases mentioned in a previous part of 
this report ; but that, as a general rule, such a proceedure is as incompetent to effect 
a permanent cure as a first extirpation. 

Dr. Bryan, of Pa., rose to correct a statement made yesterdny, by Prof. Jackson, that 
a young gentleman had been allowed to graduate in Philadelphia Medical College, 
after two weeks study. 

39 



306 Proceedings of the [May 

Prof. Jackson, stated that he had received the information from a gentleman whom 
he named, and had used it as an illustration of his argument. 

Dr. Gooch, called up the subject of the graduating pledge, proposed by Dr. Peaslee, 
of New Hampshire last evening, and laid over, and proposed the following resolutions: 

Resolved, That this Association earnestly recommends to all the respectable Medi- 
cal Colleges of the United States to administer to their graduates, previous to their re- 
ceiving the diploma, some pledge that they will maintain, to the best of their abilities, 
the honor and dignity of the profession ; and that they will forfeit their degrees, when- 
ever they desert the Orthodox system of medicine. 

Resolved, That the schools be urged not to graduate any man without requiring him 
to read the National Code of Ethics, and publicly give his consent to abide by it, and 
they will reserve to themselves the right to withdraw the diploma, publicly, when- 
ever the graduating pledge has been violated. 

There are, said Dr. G., two schools which have already adopted such rules. Un- 
fortunately, as things stood, gentlemen were allowed to graduate on payment of their 
fees without knowing there was such a thing as a "Code of Ethics" in existence, and 
permitted to go forth among medical men as their equals in practice. The conse- 
quence was, systems of quackery, and want of proper esprit du corps among members 
of the profession, in many instances. 

Dr. Garnett, of Washington, spoke to the resolution. 

Dr. Atkinson, of Virginia, inquired how the diplomas could be withdrawn? 

Dr. Gooch replied that the diploma could be always withdrawn, if given under these 
conditions. 

Dr. J. H. Phillips, of New Jersey, offered the following amendment: 

Resolved, That it is the duty of all Boards of Examiners, to which candidates may 
apply for examination or approval, to admit none but those who give satisfactory evi- 
dence of a good preliminary education, and that a regular Course of Medical Practice 
will afterwards be pursued, and who shall subscribe to the Code of Ethics adopted by 
this Association. 

Dr. Cox, of Md., thought the resolution contemplated an extraordinary act of legisla- 
tion, and there would be great difficulty in applying the principle. The power of re- 
voking a diploma, once given under the legal sanction of a charter, was a dangerous 
one to be intrusted to any set of men. 

Dr. Atkinson, of Virginia, thought, that until the millenium, quackery would exist in 
the profession to some extent, and it was vain to legislate against it. 

On motion of Dr. Sayre of New York, the Association took a recess for one hour, 
without disposing of the resolution. 

AFTERNOON SESSION. 

The Association was called to order at l£ P. M. 

The consideration of Dr. Gooch's resolution was resumed. 

Dr. Stille, of Pennsylvania, offered the following: 

Resolved, That in order to preserve the purity and honor of the medical profession, 
and to place around young practitioners an additional safe-guard against temptations 
to do wrong, as well as to draw a more distinct line of separation between true and 
false physicians, — it is hereby recommended to the several Medical Colleges, and such 
other Boards as are by law authorized to examine candidates for admission into the 
medical profession, to require from every graduate or licentiate his signature to the 
Code of Ethics of this Association, as well as to furnish him with a copy of this Code, 
and it is also recommended that the formal administration of a pledge, faithfully to ob- 
serve and keep the same, form part of the public ceremonies of Medical Commence- 
ments. 

After some discussion the whole subject was referred to a Committee of three, to re- 
port as soon as possible. 

Dr. Stewart, on behalf of Committee of Arrangements, reported the names of dele- 
gates who had registered since last report, and recommending to invite Dr. Hervey P. 
Peet, Institution for Deaf and Dumb, and Dr. W. C. Butler, to take seats in the Associ- 
ation. The report suggested that when the Society adjourn it be to Saturday morn- 
ing. Accompanying, was a letter from Dr. Thomas Spencer, presenting a paper on 
the atomic theory of life and vital heat, as applicable to pathology. 

On motion, Dr. Spencer made a brief abstract of his views. 

Dr. Blatchford, of New York, moved to have a resolution offered yesterday, on the 
licensing power, with amendments by Dr. Garnett, taken up for consideration. 

[For resolutions, see proceedings of yesterday.] 



1853.] American Medical Association. 307 

Dr. Hooker, of Conn., spoke to the subject of the resolutions. We would expose in- 
dividual cases without referring to the Colleges or individuals, by name. The object 
of such an Association as this, was not to be personal, but to reform abuses. Dr. H. 
cited several cases, for which he stated he had the best authority, in which young men 
had been allowed to graduate after terms of study under one year. Four of these 
cases, were irom schools very prominent in the community. If such instances as he 
had stated had come without inquiry, was it not probable that if a searching inquiry 
were instituted numerous such abuses would be discovered. The cause of this was 
in a great degree, owing to the competition between schools. He wished that the 
subject would be brought before a Committee; and he thought the remedy proposed 
in Dr. Garnett's amendment, would prove efficacious. 

Dr. Johnson, of St. Louis, was happy the subject had come before this Association. 
Pie was sorry the gentleman had not given the instances he referred to ; for he 
was confident that the Association was composed of gentlemen who would have an 
influence in preventing such abuses. In Missouri, they had memorialized the Legis- 
lature, and found that no hope for any measure to protect the Medical Faculty, could 
be expected from the Legislature. This Association would, in itself have a much 
greater influence, by denying those scholars which acted in the manner described, a 
place on this floor. The moral power of this Association, if exercised, would have the 
effect of keeping members of the profession from such practices. 

Dr. Atlee, of Fa., rose to prevent a discussion on the subject, which could lead to 
no practical good for the present. The evil was a very great one, and he hoped the 
whole subject would be referred to a Committee to make their report at the next 
meeting. 

The subject was referred to the following Committee : Drs. Samuel Jackson, T. 
Blatchford, Johnson, of Mississippi, [St. Louis ?] ; Peaselee, of New Hampshire. 

On motion of Dr. Atlee, the subject of proposed amendments to the Constitution was 
taken up, and the original articles, with proposed amendments read by the Secretary. 

Dr. Stevens of New York, moved an indefinite postponement of the whole subject 
of amendments to the Constitution. 

Dr. Atkinson, of Va., moved to have the amendment proposing to admit four dele- 
gates from the U. S. Army and U. S. Navy, excepted from motion to postpone. 

Dr. Coolidge, ofU. S. Army, hoped that the Association would decide whether dele- 
gates from the Army and Navy were entitled to a seat on the same footing as other 
delegates. If the Association did not do so, he thought the Chief of the Aimy and 
Navy Medical Bureau would not be inclined to nominate delegates from that depart- 
ment in future. 

Dr. Bolton, of Virginia, read some resolutions intrusted to him by the Medical Soci- 
ety of Virginia, on the subject of amending the Constitution. 

Dr. Stewart said the only alterations proposed were, in effect, to have one delegate 
from each College, and one from each Hospital, instead of two. This was that they 
might obtain, as nearly as possible, a uniform representation of ten per cent., from all 
branches of the profession. Also the change respecting the Army and Navy delegates. 

The question on indefinite postponement, excepting the clause altering the Consti- 
tution in relation to delegates from the Army and Navy was put and carried, and the 
following adopted: 

Resolved, That the second clause of Article 2 of the Constitution be so amended as 
to admit the American Medical Society in Paris to representation in this body upon 
the same terms as the Medical bodies in this country. 

Dr. Alfred Stille, Chairman of the Committee to whom was referred sundry memo- 
rials touching the course to be pursued by Medical Colleges and other Boards in the 
examination of candidates and the granting of Diplomas, reported, submitting the fol- 
lowing resolutions for adoption : 

Resolved, That in order to preserve the purity and honor of the Medical Profession, 
and to place around young practitioners additional safeguards against temptations to 
do wrong, as well as to draw a more distinct line of separation between true and false 
physicians, it be and is hereby recommended, that every graduate in medicine be re- 
quired to subscribe a pledge to submit to the revocation of his diploma upon convic- 
tion of having knowingly violated the Code of Ethics of this Association. It is also re- 
commended to the several Medical Colleges and such other Boards as are by law au- 
thorized to examine candidates for admission into the Medical Profession to require 
from every graduate or licentiate his signature to the Code of Ethics of this Associa» 
tion, and to furnish him with a copy of the same. It is further recommended that th« 



SOS Proceedings of the [May 

formal administration of a pledge faithfully to observe and keep the said Code, form 
part of the public exercises of Medical Commencements. 

The following form of Promise was among the documents referred to Committee on 
Pledge. 

I, A. B., of , in the State of , do hereby promise, on the honor of a gentle- 
man, that I will conform strictly to the Code of Ethics of this my Alma Mater in all 
things pertaining to the practice of my profession; and when I shall fail to do so, I 
hereby grant to the Faculty of said School full power and authority to withdraw said 
Diploma, and all the righls and privileges which it is intended to confer. 

Dr. Palmer and other delegates opposed that part of the report proposing to clothe 
Colleges with the power ot revoking diplomas for a breach of the "Code of Ethics." 

Several motions and countermotions were made. The Chairman decided on the 
right of the Committee to withdraw the objectionable resolution, when the second and 
third recommendations of the report were adopted. 

Dr. Sayre, of New York, moved that the resolution be taken up, and passed as the 
sense of the meeting. It was taken up and referred to Committee. 

Dr. Palmer moved the following, which was adopted : 

Resolved, That the Standing Committee, of which Dr. Bolton is Chairman, be in- 
structed to inquire into all cashes of death that may be reported as occurring from the 
use of anaesthetic agents during the present year in the United States, and report to 
the next meeting of the Association. 

Dr. Zeigler, of Pennsylvania, moved the following, which was laid on the table: 

Resolved, That a Committee of three or more be appointed by the President, to de» 
vise or consider some comprehensive plan or system by which subjects connected 
more especially with Medical Science can be more speedily, systematically, generally 
and thoroughly investigated and examined. 

Dr. Bolton, of Va., gave notice that he would propose amendments to the Constitu- 
tion submitted to this Association by the meeting at Richmond, last year, and which 
have been indefinitely postponed, for adoption at the next Annual Meeting in St. Louis. 

Dr. J. M. Smith, of Mew York, read the following 

REPORT OF COMMITTEE ON NOMINATIONS. 

The Committee on Nominations, in fulfilling the duty of their appointment, propose 
to continue most of the Special Committees appointed by the Association, in May. 
1851, and May, 1852, and to appoint several new Special Committees. They, there- 
fore, submitted the following list of Chairmen of Special Committees, with the subjects 
to them committed. 

1. Dr D. F. Condie, of Philadelphia, Penn., "On the Causes of Tubercular Disease." 

2. Dr. James Jones, of New Orleans, La., "On the Mutual Relations of Yellow and 
Billious Remittent Fever." 

3. Dr. R. S. Holmes, of St. Louis, Mo., "On Epidemic Erysipelas." 

4. Dr. Geo. B. Wood, of Philadelphia, Penn., "On Diseases of Parasitic Origin." " 

5. Dr. R. D. Arnold, of Savannah, Ga., "On the Physiological Peculiarities and Dis» 
ea«es of Negroes." 

6. Dr. James R. "Wood, of New York, "On Statistics of the Operation for the remo- 
val of Stone in the Bladder." 

7. Dr. F. Peyre Porcher, of Charleston, S. C— • "On Toxicological and Medicinal 
Properties of our Cryptogamic Plants." 

8. Dr. Goodrich A. Wilson, of Virginia — "On Cholera, and its Relation to Conges,- 
tive Fever — their Analogy or Identity." 

9. Dr. Worthington Hooker, of Conn. — "On Epidemics of New England and N. Y." 

10. Dr. John L. Atlee, of Lancaster, Penn., — "On Epidemics of New Jersey, Penn- 
sylvania, Delaware and Maryland." 

11. Dr. D. J. Cain, of Charleston, S. C. — "On Epidemics of Virginia, North Carolina, 
South Carolina, Georgia and Florida." 

12. Dr. W. L. Sutton, of Georgetown, Ky. — "On Epidemics of Tenn. and Ky." 

13. Dr. Thomas Reyburn, of St. Louis, Mo. — "On Epidemics of Missouri, Illinois, 
Iowa, and Wisconsin." 

14. Dr. George Mendenhall, of Cincinnati, Ohio — "On Epidemics of Ohio, Indiana 
and Michigan." 

15. Dr. E. D. Fenner, of New Orleans, La — "On Epidemics of Mississippi, Louisi- 
ana. Tf-xaa and Arkan^a*," 

16. Dr. Charles A. Lee, of New York,. — ;On Domestic Hygiene." 



1853.] American Medical Association. 309 

17. Dr. Daniel Brainard, of Chicago. III. — "On The Constitutional and Local Treat 
ment of Carcinoma." 

18. Dr. N. S. Davis, of Chicago, 111 — On the Influence of Local Circumstances on 
the Origin and Prevalence of Typhoid Fever." 

19. Dr. George Engleman, of St. Louis, Mo. — "On the Influence of Geological For- 
mation on the Character of Disease." 

20. Dr. Henry M. Bullitt, of Louisville, Ky. — "On the Use and Effect of Applications 
of Nitrate of Silver to the Throat, either in Local or General Disease." 

21. Dr. Robert Campbell, of Augusta, Ga. — ^On the Pathogenic Influence of Feather 
Beds." 

22. Dr. James Bolton, of Richmond, Va — "On the Administration of Aneesthetic 
Agents during Parturition." 

23. Dr. Henry Taylor, of Mount Clemens, Michigan, — "On Dysentery." 

24. Dr. F. Donaldson, of Baltimore, Maryland — "On the Present and Prospective 
Value of the Microscope in Disease." 

25. Dr. R. L. Howard, of Columbus, Ohio — "On the Pathology and Treatment of 
Scrofula." 

Committee on Pla?is of Organization for State and County Societies. — Isaac Hays, 
M. D. of Penna., Chairman; Worthington Hooker, M. D., of Conn. ; Josiah Andrews, 
M. D., of Michigan ; B. R. Wellford, M. D., of Virginia ; A. L. Pierson, M. D., of Mass. 

Committee on Medical Literature. — T. S. Bell, M. D., of Ky., Chairman ; Samuel H. 
Pennington, M. D., of N. J.; Edward H Parker, M. D., of New Hampshire; William 
K. Bowling, M. D., of Tenn. ; Zina Pitcher, M. D., of Michigan. 

Committee on Medical Edticatioyi. — B. R. Wellford, M. D., of Va., Chairman ; Resign 
Lowe, M. D., of Iowa ; Lyndon A. Smith, M. D. of N. J. ; Jacob Bigelow, M. D. } of 
Massachusetts; L. A. Dugas, M. D., of Georgia. 

Committee on Volunteer Communications. — Drs. C. A. Pope, Thomas Reyburn, 
John S. Moore, J. B. Johnson and A. Litton, of St. Louis, Mo. 

Committee of Arrangements. — Dr. J. R. Washington, J. S. Moore, S. Pollok, Thomas 
Reyburn, J. O'Farrar, W. M. McPheeters, C. W. Hempstead and E. S. Lemoine, of 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Committee on Publications. — Dr. D. F. Condie, Penna., Chairman; Dr. E. L. Beadle, 
of New York; Dr. A. Stille, Pennsylvania; Dr. I. Hays, Penna.; Dr. E. S. Lemoine, 
of Missouri; Dr. G. Emerson, Pennsylvania; Dr. G. W. Norris, Pennsylvania. 

Dr. Atlee, of Pennsylvania, moved that when the meeting adjourn, it adjourn to meet 
at 7 o'clock on Saturday morning. 

The motion was withdrawn. 

Dr. Rogers, of Philadelphia, moved to have the report and resolutions offered by 
Dr. Zeigler, and laid on the table, taken up. 

The report and resolutions were referred to a Committee, consisting of Drs. Zeigler, 
Rogers and Jackson. 

Drs. Atlee and Millenberger offered the following which was adopted : 

Resolved, That the cordial thanks of the American Medical Association be, and they 
are hereby tendered to the Committee of Arrangements, the Trustees of the Church in 
which they have held their meetings, the profession and the citizens generally of New 
York, for the generous and elegant hospitality extended towards its members during 
its present session. 

Dr. Bolton, proposed a vote of thanks to the President of the Public Institutions, 
which had been thrown open for members during their stay. 

Dr. Bolion, of Virginia, moved the thanks of the Association to the Press of this 
City, for its accurate reports of their proceedings. 

On motion, it was resolved to meet on board the steamboat, at foot of Pier, No. 3, 
to-morrow morning, at 9 o'clock, and proceed to visit the Public Institutions belonging 
to the City of New York. 

The President congratulated members on the close of their deliberations, and ex- 
pressed his wish that they should all meet at St. Louis, next year. 

The Association then adjourned sine die. 

THE NORWALK CATASTROPHE — MEETING OF THE MEDICAL ASSOCIATION. 

A meeting of delegates to the late Medical Convention, still remaining in New 
York, was held yesterday morning at the Bleecker Street Church, corner of Bleecker 
and Crosby Streets, for the purpose of expressing the feelings of the Association on 



310 Eclectic and Summary Department. [May 

the loss of several members of that body by the late railway catastrophe at Norwalk. 
Dr. Joseph M, Smith was appointed President of the meeting, and Dr. E. L. Beadle of- 
ficiated as Secretary. On motion of Dr. Rockwell, a Committee was appointed to 
prepare suitable resolutions for the occasion. The following gentlemen formed the 
Committee : J. H. Griscom, N. Y.; S. Hanbury Smith, Ohio ; P. Claiborne Gooch, Va.j 
L. A. Smith, N. J. ; Theodore Goodloe, Ala.; R. LaRoche, Pa., John Watson, N. Y. 

The following preamble and resolutions were read by J. H. Griscom, M. D. 

Whereas, amid the wide-spread affliction caused by the recent catastrophe at Nor- 
walk, the members of the American Medical Association, recognizing in this mourn- 
ful event, the hand of an all-wise Providence, feel called upon to express their grief 
at the sudden removal from life of Abel L. Pierson,M. D., of Salem, Mass. ; Alexander 
Welch, M. D., of Hartford, Conn.; Josiah Bartlett, M. D., of Stratham, N. H. ; Samuel 
Beach, M. D., of Bridgeport. Conn.; James M. Smith, M. D., and J. H. Gray, M. D., 
Springfield Mass.. late members of the Association :* And, wliereas, it is the earnest de- 
sire of the members, still present in the City of N. Y., to record a suitable expression of 
their feelings upon an occasion equally unprecedented and distressing; therefore, 

Resolved, That the members have received with profound sorrow the lamentable 
intelligence of the loss which the community, as well as the profession, have sustained 
by the death of so large a number of the American Medical Association. 

Resolved, That as a suitable, though inadequate, external mark of their grief at the 
sudden demise of friends from whom they had so recently parted, the members of the 
Association in general are recommended to wear the usual badge of mourning for 
the space of thirty days. 

Resolved, That a Committee of five be appointed to devise some suitable method of 
commemorating the event and the worth and professional character of our lamented 
associates, and recommend their plan at the next meeting of the Association. 

Resolved, That the members of the Association deeply sympathize with the rela- 
tives of the deceased, and that a copy of these resolutions, duly authenticated, be 
transmitted to their respective families. 

The resolutions were adopted by the meeting, and a Committee was appointed to 
consider the best method of providing some memorial in commemoration of the terri- 
ble disaster. The names of this Committee were Joseph M. Smith, M. D., F. C. Stew- 
art, M. D., J. W. G. Clements, M. D., W. Rockwell, M. D., Isaac E. Taylor, M. D., 
E. L. Beadle, M. D., and John Watson, M. D. 

The report of this Committee will be delivered at the next meeting of the Medical 
Association, which will take place next year, in St. Louis. 



ECLECTIC AND SUMMARY DEPARTMENT. 



A method of causing the severe pains that accompany purulent opthalmiato cease immer 

mediately By M. Guyon, Inspector General of the Health Department of the army in 

Africa. — Translated for the N. J. Medical Reporter. 

M. Guyon recommends the interposition between the lid and the ball of the eye, of a 
thin, smooth substance adapted to the part, which prevents the engorged vessels from 
gliding over each other. He employs for this purpose thin disks of ivory. 

He says — Two, and oflener one, answer the purpose, one under the upper and one 
under the lower eyelid. In order to proceed to their introduction, the patient should 
lie down, if the operation be performed on the upper part of the eye, and seated if on 
the lower. After which, having pinched the lid vertically so as to produce, be- 
tween it and the eye, a slight interval, the disk, which has been brought near, being 
carried on the end of a spatule or teaspoon, is allowed to slip into it. It is then retain, 
ed there for a moment by the end of the little finger, pushing it slightly if there is room. 
M. Guyon employs, jointly with the smooth inter orbitary body, fullers earth redticed to 

* Among the killed was Dr. Wm. C. Dwight of Brooklyn, N. Y., who was probably 
not a member of the Association. — Ed, N. J. Medico/ Reporter. 



1853.] Eclectic and Summary Department. 311 

powder, earth which the natives know by the name of fefel, and which they use in their 
ablutions as a substitute for soap. This remedy alone often answers the end in the 
less malignant cases, that is, in those in which the pain is moderate, and in which the 
granulations are consequently inconsiderable and but slightly developed. To use it, 
after having carried the head of the patient backward, we separate the eyehVs 
with the thumb and forefinger of the left hand, at the same time that, with the right, we 
allow to fall into the opening a pinch of the powder which we are speaking of. 

As respects its principles of action, the potters fuller's earth applied to the skin, ren- 
ders it soft and smooth, and it is reasonable to assume that it produces the same ef- 
fect in its application to the conjunctive. — UAbeille Medicate. 

Iodine in Obesity — By Dr. Betz. — (Translated for the N. J. Medical Reporter.) The 
excessively rapid action of Iodine in the following case is worthy of note. Case. — A 
woman aged 49, menstruation regular, mother of three children, has complained for 
the past three years of pain in the breasts, which, at the same time were so augment- 
ed in volume as to descend to the hypochondriac regions. There also existed collops 
of fat in the axilla and on the back, and the abdomen was so distended by it as to pre" 
vent the woman from lending forward, or from attending to her household duties. Her 
limbs had undergone very little change. Under the influence of the Tincture of Iodine 
in the dose of twenty drops a day, the fat disappeared so rapidly that at the end of two 
months this woman had returned to her natural condition. It is to be remarked that 
this woman having very little desire for meat before her illness, became very fond of 
it during the existence of her obesity, and on her recovery regained her former appe- 
tite. 

Her stools infrequent during her illness became regular. Health perfect. — UAbeiXU 
Medicate. 

Warts cured by the employment of Carbonate of Magnesia.— -Dr. Lambert recom- 
mends in the Bulletin General de Therapeutique, the employment of Carbonate of Mag- 
nesia for the cure of warts. This discovery of its application was accidental, and 
was verified in the case of a young lady who was troubled with these excrescences, 
to whom he administered the carbonate of magnesia in doses of a teaspoonful 
morning and evening, with entire success, as in five days after the commencement of 
the treatment the warts began to disappear, and were soon entirely removed, leaving 
no trace behind. The remedy is simple, if efficacious. 

On the Hemostatic Effects of the Eau Pagliari By Professor SediLlot. The for- 
mula for the preparation of the styptic water invented by Signor Pagliari, an apothe- 
cary at Rome, and which has attained a high celebrity on the Continent, is thus given 
by Professor Sedillot, to whom it was transmitted by the inventor: 

Take of benzoin, eight ounces; sulphate of alumina and potassa, one pound; wa* 
ter, ten pounds. Boil together in a glazed earthen vessel for six hours, constantly 
stirring the resinous mass, and supplying the loss by evaporation by successive addi- 
tions of hot water, so as not to interrupt the ebullition. Finally, filter the liquid, and 
preserve it in well-stopped glass vessels. The portion of benzoin which remains un- 
dissolved will be found to have lost its odor and inflammability. 

The haemostatic water thus obtained is limpid, resembles champagne in color, has a 
slightly styptic, and a sweet aromatic odor. It leaves, .on evaporation, a transparent 
deposit, which adheres to the sides of the vessel. 



812 Eclectic and Summary Department. [May 1853.] 

The following are the conclusions deduced by M. Sedillot from his experience with 
this and other styptics : — 

1. There are fluids which instantaneously coagulate the blood, and convert it into 
a thick, homogeneous and consistent clot. 

2. The eau Pagliari enjoys this remarkable property, and does not exercise any 
injurious action on the tissues with which it comes in contact. 

3. Theory, experience, and clinical observation equally concur in demonstrating its 
efficacy as a styptic. 

4. The object of compression, in the application of hoemostalic liquids, is to permit 
the coagulation of the blood, as well as the adhesion of the clot to the mouths of the 
wounded vessels. 

5. In all cases in which recourse cannot, without serious inconvenience, be had to 
ligature, as well as in those in which the alteration of the blood prevents its coagula- 
tion, and renders hemorrhage dangerous, the eau Pagliari may be advantageously 
employed and deserves to be classed among the valuable resources of our art. — Ga- 
zette Medicate de Strasburg. — N. Y. Journal of Pharmacy. 



What is Life?— This question was asked at the opening of an address to the candi- 
dates for degrees, at the late examination in the Medical Institution of Yale College, and 
answered by the learned gentleman by whom it was propounded — Benjamin Welch, 
M. D, one of the board of managers. So many have traversed the same path, and 
explained what life is, each in his own way, which very rarely corresponds with the 
definitions of others, that it is a difficult point to determine who is right or who is wrong 
In the meanwhile, the amount of physiological facts which each one collects in the ef- 
fort to establish a theory, is adding to the stock of knowledge which has been accumu- 
lating for ages ; and if no one has yet satisfactorily defined what life is, the world is 
the wiser for their researches. Dr. Welch lays down one proposition, that meets our 
individual approval, because it is plain common sense. It is this — "The first and es« 
sential law of our existence, is that of progress." There is no repose for nature, or in 
nature, and Dr. Welch takes a departure from that text, on which he reasons like a 
deep philosopher. He touches very delicately upon that old worn out topic of discus- 
sion, the connection of mind and matter, and, much to his credit, owns up, as the bro- 
kers say, by plainly declaring that the union is entirely beyond our comprehension, 
instead of wasting strength in the attempt to show, as many have, what never can bo 
shown. After passing over this mysterious connection, Dr. Welch discourses admira- 
rably on the moral obligations of physicians, and their high destiny if tbey fulfil the 
mission upon which they are set out in life. — Boston Med. and Surg. Journal. 



THE 

IEW JERSEY MEDICAL REPORTER. 

VOL. VI. SEVENTH MONTH (JULY 8th), 1853. No. 9. 



On Uterine Hemorrhage. By Ariel Htjnton, M. D. 

Recently, there has been much written, and published in our Medical 
Periodicals, on Uterine Hemorrhage, which I have ever considered more 
alarming than dangerous. 

The remedies recommended, and mostly in use, are astringents, opiates, 
and cold affusions, or ice to the abdomen. These cases are frequently 
attended with syncope, which will alarm the friends, and perplex the 
physician, and be protracted in spite of the most judicious treatment. I 
have never known the death of a female from uterine hemorrhage, unless 
in a state of gestation. 

My method for several years, has been somewhat different from the treat- 
ment now usually practiced ; I use no cold applications to the bowels. 
Considering that there is an irritation in the genital organs, and that coun- 
ter irritation will mitigate the internal disturbance in a measure, I apply 
strong sinapisms, or wet a cloth in alcohol, and sprinkle on it ginger and 
capsicum abundantly, and apply it to the abdomen in quantities suffi- 
cient to cause the patient to complain of the irritation. Among the astrin- 
gents my reliance is usually gum kino. Lead is a direct sedative, and a 
poison; I always use it with distrust. If used I combine it with stimu- 
lants ; Dover's powder, with gum camph. and an additional quantity of 
opium and capsicum. 

I intend to confine my remarks to hemorrhages in an unimpregnatcd 
state, which occur mostly with ladies advanced in life; occasionally 
in the young, but they are rare, for I have had only one, in a practice of 
thirty-eight years, and cannot say but I was deceived in that case. 

I have selected several cases in my practice occurring in the space of 

nearly thirty years. October, 1825, called to Mrs. M., aged about 44 ? 

who was afflicted to an alarming extent, with what is termed here, among 

the ladies ; flooding- There had been a suppression of the menses for two 

40 



314 Huutoii — Uterine JBemorrJiage. [July 

or three months, some disturbance of tlie stomachy breasts some enlarged; 
she had thought herself in a state of gestation. In this case, I used cold 
afiusion to the abdomen, astringents were applied with an unsparing 
hand, and bark was taken in substance when it could be borne. 

I could arrest the flooding by those means readily, but in a few days 
it would return with great violence, and followed her occasionally for 
more than a year; frequently when I was called to her, the messenger 
would inform me she was dying, or would die before I could arrive at her 
residence. In this case, as in nearly all others, there was an accelerated 
pulse, with increase of heat, more particularly in the region of the ute- 
rus, which portends an irritation, or increased action of the genital or- 
gans. Mrs. M., after a lingering illness, regained her health, which she 
is now in the enjoyment of, at the age of near eighty years. She is a 
'pauper, and such are said to enjoy high longevity. 

Case II. — January 20th, 1837. Called to Mrs. W., who had been 
flooding profusely for several hours; had fainted a number of times; pulse 
small and quick ; extremities cold, pale, wan, and exsanguinous ; ordered 
the head to lie low, the foot of the bed to be raised six inches, pressure 
of a hand on the pubic region, a cloth wet with alcohol, and sprinkled 
with ginger and capsicum applied to the bowels; pulv. doveri, with opi- 
um, camphor and capsicum, and lead added, with solution of kino fre- 
quently exhibited until the flooding ceased, which was in a few hours, 
and did not return. She was a long time an invalid, in consequence of 
having the charge of a young family and no help. 

Case III.— December 3d, 1840. Called to Mrs. P., of Wolcott, as con- 
sulting Physician, with my friend and pupil, Dr. Edwards, (a young man 
of much promise, but who died the next spring of the epidemic that visi- 
ted us, usually called Erysipelas, which was as fatal, and did its work as 
speedily as the plague.) In this case I used the tampon, with counter- 
irritants to the bowels ; she had previously taken astringents in liberal 
quantities : the foot of the bed was raised ; the flooding was speedily ar- 
rested, and did not return. To see her, I rode some 14 miles in a cold 
blustering winter night, and all the compensation 1 ever received, was 
leg bail of the husband to the far west. 

Case IV.— January, 1842. Called to Mrs. W., of Johnson, under 
20, married less than a year, and not pregnant, unless I was deceived ; 
she was taken with a profuse hemorrhage, while standing at a tabic from 



1853,] Editor — -Enccphaloid Tumor of (he Uterus, 315 

home. As she expressed it, the blood splashed on the floor. Such a case 
is so uncommon in the young, I suggested to the mother that it resem- 
bled an abortion, the mother and daughter both averred that it was not 
the case. 

In this case I also used the tampon, with stimulants to the bowels, Do- 
ver's powders, and astringents, with the foot of the bed raised ; if a per- 
spiration is induced, spontaneous hemorrhage will usually cease ; it ceased 
in this case soon after using the tampon, and did not return ; the lady 
was very much exhausted, and it was a long time ere she obtained pris- 
tine vigor. 

Case V.— Sept. 1852. Called to Mrs. P., of Troy, Vt., who had lain 
on her back most of the summer, with her hips elevated, flooding pro- 
fusely once a month, and more or less usually when moved from 
the bed to the lounge, or water closet. 

The treatment had been for a long time, cold water to the bowels, and 
gum kino, and but little else, at each return of hemorrhage. My orders 
were, no more cold ivater 7 but counter irritants to the bowels. The cir- 
culation being low and feeble, I concluded she would take bark, which 
she bore well, with the myrrh mixture, which she was to take with some 
nervine ; Clematis, or Ext. Valerian. The third day from my visit, the 
menstrual period arrived, she had a slight show, and none since, up to 
March, when I last saw her ; the appetite was good, and digestion excel 
lent. In those cases where bark is inadmissible, Prunus Virginica, or 
Cherry bark, is my favorite substitute, steeped in cold water, After tak- 
ing this, or the preparation of Iron, a few days, they will bear more stimu- 
lating tonics; the Sorbus Americana, or Populus tremuloides. The bark 
of either is an useful tonic, the latter more especially in nervous, and 
hysterical cases, which are usual attendants in uterine diseases. 

Hi/deparhj Vt } May, 1853. 



Gaze of Encephalold Tumor of the Uterus, in which healthy Menstrua- 
tion was performed. 
By the Editor. 
In tracing the symptoms, as they present themselves in the course of 
incurable diseases, and watching the gradual decay of the vital powers, 
as they yield to the destroyer's grasp, it is not an unwelcome an- 
nouncement to the anxious physician, that his patient has ceased to 
live: — and when death occurs, it affords him no little satisfaction to find 



316 ^Ei^Liiox—Enccphalold Tumor of the Uterus. [July 

upon examination that his diagnosis was correct, and his treatment found- 
ed upon true views of pathological science. And, however unsatisfacto- 
ry it may be to conclude after all, that no new light has dawned upon 
the subject through his investigations ; it is nevertheless useful to com- 
municate freely, one with another, indulging the hope that the time may 
yet come when the developements of science, will reveal new facts in 
pathology, and treatment. The subject of remark, in the present in- 
stance, was an unmarried lady, aged about 41 years. She had enjoyed 
ordinary health till within about two years of her death, when she re- 
quested my professional care. I found her with active hemorrhage from 
the uterus, and treated her for menorrhagia; but she soon began to show 
signs of serious organic disease, and my fears were excited that she was 
an unfortunate victim of Carcinoma. Upon examination over the pubis, 
I discovered, in about eight months probably, from the commencement 
of the attack, a hardness, which could be readily compressed under the 
hand ; and that pressure was always accompanied by hemorrhage. The 
contractility of the uterine walls did not seem to be impaired, for the 
tumor constantly reminded me of the condition of the uterus imme- 
diately after labor, when loaded with coagula. As the general health 
was evidently failing, and the patient suffered much from lumbar pains, 
and weight, I gave her iron, ergot, and extract of hyoscyamus, in the form 
of pill, with nourishing diet, and occasional stimulants. My object in the 
above combination, was to allay nervous excitability and pain, by the ex- 
tract ; to increase the red corpuscles of the blood by the iron ) and by 
the ergot to promote, and maintain the uterine contractions, with the 
hope of arresting hemorrhage, and if possible of expelling any morbid 
growth that might have attached itself to the inner surface of the womb. 
She seemed to improve under this treatment, and I ventured to indulge 
the hope, (though I did not dare to express it,) that the tone of the organ 
might be restored, and the offending cause of distension, and bleeding, 
removed. Not being convinced at this time of the true nature of the 
disease, my hopes were encouraged by the fact that she improved in 
strength, so far as to go out from home, and visit among her friends with- 
out much increase of the discharge, and at every monthly period, the 
catamenial flow came, as in a healthy condition of the system, though p it 
continued longer than was usual. From this fact, I inferred that the 
whole of the uterus could not be occupied with the disease, but that a 
portion of its surface must be competent to secrete a healthy menstrual 
fluid. And this probably, as much as anything else, encouraged a 
hope that the affection was not cancerous, as I had not previously known 



1853.] Editor— Enceplialoid Tumor of the Uterus, 317 

in my own experience, or that of others, regular menstruation to occur 
with cancers of the womb. 

My patient, however, soon began to show evidences of a mortal dis- 
ease; and satisfied of its character, I so informed her family. Effu- 
sions commenced in the lower extremities j the face, and other parts 
of the body assumed a bloodless hue, and a general oedema supervened, 
The tumor increased in size rapidly, the strength failed, and the stomach 
sympathized closely with the affected organ, — so that nutriment of all kinds 
was rejected, and during the last week of her life she sank very rapidly. 

An autopsy was made by Drs. Grauntt, Butler and myself, in company 
with three medical students. An incision being made from one superior 
spinous process to the other, and intersected by a perpendicular cut in 
the median line of the body, and the integuments laid carefully aside, 
the abdominal viscera appeared in situ, those of the pelvis being much 
disarranged. The bladder was flattened, and thrown upon the pubic 
arch — the uterus was much enlarged, and occupied almost the entire pelvic 
cavity ; it was hard to the feel, and presented a smooth surface, with 
several adventitious appendages of solid adipose structure, 'about the size 
of a hazel nut, attached to it. The left ovary was drawn up on the an- 
terior surface of the womb, and at the entrance of the right Fallopian 
tube, the tumor was pointed like an abscess. This point, however, was 
not soft — -but appeared to be of a hard lobular structure. 

Upon dividing the walls of the uterus, an cncephaloid tumor was found 
occuppying about three-fourths of its cavity, and firmly adherent to the 
corresponding portions of the uterus. The remaining fourth pre- 
sented an apparently healthy secreting surface, extending from the fun- 
dus, along the right side, to the os, from which, it is supposed, the pcri= 
odical returns derived their supply. At the time of the autopsy, this 
cavity contained about an ounce of coagula, which seemed to be on its 
way to the outlet, at the period of dissolution, During the sickness, I 
often placed my hand upon the fundus uteri, and pressed out large co- 
agula, which, escaping, would relieve the patient of the sense of disten- 
sion and pain. The bleeding orifices of the vessels of the tumor, proba- 
bly emptied their contents into this cavit} r , and the blood remained there, 
till coagula were formed, which were expelled by uterine effort. The 
progress of this case, and its post-mortem appearances were interesting 
to those who witnessed them, and they arc furnished to the readers of the 
Reporter, with the hope that they may prove of some value to the profe§= 
sion. 



§18 Bibliographical Notices IJulY 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTICES 



Transactions oj the Kentucky State Medical Society; held in Louisville, 
Ky. } October, 1852— pp. 333. 

Proceedings of the Medical Association of the State of Alabama, at its 
Sixth Annual Meeting, begun and held in the City of Selma, Decem- 
ber 13-15, 1852. With an appendix, and list of members — pp. 168- 

[For Transactions of the N J. Medical Society, held in Jan. last, see 
March Number of this Journal, in ichich they are published in full. ~\ 

Transactions of the Medical Society of the State of Neic-York, at its 
Semi- Annual Meeting, held in June, 1852, at the City of New -York, 
and at its Annual Meeting in the City of Albany, held Feb., 1853, 
Assembly Document* —pp. 352. 

Proceedings of the Medical Society of the State of Pennsylvania, at its 
Annucd Sessions, May, 1853. 

We feel bound, both by our convictions of duty as a journalist, and 
by our views of the interest and advantage of the Medical profession, to 
chronicle to the extent that our limits will allow, the proceedings of the 
various principal medical organizations in the country. Believing as we 
do, that the magna charta of our independence as practitioners of medi- 
cine, as well as the advancement of medical science, and, as inseparable 
from that, the well-being of our fellowmen when prostrated on beds of 
pain and sickness, — is held in proportion as our organizations are more 
or less general and efficient, we have, uniformly at the sacrifice of no lit- 
tle trouble, and expense, endeavored to keep pace with the numerous, 
and in some instances voluminous reports which emanate from our nation- 
al and various State medical organizations, A reference to past num- 
bers of the Reporter is evidence of the fact. These reports are often ex 
ceedingly valuable, bringing to light elaborate and well-written essays, as 
well as many minor papers, containing facts and observations on the va- 
rious departments of medical science, which do no discredit to our coun- 
try, or age, and ought not to be hoarded up in the archives of the socie- 
ties for whose special benefit they were written. We would be glad to re- 
ceive all the published reports of proceedings of societies, and propose, 
hereafter, to notice them in some detail as in the present instance, two 
or three times a year, as occasion may require, culling from them as 
our limited space will allow, whatever wc think calculated to benefit tho 
general reader, and promote the cause of medical science. 



1853. j Bibliographical Notices, 319 

The proceedings of our iSatioiial medical organization,— a carefully 
compiled, and we believe, very correct account of which, appeared in the 
last number of the Reporter ', — will be commented on from time to time, 
elsewhere. We now proceed to the consideration of the reports named 
at the head of this article. 

We have not been favored with a copy of the transactions of the Ken- 
tucky Medical Society, and must depend on reviews of them which we 
find in the Transylvania Medical Journal, and in the Nashville Journal 
of Medicine.* 

That a society in the second year of its existence can put forth a vo- 
lume of transactions of 333 pages, is positive evidence of vitality. There 
is certainly mind in Kentucky, or such a report could not have emanated 
from its infant society. But the names of Sutton, Gross, Evans and Mil- 
ler are "good" for any amount of labor. They are men who are never 
heard to say they have " no time" to undertake a work that duty calls 
them to perform, else their names had never been heard beyond their im- 
mediate neighborhoods. 

The address of the President, Dr. W. L. Sutton, related to the duty 
of medical men to the profession, and to the communities in which they 
live, and is spoken of as worthy its distinguished author. On the sub- 
ject of compensation for medical services, Dr. S. has the following re- 
mark : — 

"We should require a sir.table compensation for our services, and require it to be 
paid promptly, both by individuals and corporate bodies. Such has been the liberali- 
ty (if I may call it so) of our profession, that public bodies and even individuals many 
limes think that they confer an honor on a physician by employing him, without trou- 
bling themselves about making any compensation ; or at most, fixing, themselves, the 
compensation after the services have been rendered. Thus I have known the trus 
tees of a town, upon the appearance of small pox in it, direct certain physicians to use 
all diligence in vaccinating all persons susceptible to the disease. After these physi- 
cians had used great diligence, successfully vaccinated the inhabitants, and prevented 
any case appearing out of the family first affected, I have seen the trustees dock their 
charges sixty-six per cent., on the plea that many physicians vaccinate gratuitously 
the families which they usually attend. And what is worse, I have seen the majority 
of the physicians quietly submit to the treatment. Many similar examples might be 
adduced. This is all wrong. If a man does not respect himself and his profession, 
he need not expect others to respect either." 

Dr. S. has also some very judicious remarks on the subject of medical 

journalism. We commend the following extract to some in our own 

State, who profess a vast amount of individual and State pride in the 

* Cannot some friend in Kentucky forward us a copy ui ihe Transactions ?--*[.Zifi7, 
N.J. Medical Bfporter. 



Bibliograi . Notices. [July 

oss of their own medical periodical, and then ask thein to look through 
their files and see how much Xew Jersey does : — 

"Journals must be supported by subscriptions and by contributions. The subscrip- 
tion list is small: the contribution list vastly more so. I have looked over the "West- 
er:: Journal cf Medicine or.,' Surgery, and end that during the year 1551. fen gentle- 
men -in Kentucky, besides the Editor, contributed to its pages ! Why is this ? Why 
do not physicians of Kentucky give to the world the results of their observations ? 
Say that an equal number contributed to the Transylvania Journal, and we havetavw- 

f: r the vrhc le State !*? I repeat, why is this ? The excuse ever ready is. : the press 
c f professional engagements' — ; entirely too busy' — ' have not the time ! ; Gentlemen, 
it will not do. Make your excuse 'want of disposition," 'want of ability,' or the want 
of anything bni tone. 3 In the name of God. do not slander our country by saying that 
ci" 1471 physicians in the State, only twenty have time to contribute something to a 
journal annually, We all have our J anomalous cases/ and our • astonishing cures,' 
which we love to rehearse in the ears of our kind and credulous friends : why not lay 
them before those whose judgment is worth something : whose good opinion will con- 
fer honor ? * * * * 

INo man can write down an essay upon any subject, without understanding more 
about that subject when he is done than he did when he began. So. then, if he has 
taughl no other man, he has taught himself. So true is this, that it" a man wishes to 
".::: .lerstand a subject thoroughly, one of the very best things he can do is to write an 
elaborate treatise on :;," 

Dr. S.. in touching upon the subject of Quackery, speaks feelingly of the 
fact that the profession itself is partly responsible for its spread. We 
agree with one of our reviewers, who, in commenting on this portion of 
address, says, " the tap root of quackery has sent itself deep into the 
very bowels of the profession of medicine, and is sustained by its life- 
blood" — and with him we believe that we must look to the American 
Medical Association and to our State societies, to correct the evil, by vi- 
-itiriLr any approach to quackery in any of their members, by summary 
expulsion. 

A report on Vital Statistic* was made by Dr. Sutton as chairman of a 
jmmittee. the result of whose labors was, the passage of a registration 
law. similar to cur own. The following facts from this report are of ge- 
neral interest, and worth mentioning: — "In the whole State there is an 
average of 31 persons to the square mile : the densest population is found 
in Jefferson county, being 171 persons, the sparsest in Harlan, where there 
are only G to the square mile/" 

Dr. Evans, in his report on EthicSj takes high and tenable ground. The 
-.■wing quotation, it will bo easily seen, contains the gist of the whole: 

*The fourth volume of the New Jersey Medical Reporter contained tiventy-thne origi- 
nal articles, written by sixteen New Jersey physicians, and the fifth volume the same 
nnmbei by eighteen N I. physicians. Tnis is aside from reports by Secretaries of Sc- 
— v the editor. There were at least half the number of original ar- 
ticle* bv physicians out oflhf Slate I much better than we had supposed. 

S. W. B 



1B53.1 Bibliographical Xoticei. 321 

■—-" Founded, as ail sound ethics must be. upon the teachings of the 

do to you. do ve even so unto them. 

interference of others with the practitioner, the editor of tne 2\a$kviU& 
Journal arises a case we cannot forbear ouetinr. — 



Gl taat ma.ady 
that tne sister' 



ed 



-ome ::" ta em had la a a tie:.-s knaaked tit: a aa al-:ei i-t o a jr^it "a:::: aa r.ar lau 
set iiern a.l aa- aiiar aarain tie sane as eve:, and my ;:.-:.:••• ie.la:ei '.: :e a: ;i: a 
Lke a. ; oftien and urged t a enplay tit.: a: tar. Z-Ii=t cr a : . r : .. - v : . . a '.'is v;s:t 
a leader of the sisterhood dropped in. "We retired with her to the farther s.ae of the 
rain aia :i a. rr aner made si:". - : i "-" . . a rar :".: tie aa.astai " - rea-ar.ed v . .. . a: 
with great earnestness ar.d no inconsiderable show of learning, assuring her that she 
and the sisterhood were alas ! but too correct in their surmises concerning our pat ent. 
Thai ner womb had not only been tamed wrong side out, knocked into a cocked hat* 
riddled and otherwise damaged, but worse still — we added, in tones of touching ca- 
dence, and pressing our white kerchief to our eyes, a la stage. 'You amaze me," said 
out fair auditor in a sighing whisper, bri aging her face so near ours as to disturb the 
effect of the barbers finishing touch ; " do tell V She has no -womb, madam — all, all 
fane In at a vest-are ieft to tell v,me:e an a e tie gargeau; strut-', are ne ; .a ae: a. =v 
a a we raunded off tie sentence with something about "tombs" and "capulets." "We 
in pi area" her ta keep v.-hat vre dad cinmu nested frtii tie ear 'f aur atar.eit t : :er- 
tain vre were, sie '.vau.i sink under tde aiieuieeraeit itv.-- - 

'•Wombs were everything, aaa everyt: ' z vra = -.ram a a 
V'e were nat ar.nave : anv mare in tais ease. *Z:.^ we ; eetia at. a there was it 

The Committee on OhtsAri-.t reported. throu_-h their chairman. Prof 
Miller, a man vrho has rained a w : r 1 d. wide oeiehri'v "ay his writinrs on 
that department of the practice of meoiiaine. The :';ii;~ior extract at 

KM ~ 

the same time, rereads the c ::;eet r -'- '--'-- rer "-—• — 77 ^-- — ~--~- "o:^ ; :f its 
distinguished author on two very impzroant soir-'cots in hestet: ;tice: 

'•Tie committee on Cestetries. instead ef aneraar t: tie Saerety a resume if the 
tade to our stock of knowledge in this important bran . 

reive mantis, dear ta snrmtt same reheat: ais urtai tertatn 
n or a v em e n t s 1 1 r r a r date, w a a a * ~ rar a s 1 1 e v are . 1 ft rm - 

•ieus : aim far tit e rata aaa -- .:. a - . ::' cia : - . the la t- 
ie arcana of the organs concerned, and a direct avenue of 

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322 Bibliographical Notices. [July 

stop his ears to the most piercing cries extorted from human suffering; without the 
other, he is blindfolded, and pursues a course of treatment necessarily empirical, or 
having, at best, no other than a theoretical basis." 

We dismiss this subject at present, with the simple remark — medio tu- 
tissimus ibis. 

We next come to Dr. Gross' report on Surgery, which embraces near- 
ly 200 pages of the Transactions. It is a review of Kentucky Surgery; 
and surely Kentucky has nothiug to be ashamed of. Nearly 400 cases 
of lithotomy alone, in that new State, performed by about twenty sur- 
geons, will both^show their ability as surgeons, and the prevalence of the 
causes of stone in the bladder.* 

The following, taken from the Nashville Journal, is interesting : — 
"Kentucky surgery gave the United States a President, thus achieving what that 
great State herself was unable to accomplish! President Polk, at the age of 17, was 
relieved of a urinary calculus by the skill of Dr. McDowell. The future statesman 
was then an illiterate boy, worn down by disease of many years standing, which total- 
ly incapacitated him for study. Fourteen years afterwards, while Mr. Polk was a 
member of Congress, in a letter to his great benefactor, he gives some account of him- 
self during that period. He says, 'I have been enabled to obtain an education, study 
the profession of the law, and embark successfully in the practice, have married a wife 
and permanently settled in Tennessee, and now occupy the station in which the good 
wishes of my fellow-citizens have placed me. When I reflect, the contrast is great, 
indeed, between the boy, the meagre boy, with palid cheeks, oppressed and worn 
down with disease, when first he presented himself to your kind notice, in Danville, 
nearly 14 years ago, and the man at this day in the full enjoyment of perfect health.' 
The operation was performed in 1812, when the fame of Kentucky's Ciceronean Clay 
had made him immortal. Could Destiny, from as glorious a height as genius had 
ever secured to man, have pointed the attention of the statesman to the sick, palid boy, 
in the backwoods village, tied hand and foot on the operating table, and whisper in his 
ear! 'Behold the skill of the divine art — From that baptism of blood a giant will arise 
whose culminating star shall paint with gorgeous glory the western sky, and with such 
rich effulgence that even thine, which no earthly light can pale, will all unheeded 
shine, and he attain what thou must not reach, and thou, too, in the field !' — Would 
even Destiny have been believed ?" 

Dr. Gross claims, for Dr. McDowell, priority in performing the opera- 
tion of gastrotomy with removal of diseased ovaria : and of the attempts 
to rob him of this honor, Dr. G. says : — 

"In consequence of the novelty of Dr. McDowell's operations, and of the loose man- 
ner in which they have been drawn up for publication, an attempt was made by cer- 
tain writers, both in this country and in Europe, to deny their authenticity, and to cast 
discredit upon the author's veracity. Among the various detractors who busied them- 
selves in this way, no one was more loud and clamorous than Dr. James Johnson, f 

*Our Kentucky friends have a good opportunity to try the effects of the root of the 
Hydrangea Arbore&cens (which must abound in that Stale) in those cases where 
the calculi are not too large to pass the L'retlira. (See Transactions of the American 
Medical Association, vol. 5, p. 774 — copied from this Journal of October, lbjO. 

tEcletic Repertory, vol. 7, p.- 21 J. Philadelphia, 1517. 



18 53.] Bibliograpi hical Notices. 323 

the editor of the London Medico-Chirurgical Review, a periodical well-known in the 
United States. In speaking of Dr. McDowell's first case, he remarks: 'Dr. Mac. visit" 
ed the patient at the end of five days, though she had come to his own residence to 
have the operation performed!! He found her engaged in making her bed! She 
soon returned to her native place quite well. Credat Judceus nonego? In advancing 
to the second case, the reviewer says, 'we cannot bring ourselves to credit the state 
ment.' We have already seen that Mrs. Crawford, the subject of the first operation, 
performed in 1S09, and so sneeringly spoken of by Dr. Johnson, survived until a few 
years ago; and that the authenticity of the second, concerning which he expresses so 
much incredulity, is equally well established. 

In a subsequent article upon this subject, published in October, 1826, the same wri- 
ter indulges in the following language: 'A back settlement of America — Kentucky — 
has beaten the mother country, nay, Europe itself, with all the boasted surgeons there- 
of, in the fearful and formidable operation of gastrotomy with extraction of diseased 
ovaria. In the second volume of this series, page 216, we adverted to the cases of 
Dr. McDowell, of Kentucky, published by Mr. Lizars, of Edinburgh, and expressed 
ourselves as sceptical, respecting its authenticity. Dr. Coates however, has now giv- 
en us much more cause for wonder at the success of Dr. McDowell ; for it appears 
that out of five cases operated on in Kentucky by Dr. M., four recovered after the ex- 
traction, and only one died. There were circumstances in the narratives of some of 
the first three cases that raised misgivings in our minds, for which uncharitableness 
we ask pardon of God, and of Dr. McDowell of Danville.'* Such language needs no 
comment; it speaks for itself, for it carries with it its own condemnation of the man 
who uttered it. When the learned, caustic and ungenerous editor of the London Me- 
dico-Chirurgical Review indited it, he was ignorant — perhaps, wilfully ignorant — of 
the fact, that he was slandering the father of ovariotomy, and speaking sneeringly of a 
State that has given birth to the first lithotomist, and the first American Statesman o^ 
the nineteenth century." 

Of Dr, Gross' operation of castration, we have nothing to say further 
than that when sometime since, we read his article on the subject, we 
confess we were not fully convinced by his arguments of the sufficiency 
of his grounds for depriving a human being of testicles, merely for the 
lack of a penis. However, we will not venture a decided opinion without 
knowing more of the circumstances of the case. Our friend of the Nash- 
ville Journal grows quite warm in his condemnation of the operation. 

The Alabama State Medical Association met at Selma on the 13th of 
December last, and continued in session three days. The length of time 
devoted to the business of the society resulted in the presentation of high- 
ly useful reports from different committees, and profitable discussions on 
subjects of general interest to the profession. The number of fellows 
present seems to have been rather small, but they were no drones, and 
the result of their labors is a very valuable report of 168 pages, which 
does credit to the profession of the State. Such organizations of men who 
meet together, not simply to exchange civilities — to "eat, drink, and be 

^Medico-Chirurgical Review, for January, 1825, p. 216. 



324 Bibliographical Notices. [July 

merry/ ' or even to transact the routine business of an organized society, 
but to labor for the cause of medical science, must ere long include all 
within their bounds whose fraternity is worth having, nor will the pub- 
lic be backward in discriminating between the men of science, and the 
parasites, who feed upon the refuse morsels that fall beneath their table. 

The Association has been in existence six years, and embraces upwards 
of 150 of the best practitioners in the State. A prize offered by the 
Sumter Co. Society for the best essay, was carried off by one of their own 
number — Dr. L. H. Anderson, whose paper on " Autumnal fevers " will 
be noticed in its place. Dr. Lopez, from a Committee on Insane Asylum, 
reported that in compliance with the recommendation of the Society the 
Legislature had taken measures to establish such an institution forthwith. 

Dr. Bates, of Marion, related a case of Bicephalous monster which oc- 
curred in his practice, and which he has carefully preserved. It was pri- 
miparous, occurring in a negro girl about 17 years of age. The peculiari- 
ties were, two perfectly formed bodies from the pelvis upward, the bodies 
being joined from the lower portion of the shoulder-blade to the pelvis 
— pelvis triangular — two ani — two sets of genital organs, female per- 
fect, male rudimentary — one umbilical cord — three legs well formed, 
the third having two great toes. 

Goitre being an increasingly prevalent disease in the State, a Commit- 
tee was appointed to report on the subject at the next meeting — Dr. W- 
Taylor, of Taladega, Chairman. 

An interesting discussion arose on the use of quinia in Typhoid fever. 
The following remarks of Dr. Bates would seem to embody the views of 
a majority of the members, as to the pathology and treatment of the dis- 
ease : — 

"Dr. B. considers it an enteric disease, affecting the bowels, with degeneration of 
glands; believes it at first a state of nervous depression which acts upon the glands 
of the abdomen, and this again by reflex action upon the nervous system. Treatment 
should correspond ; gives nothing which will irritate, food nutritious, demulcent drink, 
and bowels kept open by laxatives of the mildest nature. His favorite prescription is 
Chlorate Potass, as a mild, cooling refrigerant, which greatly relieves the patient of his 
thirst and dry tongue. 

" Believes mercurials given for their constitutional effects, injurious. Gives it some- 
times in its mildest form as Blue Mass, when the liver seems to be a little torpid, or in 
the form of Hyd. Cum Creta, when diarrhoea supervenes. 

" When the system becomes depressed with sub-sultus tendinum, dry and harsh 
tongue, he uses stimulants, and for this purpose prefers the Carb. Ammonia?, of which 
he thinks very highly. He, however, endeavors to anticipate this state by giving the 
Carb. Ammonias in small doses. With regard to Quinine, he at first gave it experi- 
mentally in 2 or 3 grain doses every two or three hours, and found it produced exal- 
tation of the vital forces. Has given it in 10 grain doses every three or four hours 



1853.] Bibliographical Notices. 32 o 

with same effect. Has never seen it do any good unless there was an exacerbation, 
and has then given it in 10 or 15 grain doses to relieve the exacerbation, but never 
found it stop the progress of the disease." 

By resolution, the Fellows were requested to make notes during the en- 
suing year,, of the symptoms and treatment of the disease, with as many 
post-mortem examinations as possible, and report at next meeting. 

Full Standing Committees were appointed, representing each county, 
on number, character, &c, of practitioners of medicine, — on Indigenous 
Botany, and on Epidemics, &c, besides reporters on other subjects. 

Drs. W. H. Anderson and George A. Ketchum, reporters on diseases 

of Mobile during the year 1852, speak of the general exemption that 

was enjoyed from epidemics of any kind. Speaking of the summer bowel 

complaints of children, we find the following : — 

" One of your reporters is under the impression, that the Tinct. of Nux Vomica add- 
ed to some of the favorite diarrhoea mixtures was of essential service in a few cases 
where he made use of it. It seemed to restore the tone of the bowels, probably by 
giving more tonicity to the muscular coat. We know from post-mortem examinations, 
that the wasting dysentery of dentition produces a flabby and relaxed state of the mus- 
cular coat. The sphincter ani itself becomes relaxed and powerless, and we have 
thought that the Nux Vomica exerted a wholesome influence in these cases ; at any 
rate for several years past we have used it as an auxiliary and been well pleased with 
its effect. The use of this article is not put forward as novel or original, but attention 
is called to it for the purpose of giving it more extended trial, and we think it will be 
found an important remedy in many cases where astringents alone are ineffectual, and 
where the milder forms of mercury have failed to relieve." 

From Dr. Anderson's interesting report on Surgery we select the fol- 
lowing case : — 

" Eiloides — Removal of the Tumoztr. — M. C, planter of Kemper county, Miss., cam© 
to me for the removal of a painful tumour about the size of an almond, on the middle 
of the neck, and overlying the external jugular vein. It bled freely from any slight 
injury, and he was very uneasy about its becoming malignant. I removed it 8th Jan- 
uary, 1852, by two semilunar incisions embracing the tumour. An artery of some size 
was cut in dissecting it from its attachments, which bled so freely as to require a liga- 
ture. The external jugular was laid bare for an inch by the operation. I drew the 
edges of the wound closely together with several fine points of suture, and the wound 
healed so kindly as scarcely to leave a trace of the operation. The tumour was soft 
and friable, and of the kind denominated dermoid by Dr. Warren, and happily called 
eiloides from its resemblance to bark. 

" The patient was under the influence of chloroform, but while he was insensible to 
pain, and unable to move, was entirely conscious of all that was done, and repeated 
everything that was said during the operation. It would be well if this happy point 
could always be hit in the production of anaesthesia." 

The substance of Dr. Batch elor's article on the Gelseminum Semper- 
virens, will be found in our eclectic department. 

Dr. W. Taylor, of Taladega, presents a valuable paper, entitled 



323 Bibliographical Notices. [July 

" Changeability of Disease." He argues from nature and observation, 
the constantly changing nature of disease, rendering necessary from time 
to time different plans of treatment, in diseases which are handed down 
from generation to generation by the same name, but whose types have 
undergone a marked change. 

Of the prevailing typhoid tendency in disease and the abuse of purga- 
tives and mercury, Dr. Taylor speaks as follows : — 

"It must be admitted that there has been of late years, a natural tendency in most 
of our diseases to assume a typhoid action. How far this condition is dependent on 
natural causes, such as meteorological changes, cultivation, &c, and how far on inju- 
dicious treatment, remains for future experience and observation to decide. That 
there are many cases of artificial typhoid, brought about by injudicious treatment— 
chiefly by the excessive use of purgatives — I have no doubt. There is too much in- 
discriminate purging in the treatment of our fevers. It is true, that many diseases re- 
quire purgatives, and many others tolerate them without rapid prostration; but as a 
general thing, they are more abused in domestic practice, and I am sorry to admit, by 
some practitioners, than any other class of medicines in the whole Materia Medica. 
Periods may occur, in which most diseases bear the use of purgatives with impunity, 
but this does not argue their indiscriminate use. The dogma ot Hamilton and Cooke, 
had its origin in one of these periods, but it has been persevered in, by their disciples 
and followers, without regard to the constitutional changes of disease, to a fearful, and 
mischievous extent. Many of them, regard the liver as the offending organ in almost 
•every malady, and according to their favorite doctrine, commence torturing it with 
Cooke's pills, calomel, and the various purgatives of mercury, and continue it for an 
incredible length of time. Some physicians of this school, seem to consider their pa- 
tients Promethean-livered ; and as Jupiter bound Prometheus of old with chains, and 
sent an eagle to prey on his liver, which grew every night as much as it had lost in 
the day, so these modern Jupiters in medicine, confine their patient, and send a vul- 
ture in the form of mercury to prey on their livers at night. The chief difference in 
the comparison, arises in the liver of Prometheus being inconsumable, while that of 
the modern patient is highly vulnerable. 

Mortifying, as may be the acknowledgement, I am forced to admit, that I have seen 
physicians who stood high in the community as practioners, prescribe a dose of mer- 
cury almost every night, for weeks in succession, when nothing in their condition re- 
quired its administration. How then, can we expect otherwise, than that this valua- 
ble agent should fall into disrepute with the community, and become at once the op- 
probrium medicortim, when they see daily, its deleterious effects, from such rash empiri- 
cism? But let me not be understood, as being in any way, opposed to the judicious 
use of this valuable medical agent. Nothing is further from my purpose, than to at- 
tempt in any degree, to disparage it as a remedy. It is only to its abuse, its too com. 
mon administration, which has brought it into such odium with the community, as to 
render it difficult of administration without disguising it, that I object. So much op- 
posed, are many persons to using it, even when their condition require it, that the 
practitioner is sometimes tempted to resort to the most artful stratagem in order to 
cause them to take it. That this state of things has been brought about, by its too 
common, and indiscriminate use, there can be no doubt." 

Dr. T. is an advocate of the "abortive" treatment of fevers by quinia 



1853.] Bibliographical Notices, 327 

in ten, twenty, thirty and forty grain doses. Our Southern brethren cer- 
tainly have good opportunities for observation in this matter, and it be- 
comes us to treat their opinions with all due deference. Of the employ- 
ment of quinia in typhoid fever, Dr. T. says, — ■ 

" If 1 had never seen the happy effects of quinine, in typhoid fever, in other seasons, 
localities and climates, I should have been disposed to condemn it, as a remedy in this 
form of fever. But its failure served only to impress me, with the great medical truth, 
that diseases viewed from different points, present new aspects, and require new 
modes of treatment. Many a medical knight, has shivered his lance against the shield 
of his antagonist, when perhaps, an interchange of position, would have convinced 
each other, that both were right, and both were wrong. And did our talented Presi- 
dent practice medicine in New Orleans, and Dr. Fenner in Montgomery, they might 
perhaps, approximate each other's views on the points, more closely than they do at 
present." 

In conclusion the doctor predicts that "as our country grows older, and 
becomes more densely populated, the luxuries of life will continue to in- 
crease, and the habits of the people become more artificial and complicat- 
ed/' As a consequence diseases will continue to change, — remittent and 
intermittent fevers giving place to fevers of an irritative character, while 
these, and other diseases will be modified by constitutional and hereditary 
diseases which will increase in frequency. Diseases of a tuberculous and 
scrofulous character will also increase : — 

"In futvire ages, when large cities shall have sprung up, in our now sparsely settled 
country, with a crowded population, filthy and ill-fed inhabitants, and ill-ventilated re- 
sidences, the increase of cachectic diseases will be greatly favored ; and as these con- 
ditions continue to multiply, diseases of a scrofulous character, will be found to abound 
in almost every form." 

We trust that such sanitary regulations will be instituted in all our 
States, as will prevent an increase of these diseases from the causes men- 
tioned in the above quotation. 

For the sake of morality and religion, as well as humanity, we trust 
the doctor's next prediction may never come true — viz : the spread of the 
syphilitic taint. To have it become so "interwoven with almost every 
form of morbid derangement, and thus become a prolific source of chro- 
nic disease" would be worse than — Hahneman's psoric theory ! 

The aura prophetica still holds the doctor, and he goes on to predict that 
the neuroses, will be more common, causing an increase in mental affec- 
tions. Gout, goitre, and cretinism will also increase. Some of these pre- 
dictions are certainly very plausible, but we again express the hope that 
proper sanitary regulations will be adopted, which, properly enforced, 
will most certainly prevent a great deal of the sickness he anticipates. 

The essay on "The unity of disease" we fail to comprehend. Either, 
we are very dull, or, it is a meaningless jargon of unintelligible words- 



328 Bibliographical Notices. [JULY 

and phrases, we are bound to believe the latter, in part at least. How- 
ever, due allowance must be made for a profusion of typographical errors, 
a fault throughout the whole work, which ought not to have escaped the 
attention of the committee of publication. 

Lastly we come lo Dr. L. H. Anderson's prize essay on the " summer 
and autumnal fevers of S 021th Alabama." We are sorry that our limit- 
ed space will not allow as extended a notice of this valuable paper as its 
merits deserve. Dr. A. gives a brief review of the leading phenomena 
of the various forms of Intermittent fever. Of the malignant forms of 
the disease, always to be dreaded we find some very judicious remarks. 
These are ordinarily ushered in by what is usually termed a "congestive 
chill," the congestion affecting the various organs of the body, as, the 
pulmonary, cerebral, or some of the abdominal. Alluding to a criticism 
of the term "Congestive chill" the doctor says, "whoever has many <con^ 
gestive chills' to treat, will come to think respectfully of them under any 
designation." 

The detail of symptoms, &c, of the various forms of malignant or 
"congestive" intermittent, are very interesting and useful, but we must 
pass over them. The treatment must be prompt and decided, as a return 
is "always dangerous, and a third paroxysm commonly mortal." The 
remedy is quinia "liberally administered," and the importance of recog- 
nizing the disease from the commencement, is self-evident, considering the 
short time we have to combat it : — 

" The intermission in malignant cases, is generally as perfect as in mild attacks, and 
herein is the great danger among those unaccustomed to the disease. The patient and 
his friends are lulled into a false security, and are liable to fail of improving the golden 
opportunity offered, for arresting the attack. Or perhaps the next paroxysm anticipates 
its usual hour, before a sufficiency of quinine has been taken to put the system under 
the influence of the remedy." 

The following case of masked malignant intermittent, is interesting and 

instructive : — 

"I recollect having been called some years ago to see a lady who had had an abor- 
tion in the sixth week, and still had considerable uterine hemorrhage. I found her 
cold, pulseless, in a clammy sweat, and with a weak whispering voice. Her breath 
cold, and tongue pale and cool to the touch. The symptoms were all attributed to the 
loss of blood. It was in the spring of the year, and intermittents were not common at 
the time, though the autumn before had been quite sickly ; so that malarious disease 
was not thought of. I tamponed the vagina, and arrested the flow of blood, but the patient 
did not rally : stimulants internally administered weie rejected immediately. There 
was great oppression of the stomach, and a feeling of sinking and of weight about the 
praecordia, pain in the back, &c. These symptoms were all referred to the hemorrhage, 
and were treated with sinapisms to the spine, and to the extremities, friction, warm 
applications, &rc. In about thirty hours the patient got a little warmer, and be'gan to 



1853.] Bibliographical Notices. 329 

revive, having commenced taking brandy-toddy as soon as the stomach would bear it, 
and kept upon it until she was pretty well intoxicated. I left her after re-action seem- 
ed to have commenced, expecting that she would gradually improve, and went to see 
other patients. In thinking of the case, however, and of the close resemblance the 
symptoms had to those of malignant intermittent, I suspected that she might have had 
a chill previous to the abortion, and that this and the flooding were mere effects of the 
intermittent. I lost no time in hurrying back to her, and on strict inquiry, learned that 
she had complained of being quite chilly for an hour or more before the flooding came 
on, and had had warm applications made to her feet, &c. There yet remained seve- 
ral hours before the time at which the chill should return, supposing it to be a tertian, 
and I immediately commenced the liberal exhibition of quinine — five grains every 
twenty minutes till about forty grains had been taken — adding one-fourth grain mor- 
phine to the two doses given just before the time for the return. There was a slight 
hemorrhage, and a little feeling of chilliness about the same hour that she was first ta- 
ken, but both soon passed off, and the patient had a favorable recovery. It may here 
be remarked that abortions and miscarriages are more common when intermittents 
prevail than at other times, and that this accident commonly happens, during or shortly 
after a paroxysm of the disease. The chill and the pains come together, and if the 
abortion does not occur in the first paroxysm, it is very liable to do so in the succeed- 
ing one." 

The mild form of Remittent, is emphatically the fever of South Ala- 
bama. Its symptoms, course and treatment are well described. On the 
subject of Critical days our essayist says in this connexion, — 

" The fever thus continues, sometimes rising at the same hour every day, and some- 
times later on alternate days, until the sixth day, when if the observations of the wri- 
ter of this essay are worth anything the fever, (if it is to terminate favorably,) has a de- 
cided spontaneous tendency to decline, and to leave the patient free from disease on 
the seventh day. The fever is generally at its height on the fifth day, and in bad cases, 
this is the day of danger. In malignant tertian intermittents the fifth is the day for the 
third paroxysm, universally known to be the most hazardous, and when death occurs 
in the disease, it commonly takes place either on this day or during the next. Com- 
mencing practice with an utter disbelief in the doctrine of critical days, the contrary 
opinion has been forced upon me by actual observation. I am aware that the idea is 
discarded by the majority of physicians of the present day, but I think that if any prac- 
titioner in the south-west will carefully note down the days on which malarious fever 
makes its appearance, and record accurately its subsequent course, he will find that 
the doctrine has a foundation in fact, and is worthy of some consideration. It is true 
that the fever may often be made much lighter, or apparently arrested by the adminis- 
tration of quinine, during the remissions; but it will generally be observed, that the pa* 
tient does not frankly recover, and that it is not until the seventh day, that he seems 
actually well, or clear of all symptoms of the disease. This view of the natural course 
of fever has something more than a speculative interest. It should by no means in- 
duce us to withhold remedies, but it will prevent us from medicating it too actively, 
and, as in rubeola, scarlatina, &c, to hold our treatment in a measure subordinate to 
the natural duration of the disease." 

With regard to the Pathology of Miasmatic fever, our author, after 
briefly stating the various doctrines that have been held, proceeds as fol- 
lows : — 
12 



830 Bibliographical Notices. [JuLt 

"With regard to the fevers of our continent, however, observation shows that they 
are not a unit. In different sections, they are radically different in their remote and 
exciting causes, and not less so in their essential nature and their phenomena. They 
require different treatment, and are altogether different in their post-mortem appear, 
ances. They may be divided into those of animal, and those of vegetable origin — the 
former embracing the contagious, as variola, rubeola, typhus, &c. — the latter, the dif- 
ferent forms of miasmatic or "bilious" fevers. The febrile cause of the former seems 
to operate primarily upon the nervous system of animal hfe*—&.nd only secondarily up- 
on that of organic existence — that of the latter, spends its violence upon the nervous 
apparatus of organic life, affecting only secondarily the cerebro-spinal system. That 
the contagious and infectious members of the zymotic family of diseases, are produced 
by the operation of an animal poison, it is probable no one will deny; and the disturb- 
ance of the nervous and sensorial function ; the muscular prostration, the subsultus, 
the delirium, and the lesions of animal sensibility generally, show us where the shock 
of the disease principally falls. That the bilious diseases are of vegetable origin, how" 
ever, pathologists are not so unanimous. But when we see this class of affections pre- 
vailing most extensively and virulently, when vegetable decay is most rapid and abun- 
dant, we are at once furnished with a common sense reason for believing the undetec- 
ted poison, which, for want of a better name, we call malaria, has a real existence and 
is the cause of the fevers that prevail where circumstances are favorable to its pro- 
duction. A brief glance of the fever generated under such circumstances, show that 
the cause acts primarily and often entirely, upon the organic system of nerves. A man 
is struck down suddenly and without warning, with an attack of congestive intermit- 
tent. After lying for hours in a seemingly moribund condition, he begins to improve, 
and after the lapse of some thirty hours, is restored to apparent health, having suffered 
little or no diminution of physical energies. He takes some twenty grains of a vege- 
table alkaloid, which has the effect of confirming his restoration to health. This pre- 
caution is perhaps neglected, and he suffers with a second or third paroxysm of the 
same character, much more violent, however, at each return. We now see him be- 
dewed with an icy sweat, hear him speak in a low, husky voice, see his eyes sunken 
and his features pinched, and feel his pulse weak and thready. Yet this man will take 
an interest in things around him, converse rationally, rise unassisted from his bed to 
go to stool, may take a turn around the room, and get back unassisted to bed, in spite 
of his apparent muscular prostration — to expire perhaps in an hour. We are then 
convinced that little or no lesion of the nerves of animal life exists, but that the cause 
of his disease has spent its force upon the great centres of the organic system — the 
system that overlooks secretion, controls, to a great degree the motions of the heart, 
and the aeration of the blood; and in fact all those involuntary actions, which, toge- 
ther make the sum of organic existence." 

And further, be says, — 

" The mode in which the symptons of autumnal fever are most certainly relieved, 
considerably favors the congestive theory of the disease. The secretions of the liver, 
the pancreas, the intestinal exhalents, &c, being restored, we seldom have any diffi- 
culty with a bilious fever. Mercury, we know, acts specifically on the liver, and its 
secretory energies being aroused, it elaborates into bile much of the venous blood 
thrown upon it by the portal veins, and so discharges it from the organism: the evacu- 
ations frequently resembling thick clotted blood, or having a tar-like appearance. No 
doubt the myriad exhalents of the intestinal canal also contribute their quota to the 
unloading of the veins and capillaries of their textures, but their discharges are not 



1853.] Bibliographical Notices. 331 

so apparent. Now in typhoid fever, the case is aggravated by bilious dejection?, the 
bile proving no doubt irritating to the inflamed or ulcerated patches: but in all diseases 
©f a "bilious" nature, whether fever, mild or malignant, cholera morbus or cholera in- 
fantum, bilious colic or bilious pneumonia, we find the case immediately to improve, 
upon obtaining the free cholagogue operation of mercury." 

Dr. A/s views of the pathology of these fevers, may he deduced from 
the last quotation. He records the following as "on several accounts the 
most satisfactory necropsy" he has observed. Patient was young and had 
been generally healthy, was sick but a few days, took little or no medi- 
cine, and the body was examined very shortly after death : — 

" Tillah, black : set. 30 ; slave of H. McDaniel, was taken on Wednesday with a 
chill followed by a fever, and continued unwell for several days ; she complained but 
little, and was not believed by the family to be seriously ill. On Friday she was cup- 
ped over the epigastrium, and had a dose of blue mass followed by oil next morning. 
After this operated, she took 10 or 12 grs. quinine; was thought better on Saturday, 
but took a chill on Sunday, and died in a few hours without re-action. 

Autopsy, I of an hour after death. Habit of body spare ; little emaciation, features 
natural, abdomen of natural fulness. 

Head — not examined. 

Stomach — seems somewhat contracted — contains about a pint of dark green fluid ; 
mucous membrane pale — -no traces of inflammation. 

Dxtodenum — mucous membrane injected at lower part. 

Jejunum, ileum and colon — the venous trunks deeply engorged, imparting a deep 
brown colour to all this portion of the bowels; mucous membrane in some parts bright- 
ly injected, and in others of a very dark colour, moderately filled with deep yellow 
faeces of a semi-fluid consistence. 

Spleen — not much enlarged, but of a pultaceous consistence, resembling a clot of 
blood in texture. 

IAver — enlarged, not softened — of a deep bronze colour: seems engorged with ve« 
nous blood; no distinction oi the colours on a cut surface: gall bladder moderately filled 
with deep brown bile. 

Internal venous system — engorged everywhere with thick blood." 
The remarks on the treatment of the various forms of intermittent and 
remittent fevers are judicious and to the point. 

There is an expedient often resorted to for the purpose of "breaking" 
a chill in the South and South-west, that the generality of practitioners 
at the north, either are not aware of, or neglect to resort to. Dr. A. 
speaks of it as follows : — ■ 

" Tourniquetting the limbs, has been mentioned by several writers as assisting in 
keeping off a chill, and I recollect a case in which the application of this principle was 
strictly exemplified. I was called to see a man and his wife who were both ill with 
intermittent. He was shaking violently when I got to the house ; the lady's chill had 
gone off, and she had a high fever. Happening to think of the tourniquet practice, I 
lied up the man's arm and thigh on opposite sides, so as to compress the veins, and 
very soon he stopped shaking altogether, and said he felt more comfortable. His wife 
requiring bleeding, and no bandage being at hand, I took the handkerchief off of the 
aaau's arm for the purpose. He, at the same time, loosed the one on his thigh, and the 



332 Bibliographical Notices. [July 

shivering very soon returned as violently as ever. Since that time, I have often used 
the bandage, and sometimes with great apparent benefit; frequently applying it to all 
the limbs, near the trunk. The quantity of venous blood thus retained at the surface 
is very great, and the practice I think, is worthy of more extensive adoption." 

For the same purpose the inhalation of ether or chloroform is suggested. 

On the employment of opium in remittent fever, the doctor guards 
against its use in incipient ptyalism as follows : — 

" There is one condition of the system, however, in which opium is positively dan- 
gerous. This condition is that of incipient ptyalism. The long suspended secretions 
of the liver, the salivary glands, the pancreas, and the innumerable follicles of the in- 
testinal canal are released, and the organs that produce them started into activity by 
the influence of mercury. The fever has been conquered, but the system though re- 
lieved, is panting after its victory over the enemy. If a large dose of opium be now 
given, for instance to relieve local pain or to produce sleep, it will perhaps effect the 
purpose intended, but in many cases it will also suspend all the secretions which have 
just been re-established. They will be thrown back upon the organs producing them 
and a remora will take place in these organs which will overwhelm their capillaries 
and paralyze their nerves. Renewed fever, is the consequence, and an irritable ner- 
vous condition, distressing to the patient and perplexing to the physician, who does 
not understand the cause. Perhaps he will give another dose of opium to allay the 
irritable state in which he finds his patient ; and may thus, for a time, lull him into a 
stupor which will partially conceal the symptoms, but by so doing, he will add to their 
cause. The treatment that will readily suggest itself in such a case, is to re-establish 
the mercurial influence, and restore the arrested secretions. This is to be done by 
small doses of calomel or blue mass, counter irritation along the spine, over the liver, 
stomach, &c, by mustard, dry cupping, &c— the bowels should be opened if necessa- 
ry by enemata, or by mild cathartics, and every possible obstacle removed to the oper- 
ation of the mercury. If ptyalism can be renewed, the patient will be relieved; if it 
cannot, his case is a dangerous one. On this point the writer speaks from an experi- 
ence which he thinks he cannot mistake, and but for the fear of being tedious, would 
relate several cases amply illustrative of it. 

The above remarks relate only to incipient salivation— say to the first twenty-four 
hours after its appearance. When it is well established it is not so easily arrested by 
opium, and the latter remedy may be used to alleviate the pain attendant on the affec- 
tion, or for any other purpose for which it may seem to be indicated, care of course be- 
ing taken not to give over doses of it, or so much as to produce constipation." 

Where it is necessary to employ blisters Dr. A. believes that Strangu- 
ry can uniformly be prevented "by smearing the plaster with oil of tur- 
pentine/' before applying it. 

He highly recommends the employment of sinapisms first over the right 
and then over the left hypochondriac region, from the spine to the epigas- 
trium, thereby belting the body with a rubefacient impression. He says, 
that in nine cases out of ten he has found it to excite the liver to action, 
and cause dark and consistent evacuations, in place of watery ones. In 
obstinate cases blisters are recommended : — 

"The writer regards the effect of sinapisms in promoting the secretory action of the 
liver of so much importance, that if there were any one point in the treatment of ma- 



1853.] Bibliographical Notices. 333 

Various fever, which an experience of fourteen years has afforded him, that he would 
more regret to lose sight of than another, it would probably be this. Mercury is inju- 
rious in fever if it does not produce its legitimate action, and whatever adjuvant will 
promote this action, is scarcely less important than the remedy itself. It is sometimes 
necessary also to apply the sinapism along the cervical and dorsal vertebrae as well as 
over the hypochondria, so as to produce a rapid revulsive effect over the roots of the 
spinal nerves and the ganglia of the sympathetic; and the rubefacient to this part 
should always be applied where there is much difficulty in exciting the liver to action." 

We have been tempted to quote largely from this essay, and from other 
portions of these excellent Transactions, and would gladly quote more, did 
not time and space warn us to bring our review to a close. But 
though we have occupied much space, we feel assured that our readers 
will find that we have culled much practical and useful information from 
the Transactions of the two societies above noticed. 

The review will be continued in our next, and the Transactions of the 
New York and Pennsylvania societies noticed. S. W. B. 



A Clinical Phrase Booh : In English and German, containing the usual 
Questions and Answers employed in examining and prescribing for pa- 
tients ; Questions in asking for, and buying medicines, etc., with an 
English-German and German-English Pronouncing Lexicon, of all the 
words occurring in the phrases, with the chief technical terms of Me- 
dical writers and Apothecaries ; Grammatical Appendix, Table of Idi- 
oms, &c. Designed to aid Physicians and Surgeons in Hospitals, Aims- 
House and Private practice ; Also, Druggists and Pharmaceutists, in 
Dispensing their Prescriptions. By Montgomery Johns, M. D. 
Philadelphia : Lindsay & Blakiston, 1853. 

The object of this book seems to be to facilitate the intercourse of phy- 
sicians unacquainted with the German language, with their German pa- 
tients. An alphabet and Lexicon are furnished, and a great variety of 
questions and answers, adapted to the various diseases of the human sys- 
tem, and their various stages and conditions. The answers give that lati- 
tude that is generally accorded to similar replies in our own language, 
so that a good degree of positive information may be had relative to those 
subjective symptoms that are necessary to a correct diagnosis. We have 
no doubt the book is to be a useful one. 



A Treatise on General Pathology : By Dr. J. Henle', Professor of Ana- 
tomy and Physiology in Heidelberg. Translated from the German, 
by Henry C. Preston, A, M. M. D. Lindsay & Blakiston, 1853. 

In the work before us, Prof. Henle has collected the physiological 



t?Q/1 



34 Bibliographical Notices, [July 

facts, observed by himself, upon diseased bodies, together with the theo- 
ries and hypotheses pertaining to them, with a view of pointing out their 
place in what he calls the embryonic history of the science. The author 
is evidently of a metaphysical turn of mind, and steps boldly forth into 
the field of hypothesis, with an ardent desire to raze every insecure foun- 
dation that may come within the scope of his research, and build upon 
its ruins a new and substantial edifice, that shall be more enduring 
than the faulty empiricism, which now hangs about us, like so much 
flimsy drapery, affording no protection from the mists of a false and dan- 
gerous philosophy. The work is none the less valuable to us, on account 
of this peculiarity — for so long as we stand, without the ambition to pur- 
sue new and untried paths, we shall cease to make those discoveries to 
develope which is the true destiny of the Genius of Medicine — for it is 
certainly true, that "our Science cannot take a step in advance, which she 
has not first marked out by an hypothesis.'' — The Editor commenced the 
translation of this book from the German, for his own private instruction, 
but has been induced to give it to the public, as a faithful transcript of 
the author's views — for which he deserves the thanks of the profession. 
The publishers will accept our acknowledgments for it. 



The Action of Medicines in the System ; or, "On the mode in which the- 
rapeutic agents introduced into the Stomach produce their peculiar 
effects on the Animal Economy" — being the Prize Essay to which the 
Medical Society of London, awarded the Fothergillian Gold Medal for 
mdccclii. By Frederick William Headland, B. A. M. B. C.S., 
&c, &c. Philadelphia : Lindsay & Blakiston, 1853 — pp. 360. 

We are indebted to the Publishers, for Headland's prize essay. The 
subject of it is one of importance, of difficulty, and of great interest. 
We have not had an opportunity to read it thoroughly, but the fact of 
its having gained the prize of a learned society, devoted to the pursuit of 
science, is a sufficient guaranty of its value. The author considers ten 
propositions in which are embraced the various actions assumed by reme- 
dial agents when taken into the stomach. 

" The first four of these concern the general conduct of medicines after their intro- 
duction into the stomach, and before their passage into the blood. Some broad rules 
are laid down by which the course which they take must be determined. The action 
of some few on the mucous membrane is also defined. 

The remaining six propositions treat of the subsequent behaviour of those medi- 
cines which pass into the blood and fluids of the body. Of these, the filth specifies 
their general course. The sixth states that they may undergo certain changes in the 
system. And the concluding four treat of the various modes in which these agents 
may operate in the cure of the disease. 1 ' 



1853.] Editorial 335 

With this brief extract, we must leave the subject, remarking, that 
while some of the views presented may be new to many minds, and even 
unsatisfactory, they are, nevertheless, worthy of thought. Many of 
them seem to us conclusive, and the work may rank among the foremost 
in this branch of science. 



EDITORIAL. 



The Late Meeting of the American Medical Association, 

In the last number of our Journal, will be found a detailed account of 
the proceedings of the late meeting of the American Medical Association, 
held at New York; and in taking the pen to notice its action in certain 
matters, we confess ourself not a little disappointed at its results. We 
shall try to write, however, without prejudice. As year has been added 
to year in the history of medicine, the truth has become more and more 
prominent, that charlatanry, in its various forms, has grown to be a 
monster evil, desecrating the profession with its contact vile, and sweeping 
over the land, with its threatening arm outstretched, to corrupt the public 
mind, and woo the credulous, and ignorant, into confidant companionship 
with itself. And as this storm was raging through the great Empire 
State, her faithful sons, with a true and noble devotion to the interest 
of medicine, met, and resolved to stay its progress; and this effort 
extending from North to South, and from East to West, the talent 
and energy of the great American phalanx of physicians, all over 
our broad land, has been collected, and exhibited, in the various 
meetings of the American Medical Association, till, making a wide 
circuit through this continent, it meets again at the point of its 
departure, completing a circle in which is comprehended the entire 
nation. But alas ! alas ! after all this toil, and expense, and travel, 
it is evident that these efforts have so far been vain, and that at 
this very day, empiricism runs its wild course, with less restraint than 
ever. Now, it is of interest to enquire what was the starting point in 
the policy of this Association. All will admit, that it was to elevate the 
standard of morals, and learning, in the profession — and, if we are not 
mistaken, the first remedy proposed, was to separate the teaching, from the 
licensing power. The great fact was elicited, as the cause of the difficul- 
ty, that as it was to the pecuniary advantage of professors to secure a 
large attendance of students at their lectures, and then, as it added great- 



836 Editorial, [July 

ly to their reputation to graduate as many as they possibly could, so, if 
the power of conferring degrees was relinquished by them, it would ar- 
gue, (should any considerable number of their candidates fail to pass an 
unprejudiced and critical examination,) that either the teachers had not 
done their duty, or that the pupils were deficient in ability, or industry, 
to obtain a diploma. 

Now, there can be no doubt, that professors as a body, do their duty 
in the matter of teaching — -and that they teach not only medical students, 
but by their researches, and experience, are constantly developing new 
discoveries, for which they deserve the gratitude of all the world of 
science ; but yet, how strange, that men with such opportunities for use- 
fulness, and possessing such means of research, by which they may spread 
their fame, will cling to the little remnant of glory, that hangs about the 
College catalogue. It is well known that no decided action has been had 
upon this subject by the Association ; no effort to rest the licensing 
power with disinterested examiners has been successful; no allegiance 
has been acknowledged by the schools, (we believe with two honorable 
exceptions,) to the expression of the will of the whole profession on the 
subject of lecture terms, &c; on the other hand, lecture terms are not 
lengthened, diplomas are cheapened, the standard, is lowered; and 
then, after all, when the great reformatory movement rolls around again 
to its starting place, the whole question is settled, by issuing the two fol- 
lowing recommendations : First, "to require of every graduate or licen- 
tiate, his signature to the code of Ethics of this Association, and to fur- 
nish him with a copy of the same j" and secondly, that "the formal ad- 
ministration of a pledge faithfully to observe, and keep the said code, 
form part of the public exercises of Medical Commencements." We hope 
to see good come of these recommendations, but our faith is weak. 

As to the question of delegation, it has taken a comfortable go-by, and 
rests in quiet obscurity, at least for another year. Two able reports last 
year were referred to a Committee of Censors, who produced an entire 
metamorphosis at the same session — and this, being laid over by rule 
till the New York meeting, was there silently buried without so much as 
the sound of a funeral dirge over its remains. The idea of which the Asso- 
ciation was originally the embodiment, seems now to be completely lost. 
It has turned upon itself, and poisoned its own life — though not without 
the hope of restoration perhaps — for it appears that just at the last, Dr. 
Bolton, of Virginia, gave notice that he "would propose amendments to 
the Constitution submitted to this Association, by the meeting at Kich- 



1853-] * Editorial. 337 

mond last year, and which have been indefinitely postponed, for adoption 
at the next annual meeting at St. Louis." The evident impotency of the 
Association, in these matters of reform, is to be lamented. But why is 
its arm so powerless? The defect must be in individual delin- 
quency. If the members of a body are sound and true, the body itself 
will be sound and true. But in the whirl of strife between man, and 
man for money, and for renown, the true is often lost in the false ; the 
high moral bearing that has ever distinguished our profession, and made 
it honorable, sinks to the level of low competition, and physicians are 
found as other men, loaded with the clogs of selfishness. Thus burden- 
ed in our private relations, we strive with one another. School is arrayed 
against school ; the interest of one, is confessed to be the disadvantage of 
its rival; no common tie is acknowledged ; no common end is sought. This 
spirit being the direct opposite of that which originally claimed for our 
profession a high distinction among men, for its disinterested benevolence, 
unless checked in its development, must, of necessity, reduce the most 
ennobling of all human employments, to the low standard of a common 
trade. We fear that such is the tendency of the present condition of 
the medical profession in this country. We would not, however, incul- 
cate the idea, that there is no redeeming agency at work. There are 
those, who, in the retired walks of private professional life, are gaining 
for themselves, and their high calling, the well-deserved meed of public 
confidence and esteem ; there are those Colleges, in which is maintained 
at comparatively pure curriculum ; and those Associations that are based 
upon sound principles — these are the conservators of professional purity, 
and just in so far as they are, or may be, enabled to infuse their spirit in- 
to the mass, will the title of M. D. be restored to its wonted dignity. 

The amendments renewed by Dr. Bolton, contemplate a thorough 
change in the organization of the Association. The schools, however, 
have mostly opposed them \ they will continue to press their opposition , 
and if they continue to be successful— upon them will rest the responsi- 
bility of Laving laid waste the fair reputation of an exalted profession, 
by their puerile strife for vain honors. Should the principle of delega- 
tion be established upon the right foundation, the other reform will fol- 
low, as a matter of course ; teaching and licensing will be separated for 
obviously wise reasons — wise alike for professors, pupils, and people. 

A few questions in conclusion. By separating the teaching and licen- 
sing powers, would not the reputation of professors rest upon a surer ba- 
sis, and be more enduring than ever? Would not schools be represented, 
in community, by men worthy of confidence and support, whose probity 
43 



S3 8 Editorial. * [July 

and skill would reflect credit upon the learned professors under whose 
teachings they have sat? Are not skillful men, a better security than 
long catalogues ? The herd of empirics, who at the present time infest 
society, boast that they are graduates of this, and that school, and the 
names of professors attached to their diplomas, are blazoned forth as their 
patrons and friends. To those who know, this passes for nothing ; but 
in the eyes of the ignorant, it is received as the highest authority, and 
these schools are reckoned as abettors of quackery ; with what degree 
of justice we will not say. 

We have now in our mind, one of this class of babblers, who has sus- 
pended in his house, open to the view of his patients, two diplomas, 
hanging side by side ; one from what is called a regular school, and the 
other from a homeoepathic college, in which latter no doubt, the moral 
sense of the graduate has been so far sublimated, and triturated, and 
passed through the various dilutions, as to become a mere infinitesimal 
speck, scarcely to be perceived by the keenest glance of the most tran- 
scendental vision. Now is the reputation of these professorial brethren, 
safer, in the hands of such a man, or is the advertisement of their schools 
as valid and reputable, under such circumstances, as it would be, with the 
diploma hidden in its case, but with the man honest, and true to the 
profession, and to himself ? We are led to make these observations, be- 
cause we believe that no pledge has the power to restrain such indivi- 
duals ; no revocation of a diploma will cut them off, unless the law of the 
land forbids their practice ; and this cannot be hoped for. The only secu- 
rity is, in a well-grounded medical education, established upon a substan- 
tial moral character. And where is the man, unless he is an unrestrained 
enthusiast, a fanatic, or a lunatic, who has ever been ground into the 
profession, and had its principles infused through himself, that has left 
its platform, and followed after the airy phantoms, with which the pres- 
ent age is rife ? We shall probably allude to these matters again, but 
throw out the above suggestions now, to elicit thought and enquiry. 



Proceedings of Societies. 
In the Bibliographical department of the present number, we have de- 
voted more space than usual, to the Transactions of Medical Societies, 
because much valuable information is to be derived from such sources, 
and with the hope that the county organizations of New Jersey, may be 
stimulated thereby to contribute more than they have ever yet done, to 
the medical news and literature of the times. We have abundant re- 



1853.] Editorial. 339 

sources as a State, and abundant talent to develope these resources; but 
we lack the application, and industry to make them available for the pro- 
motion of science. Let our state and county societies be more active, 
■ — and their reports more full, and with our general system of organiza- 
tion, we can do as well as any State in the Union, both as to the charac* 
ter and number of our contributions. 

Will the secretary of each county society, consider himself commis- 
sioned by the genius of our profession, to get a great deal of work done, 
and then report it to us ? Let us all try to do better in the future. 



Proceedings op Medical Societies. 

[The following was crowded out of our last issue by the extended re- 
port of the Transactions of the American Medical Association :] 

A quarterly meeting of the Burlington County District Medical Society, 
was held at the house of S. B. Campion, Mount Holly, on Tuesday, 
April 12, 1853. 

The President in the Chair. The minutes of the last meeting were 
read, amended, and adopted. Members present — Dr. Butler, (President,) 
Drs. Stratton, Z. Read, Coleman, Budd, Trimble, A. Reid, Parrish, 
Page, Wright and Gauntt. 

On motion, Drs. Wm. Bryan, of Beverly, and J. J. Wright, of Co- 
lumbus, having been proposed for membership at the last meeting, were 
balloted for and duly elected members of this Society. Dr. Wright being 
present paid his initiation fee, signed the Constitution, and took his seat 
as a member of the society. Dr. Stratton made some pertinent remarks 
on the propriety of revaccination, in which he sustained the opinion, that 
for full protection, it was highly necessary and important that it should 
be practiced whenever a person is likely to be exposed to the contagion 
of small pox, or varioloid. 

Dr. Budd made a very interesting statement in regard to the contagion 
of puerperal fever. He said he had a short time since met with a case 
which had arisen as an original disease, where there had been no com- 
munication with infected persons. In this case he was obliged frequent- 
ly to use the catheter- — during which time he was called to attend a pa- 
tient in labor, who was safely delivered in a few hours. In the course of 
a few days she was seized with the worst symptoms of uterine phlebitis. 
She died shortly after the attack. A few days after, he attended 
another patient who was attacked with the same disease in a malignant 
form. The first and last recovered. He declined attending obstetrical 
cases for some time through fear of communicating the disease. There 
were no other cases of a febrile or inflammatory character at the time, in 
that section of the country. Dr. Stratton related several cases corroborate 
ing the doctrine of contagion— which had come under his own care, 
where the disease had been communicated by both physicians and nurses.- 



» 



340 Editorial, [July 

Several of the members took part in the discussion of this interesting 
subject. 

The delegates, appointed to attend the Annual Meeting of the State 
Medical Society in January last, report that they were not able to at- 
tend except Dr. Martin, who exercised his power to fill vacancies by ap- 
pointing Drs. Z. Read, Butler and G-auntt. The State society made a dis- 
tribution of $10 to each District society ; for further particulars they re- 
ferred to the published proceedings in the New Jersey Medical Reporter. 

Drs. I. P. Coleman and A. E. Budd, were duly elected delegates to 
represent this Society in the American Medical Association, to be held 
in New York on the 3d of May next. 

The proceedings of the American Medical Association, for the year 
1852, was taken of Dr. Stratton at the subscription price. 

On motion, adjourned to meet at R. C. Humphrey's, on the second 
Tuesday in July, 1853. 

FRANKLIN GAUNTT, Secretary. 



EDITOR'S TABLE. 



Courtesy demands that we should devote some space monthly, to a 
brief notice of the various minor medical publications, which come to us 
through the mail. These consist of Essays, Addresses, &c, which are 
often exceedingly valuable to the medical man, though our narrow limits 
will allow of but a very short notice of them, unless in reading them over 
we happen upon an original idea of value — a rare commodity these days 
in too many of the issues from the press. 

An Essay on Southern Typhoid Fever — B}^ Henry A. Ramsey, M. 
D., of Columbia Co., Ga. This is a pamphlet of thirty-two closely print- 
ed pages, and appears to contain much that is valuable and useful.. Dr. 
Ramsey seems to be a close observer, and holds the pen of a ready wri- 
ter — but we respectfully suggest that he writes too much. Some 
one has sagely remarked, 

i: If thou wouldst fain be thought a sage. 
Think a volume, write a page, 
And from every page ot thine, 
Publish but a single line." 

The cacoethes scribendi seems to have possessed the doctor ever since 
his obstetrical statistics were called in question at Charleston in 1851, 
and some of his writings have evinced no very amiable mood. Why 
does he not communicate his thoughts through the able journals in his 
own vicinity, rather than the Ishmaelitish medium some hundreds of 
miles away through which most of his productions reach the public ? The 
above named is the most sensible of any that we have seen from Dr. 
R.'s pen. 

Respiration Subservient to Nutrition ; a thesis presented to the Medi- 
cal Faculty of Harvard University, March, 1850, by E. Leigh, M. D., 
of Townsend, Mass. This is a well written essay, the aim of which is to 
prove that "the cardinal office of respiration is to supply the blood with 
pxvgen, which, by its powerful agency may perfect the nutrient fluid ; 



1853.] Editor's Table. 341 

and fit it for assimilation, and which may also, perhaps, act directly upon 
the living tissues, thus having a most direct and intimate relation to the 
great central function of organic life, nutrition." 

Essay on the Sudden Coma of Typhus and Typhoid fevers, and Ty- 
phoid Pneumonia ; with illustrative cases. By J. Lewis Smith, M. 
D., New York. 

New Views of Provisional Callus. By Frank H. Hamilton, M. D., Buf- 
falo. 
The Philosophy of Medical Science, * * * A Boylston prize essay, 
1849, by E. Leigh, M. D., Townsend, Mass. 

A Treatise on the Causes, Constitutional Effects, and Treatment of Ute- 
rine displacements. By William-Edward Coale, M. D., Boston. 

Galvanism ; its application as a remedial agent. By C. H. Cleave- 
land, M. D. 

The above have been received from their respective authors. We 
would gladly notice some of them more in detail, but space forbids at 
present. We perceive that the author of the latter Essay has connected 
himself with a firm for the manufacture of a u Galvanic Abdominal Sup- 
porter." On the cover of Dr. Coale' s essay, also, we perceive an adver- 
tisement by James Miller & Co., for the manufacture of a certain belt 
recommended in the essay. These facts thus prominently announced, 
look as if the essays might have been written for the purpose of recom- 
mending the instruments spoken of. If that is the object of the essays, 
and the authors have an interest in the manufacture of the instruments, 
of course the fact will tend to detract from their value. 

The Virginia Medical and Surgical Journal ; Edited by Geo. A Otis, 
M. D., and Howell L. Thomas, M. D. " Amicus Socrates, amicus 
Plato, sed magis arnica Veritas." Monthly, 84 pages, five dollars a 
year. Collin & Nowlan, and A. Morris, Richmond. 

The above is a remarkably neat, and very attractive journal, both in 
its mechanical execution, and in the quality of its matter. The numbers 
received, give promise of future efficiency in the cause of medical science. 
It ought to be well supported. The " Chronicle of Medical Science" is 
made up almost exclusively from foreign journals. We hope that Ame- 
rican observations will receive due attention, for it has been too much the 
fashion to rely upon European writers to the neglect of our own, who are 
certainly, we think, better calculated to be unbiassed and independent in 
their opinions, than any foreign observers. 

We are sorry to have to announce the discontinuance of the East Ten- 
nessee Record of Medicine and Surgery. Under the control of its able 
conductor, Frank A. Ramsey, M. D., we had hoped for much aid from it 
in the cause of medical science. But the experience of one year has 
convinced Dr. R. that "in Tennessee, as elsewhere, there are many prac- 
titioners of medicine, but few physicians." He says, " the Record was 
established for a specific purpose, which has not been attained, In our 



842 Miscellany. [July 

zeal for the professional character of the medical men of East Tennessee, 
we wished to give them a home medium for the publication of their ob- 
servations, experience and essays; but they have failed to avail them- 
selves of it." Dr. Ramsey will, in future, be connected with the South- 
ern Journal of the Medical, and Physical Sciences, published at Nash- 
ville. * 



Miscellany. 

It is reported that the distinguished Dr. Marshall Hall intends taking 
up his residence in this country. 

The " American Medical Society of Paris" would seem by a circular 
recently received, to have established itself firmly. One object of the 
Society, and a good one, is, "to establish a library, chiefly of the books 
of American medical authors, which would be thrown open gratuitously 
to physicians from all parts of Europe, as well as of France/' many of 
whom are now constantly in the habit of attending the meetings of the 
Society, and of referring to the works which have already been present- 
ed to, or purchased by the Society. Mr. Edward Bossange, 134 Pearl st., 
New York, will receive and forward any publications intended for the 
Society. 

A new article of invalid food, termed arabica, has recently been in- 
troduced into Boston, which is attracting considerable attention. It is 
spoken of as " agreeable, and particularly nutritious/ ' relishing when 
none of the ordinary eatables can be used. Dr. Litchfield, of Boston, 
is the agent. 

M. Coste has been selected, by the French government, as supervisor 
of an institution for the artificial production of fish I This is done by 
the mixture of the ova of the female with the semen of the male in fac- 
tories provided for the purpose. In nature, myriads of the female ova ne- 
ver become impregnated by not being brought into contact with the semen 
of the male. M. Coste' s experiments have been eminently successful, 
and are likely to result in a plentiful supply of fish. This is making the 
most of the science of Embryology ! Dr. Robertson, of Dunkeld, Scot- 
land, has repeated M. Coste's experiments with success. 

Recent experiments have demonstrated the fact that by mixing certain 
coloring matters, in the food of the silkworm, just before spinning their 
cocoons, silk can be obtained of any desirable color. Indigo thus admi- 
nistered, produced blue cocoons, and the Bignonia chica mixed with the 
mulberry leaves, produced red silk. The experimenter, M. Roulin, is 
still at work, with the expectation of producing other colors. 

Drs. Wood and Bache, authors of the United States Dispensatory, are 
both in Europe. 

We learn, from the Stethoscope, that the medical department of Hamp- 
den Sidney College, has established a chair of u Physiology and Medical 
Jurisprudence." The latter subject, as well as Botany, are too much 
neglected in our schools. The editor of the Stethoscope says, — -"It may 



1853.] Biography. 343 

be no business of ours, but we are in favor of preliminary education of 
students of medicine — senior and junior classes of medical sciences, at 
least ten chairs, prolonged courses of study, and a ' separation of the 
teaching from the licensing power.' Some one great school will spring 
up with all these characters, and it will meet with magnificent success." 
We simply say to our confrere that it is some of his business, and we are 
glad that he has spoken out. x\ll the medical journals should take up 
the matter and discuss it. 

A compulsory vaccination act goes into operation in England, on the 
1st of August next, after which every child is to be vaccinated within 
three or four months from birth, under heavy penalties. No fee is to be 
paid to medical practitioners, under this act, and yet the Registrar re- 
ceives a fee of three pence for every child vaccinated ! Magnanimous 
Britain ! ! 

An effort is being made to establish a childrens' hospital in New York. 
A good move, which ought to be set on foot in each of our large cities. 

A notorious quack in New York, by the name of Watts, was recently 
sued for damages sustained by taking his "Nervous Cordial." The pa- 
tient was subject to Epileptic seizures, and the parents were induced by 
a newspaper advertisement, in which a cure was guarantied, to try his 
remedy. After using fifteen to twenty bottles (at $1,00 a bottle), and 
finding she grew worse rather than better, they applied to him to return 
the money. He offered to administer it himself. The result was con- 
firmed mania. The jury, after a deliberation of two hours returned a ver- 
dict for plaintiff of $1,100. The testimony in the case is interesting, but 
we have no room for it. 

New Jersey Graduates for 1853. — Univ. of Pa. David Benson, A. 
V. Budd, H. C. Clark, P. F. Fulmer, J. Hart, J. S. Martin, E. F. Tay- 
lor, H. G. Wagoner — 8. Jeff. Med. College, Phila. A. N. Batten, F. 
Herrmann, J. S. Johnson, D. S. Lessey, J. S. Locuson— 5. Pennsylva- 
nia Med. College. T. T. Price, J. Sharp, W. R. S. Sharp— 3. Uni- 
versity of New York. J. B. Conover, P. T. Tunison — 2. Total, 18. 
(We have not seen a list of the graduates of the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons of New York.) * 



BIOGRAPHY. 

Isaac Parrish M. D., was born at Philadelphia, March 19, 1811. 
Educated in the Classical Academy, under the government of the Socie- 
ty of Friends, where his father, the late Dr. Jos. Parrish, as well as Drs* 
James, and Wistar, Physick and Dorsey received their, early training, and 
at the celebrated boarding-school of John Grummere, at Burlington, New 
Jersey. In 1829 he commenced the study of medicine with his father ^ 



344 Biography, [juif 

and graduated at the University of Pennsylvania, in 1832, in the twenty- 
second year of his age. Spent one year as junior physician in Blockley 
Hospital, where his opportunities for experience being extensive, he ma= 
nifested great devotion to his profession, and a particular desire for prac- 
tical knowlege. He was conspicuous for his resolute moral firmness, 
and was never known to swerve from a principle which had once 
been settled in his mind as a correct one. Soon after he graduated 
he was made one of the Assistant Physicians, of an extensive Cholera 
Hospital, at the head of which the city authorities had placed his 
father. And in 1834 he was elected one of the Surgeons of Wills' 
Hospital, which position he held during the rest of his life : 

" Dr. P. was the most active of his colleagues in bringing this hospital within the 
range of medical students as a clinical school. He gave the first regular course of in 
struction on ophthalmic surgery in that institution in the winter of 1839-40; and in 
succeeding years he was always followed through the wards by classes of students. 

"As a lecturer, he was instructive and impressive; his voice was clear, and his 
enunciation distinct and emphatic. He was quick in seizing on the striking point of 
a case, and so great was his fluency and command of language that he never failed of 
impressing his auditors." 

He was a conspicuous member of the College of Physicians of Phila- 
delphia : 

"His name appears very often in the printed discussions, and he wrote several very 
useful papers, besides five luminous "Annual Reports on the Progress of Surgery,'' 
all which are printed in the Transactions of the College." # * # * 

" In the State Society, his accustomed activity was not wanting; he joined cordially 
in the business, and he wrote the Sanitary Report of the County of Philadelphia, 
which is published in the Transactions of the Society for 1851. He was one of the 
most conspicuous men in the County Medical Society, and was twice elected its vice= 
president. In fact, wherever a sense of duty led him, he found much to do, and he 
always did it with alacrity and vigor. 

He felt from the first a sincere and even an affectionate interest in the establishment 
of the American Medical Association, and he was therefore appointed at the Conven* 
tion of New York in 1846, one of a committee, whose duty it was to report on the 
subject of taking from colleges and other interested corporations, the right of confer- 
ring degrees and licenses to practice. He wrote a report on that subject for the Con- 
vention of Philadelphia in 1847, and it was printed in the Proceedings of that year. 
This document is worthy of being read again and again, by all who are ready to judge 
hardly of others, without knowing whether they themselves would do better in similar 
circumstances." # # * # # # 

" At the meeting of the Association at Baltimore, in 1848, he was appointed one of 
a committee on Public Hygiene; and, at the meeting of Boston of 1849, he read an 
able paper "On the Sanitary Condition of Philadelphia," wherein he showed in strong 
colors the growing evils of a large and increasing city, and how they are sadly ne- 
glected, till remedies are hopeless, if not impossible. He shows what evils the inordi- 
nate cupidity of the landlord brings on the community, by building up alleys and courts 
With sub courts, thus shutting out light, air, and therefore health, from the unfortunate. 



1853.] Biography. 345 

inhabitants of these dreary abodes. He descants largely on the evils of those crowded 
habitations in generating typhus fevers, cholera, and infantile summer diseases." 

Many valuable papers were from time to time published in the Tran- 
sactions of the College, but one of great merit on the subject of " Con- 
gestive fever" that attracted much attention, appeared in the Amer. Jour, 
of the Med. Soc. for 1845 :— 

" The author wishes to show that congestion is not the cause of prostration in this 
fever, that hence this prostration is not to be treated by bleeding. He considers the 
congestion a mere symptom of feeble innervation, and therefore to be treated by sti- 
mulants." 

As a member of the Philadelphia Society for alleviating the miseries 
of Prisons, he was distinguished by his enlarged philanthropy, which ex- 
hibited itself in mild but firm resolves, to relieve the unfortunate victims 
of crime, while under the censure of the law. 

In November, 1849, he read a report before the Society on the dispro- 
portionate mortality, and the relative length of sentences between the 
white and colored prisoners. The Society ordered it printed, and direct- 
ed that copies be sent to the Governor, Judges of the Supreme Court and 
Courts of Common Pleas : — 

"In this highly valued report, he brought to light a mysterious practice of our courts, 
which ought to be considered by the public with no little solicitude. The negroes, for 
the same crimes, were almost universally sentenced for a much longer time than the 
whites, or, as Voltaire calls them, the ash-colored people. He shows too that the 
whites are pardoned at the rate of 15 per cent, with their sJwrt sentences, and that 
the negroes, with their long sentences, are pardoned at the rate of only 3 per cent." 

^y, J£. JL. m, ^ M. M, JA, 

" But Dr. P.'s labors in the cause of the prisoner did not end even here ; he seems 
to have had continually before him the memorable words — U I was in prison, and ye 
visited me? He read to the College in 1851, a paper " On the Mortality and Insanity 
in Separate-plan Prisons in England and America." It is found in Vol. I., New Series, 
page 173, of the Transactions. His object is to show that long sentences are danger- 
ous to the health both of body and mind." # # # * 

" In his various writings, he always appears fully master of his subject, and to have 
made the best distribution of the different parts so as to render his piece both lumi- 
nous and attractive ; thus showing a full comprehension of his subject without neglect- 
ing the minute particulars, always abounding in medical description. Had he lived to 
practice and to write another twenty-one years, he might have proved one of the most 
distinguished benefactors of our science among the medical literati ; for he not only 
had talents for communicating knowledge in an easy and pleasing way, but he was 
too good a man to pass through life without doing his part in the improvement of me- 
dicine, and " straining every nerve," as Sydenham said of himself, " that the cure of 
diseases after his death might be conducted with greater certainty." 

On the 31st of July, 1852, after an illness of a few days he died of 
dysentery, at his residence, in Philadelphia, in the 42d year of his age 
■ — leaving behind him the testimony of a well-spent life, and the assu- 
rance of a preparation for death. — {Memoir oy Samuel Jackson, M. D.) 
44 



S46 Biography, [July 

Wm. K. Grant, M. D. , was born in Pictou District, Nova Scotia, De- 
cember 22d, 1811. He studied the elementary branches, in the neigh- 
borhood of his home, preparatory to an academical course. From school 
he was admitted to Pictou Academy, then under the late worthy and able 
Dr. McCulloch, whose favors and friendship he merited and maintained: 

"When he had finished his academical curriculum, he commenced the study of 
sheology under the late Thomas McCulloch, D. D.. who was at that time Professor of 
Divinity to the Presbyterian Church of Nova Scotia. During the first year of his the- 
ological studies, he taught school in the vicinity, and boarded at home. He was much 
beloved and respected by his pupils, and satisfied his employers. While thus engaged, 
he showed much ingenuity in making different pieces of philosophical apparatus. He 
made a small, but complete electrical machine of considerable power, which afforded 
no little amusement and instruction to his acquaintances. Indeed, his taste for some 
of the mechanic arts continued through life. 

About this time he was seized by an attack of chorea sancti viti, which gave him 
much annoyance. But, by the skill and attention of Dr. James Donnelly, of the Albi- 
on Mines, he recovered. He was afterwards visited by an attack of acute rheuma- 
tism, that disabled him about two months or more. He was thus brought for a consid- 
erable season into an acquaintance with physicians, and hence, it is thought, his atten- 
tion was first drawn to this department of professional life. 

Shortly after his recovery, he removed from the East River, to teach the grammar 
school at Antigonish, about fifty miles from his former residence. While teaching, he 
became acquainted with Dr. Alexander Macdonald, a respectable practitioner. After 
much thought, and consultation with his friends, he entered the office of Dr. Macdon- 
aid in the autumn of 1834, and commenced the study of medicine. Although he re- 
linquished his intention of becoming a minister of the gospef he did not become the 
less religious. During his residence at Antigonish, he occasionally joined the commu- 
nion service with his friends at home, and was marked as a young man of sincere and 
decided piety. 

After devoting two years to the study of medicine with Dr. Macdonald, he deter- 
mined to complete his medical education in the city of Philadelphia. Accordingly, on 
the 29th of September, 1836, he sailed from Pictou for New York, where he arrived 
on the 13th of October. On the 17th, he reached Philadelphia, and immediately ma- 
triculated as a student of the Jefferson Medical College. Although he applied him- 
self closely to all the branches of medicine, he had a special fondness for anatomy, 
and was skilful in dissection. He so distinguished himse